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E ROCK ISLAND ARGUS.
AND DAILY UNION. "SIXTY-NINTH YEAK.-NO. 153. ASSOCIATED PSEM LEASED WW FRIDAY APRIL 16, 1920 TWENTY-FOUR PAGES KEJf BEB ACDIT BCBXA0 OF CIBCUUtflOM PRICE FIVE GENTS. Ok , Til aIw . HAIL U1ESK Sfiffi TM Vail, Who Perfected Telephone, Dies CAREER IS CLOSED AT BALTIMORE Head of A. T. & T. Made '"Bell's Toy" World's Greatest Utility. Baltimore, Md., April 16 Tkeodore S. Vail, chairman of American Telephone and Tele (frtph company, diet! at Johns Hopkins hospital early today of ' a complication of cardiac and kidney troubles. Mr. Vail w brought here from Jekll Island, (.a, last Sunday in his private car. At the hospital it was stated that he was jn a serious condition . when be reached there and his death nas not unexpected to the physicians. Mr. Vail retired as president of the American Telephone and Telegraph company last June, and became chairman of the hoard. As president of the American Telephone & Telegraph companv, Theodore Newton Vail was the head of the largest telephone sys tem in the world. Ho was not only In nominal head, but he was from the first the genius that promoted the popular use of the telephone, the first man to establish long-dis-Unce communication by telephone, and, when past 70 years of age, he was Kill the initiative head of a syitem that numbered 9,000,000 tel ephone subscribers and represent ed an investment of $1,500,000,000. Mr. Vail was 31 years old when iennder Graham Bell invented the telephone, and, notwithstanding his age, he was filling the respon sible post of general, superintend ent of the railway mail service. Still earlier, however, he had been a telegraph operator, and, inter ested in the possibilities of electri cal communication, he had visions tbat Bell's "toy" would some day he a great factor in American life. Bell and his associates had equal faith in' Mr. Vail's organizing gen ius, for he had already made a name for himself as an organizer in the promotion of railway mail wrvice. and ho vaa ,i ; i ,0 resign his government Dost 10 DeCOme f hP ronaral manq... tn 10-0 i.muutl , 1 11 "is, of the first American Bell leiepnone company. Hail's Side Show." Even the most optimistic backers "f the telephone then thought that he invention would serve only for local communication, but Mr. Vail Md visions of its l Bs. It was he who inaugurated. tv.cBive steps or intercity com munication. The first line from Boston to Providence was ridiculed "Vail's side show," but some of to persons who indulged in the "uwijle at that time lived to see ail telephone, not onlv from ton to Providence, but from Ypfk to San Francisco, in 15 35 years later. . Further, in wr in that year, they found ' it was possible to send the jwnan voice more than half way nund the world, as was done by "treless telephone from the gov ernment station at Arlington, Va., oriis being recorded simulta nly at Honolulu, in the mid- Pari, Wd toe Eiffel tower- in Ltt'Jl8 known as "the biS" Km i phone man ia the world." ' onl? ia tribute tn h'q PPnills Jjafo mechanical and financial (Continued on Page Eleven.) JAPANESE LOSE m IN BATTLE niTIIJSSIANS forces w pnl 16.-Japanese 'ces Mt 237 ki,led jn fierce fight tOTsk VLttS8ian troOD9 at Khaba- . na' ,ast Monday, a tod eDcy diBpattrh from Tokio W.US8ians Iost 40 k"led. , wnese claimed 1,500 prisoners. th 5 uu Continued Ibrnm-linnl the,1Chh8aidS!reetS f C',y' uld tSUian, forces Presumably ,rttw1,rhevo'utiona-il!S ln ernmn ,he Moscow soviet "nilv n? I' Thia element re- Vk&ft it" 11,6 'Tf dE. U an nPort'nt Si lent forii'erly seat of the U at !?Tntnent of tne Amur. ""I VLZ, lunctio" f the Amur H brnr' r,Ter ani on the Us lUwt, h of tl,e Trans-Siberian MADE "HELLO" POPULAR THEODORE GUARD BERLIN FOR FEAR NEW COUP IS NEAR iftevernment Takes All Precautions In Slanip Out Threatened Re bellion Arrests Denied. I By CniUKi Press. Berlin. April 10. rearing a new niilifary coup the goTern mcnt today took extensive pre cautious to guard itself. The district around govern, men', buildings was barred to the public Fifteen tanks, 20 armored cars and a number of machine gun companies were brought into the city and plac ed on gnard. Armed detachments patrolcd the Wilhelmstrasse and Unter den Linden. , The government denied a re port that Major Bischoff and General von Lnettwitz, alleged monarchist plotters, had been arrested. Warsaw, April 11. (By the As sociated Press.) Danzig dispatch es received assert that intercepted wireless - communication indicates that Russian reactionaries in Ger many are raising German-Russian detachments at various points, in cluding Silesia and at Hammer stein, West Prussia. MICHIGAN VILLAGE SHOWS BEST GAIN; MACOMB RISE 940 Washington, April 16. An - in crease of 463 per cent in the last 10 years in the population of Mus kegon Heights, Mich., announced to day by the census bureau, is the largest yet reported in the 1920 census. From a population of 1,680 in 1910, the city has grown to 9,514. The largest increase previously announced was that of Scotts Bluff, Neb., which showed a growth of 295.9 per cent. The figures follow: Washington, April 16. Census figures reported today were: Battle Creek, Mich.. 3C164: in crease 10,897 or 43.1 per cen over 1910. , Enid, Okla., 16,576; increase 2,777 or 20.1 per cent. Macomb, 111.. 6,714; increase 940 or 16.3 per cent. Hillsdale, Mich., 5,476 increase 475 or 9.5 per cent., Owosso, Mich., li,575; increase 2,936 or 30.5 per cent. Bowling Green, Ky.. 9,638; in crease 465 or 5.1 per cent. Lufkin, Texas, 4.878; . increase 2,128 or 77.4 per cent. Phillipsbury, N. J , 16.923; crease 3,020 or 21.7 per cent. Southbridee, Mass., 14,245; in- tn- crease 1,653 or 13.1 per cent. Gloucester, X. J., 12,162; increase 2,700 or 28.5 per cent. OFFICES TO CLOSE FOR FUNERAL OF ROGER SULLIVAN C'hiraeo. Anril 16. City and eouuty offices will be closed tomor row for the , funeral of Roger I , SSnllivak. nomoeratic leader, who' died at his home here Wednesday. Messages received today from po litical leaders tnrougnoui ine coun try announced their , intention of attending the funeral. Archbishop Mnndclein will conduct the services at Holy Name cathedral. PHOTO BY Pi mt MACDONALO. NEW YOfttC ". VAIL. TROOPS DISPEL KEWANEE FEARS OF NEW STRIFE "Kewanee, 111!, April 16- Kewanee was quiet this morning. , : . Six hundred' reserve militiamen from Chicago,' called here two days ago to suppress rioting in connec tion with the strike of 3,000 em ployes of the Walworth Manufac turing company, barred loiterers from the streets and prevented strikers from Congregating near the plant when the 800 workmen on duty reported for work. Adjutant General Dickson who took personal command of t'aa guardsmen, announced today that the soldiers would be kept here as long as there was any prospect of trouble. CONFIRM DEATH OF DE MOTT IN GERMAN PRISON I By United Press.) Berlin, April 16. American army investigators today confirmed the report of German reichswehr troops that Paul R. DeMott, Paterson, X. J., was killed while trying to escape from the German military prison at Wesel. The report was made to the American military mission by Major Foster, assigned by A. E. Dresel, the American commission er, to make the investigation. It was established, the report said, that De Mott's passport had been issued to do journalistic work in France and later had been extended, allowing him to visit the Baltic states. The extension was made by American authorities in Paris. The passport, the report said, ap parently had been changed to allow DeMott to visit west Russia. DeMott was arrested, for alleged connection with the Ruhr com munist revolt.. He was shot when the soldiers alleged he attempted to escape. Investigation by the American authorities here will be ccntinued. REORGANIZATION OF STATE BUREAU BEGUN BY COLBY Washington, April 16Reorgan ifation of the state department rec ommended by former Secretary Lansing was begun today by Sec retary Colby with the appointment of Wilbur j. Carr, director of the consular service, as assistant to the secretary of state. Mr. Carr has been given charge of personnel, administration? busi ness methods and general manage ment of the department and will make a systematic study of the de partment with a view to making such changes as may be considered necessary. . . . . . ' , ' Washington. April 16; R. C. Lef -ffngwell, assistant secretary of the treasury, has .resigned and bis rcs- I ignation - has been accepted by P resident Wilson. U.S. RELIEF IMPERILED '.IE Fear Held for Workers in Turk Attack at Aintab, ' Syria 11 in Party! Constantinople,' April 14. (By the Associated Press). Messages have been received from the Aintab , area, in northern Syria, indicating j that Turks and Armenians are en i gaged in heavy fighting. the'Arme ; nians occupying the American mis ' sion buildings. This news has i aroused uneasiness regarding the i position of the 11 American relief 1 workers at .Aintab. Situation Grave. New York, April 16. Near East relief officials received a cable. mes sage from Constantinople today saying that the situation in Aintab is grave, but that a relief force was reported enroute. The organ ization's records show 11 Ameri can relief workers at Aintab. They are: Dr. Lorrin G. Shepard. Orange, N. J., an American board mission- j ary in charge of the station, and ! Mrs. Shepard. J. P. Merrill, Newton, Mass.. president of the American College at Aintab. and an American board missionary. John H. Boyd. Wresson, Miss., as sistant to Dr. Shepard. Frank P. Pears, Topeka. Kan. Miss Sturmer, recruited in France. Miss Constance Barker, Roches- INARI NA ter, N. Y an American board mijait" of the counsel and advice of sionary. " Miss Loretta Bigely. Whitemoore, Iowa, a Red Cross nurse. Miss Elizabeth Kelly, Cleveland, Ohio. Miss Louise M. Clark and Miss Lucille Foreman, American board missionaries. HUNGER STRIKE IS RESUMED AT MT. JOY PRISON Dublin. April 36. Another hun ger strike is reported to have been begun in Mount Joy prison: The political prisoners, both convicted and unconvicted, who are still de tained there refused to take food last night. The latest hunger strikers total 40, including nine who participat ed in the original strike. Sergeant Henison, who was shot during the passage of a procession through the streets of Balbriggan Wednesday, died today. Limerick, Mucster. Ireland. April 16. While constabulary were es corting mails from the postoflice to the railway station last night crowds pelted them with stones and it is alleged the civilians fired some shots. The police returned the fire, wounding two or three civilians. GIRLS TO BREAK ELEVATOR STRIKE FOR NEW YORKERS New York, April 16. Girl strike breakers running elevators today enabled lawyers, financiers and oth er tenants of sky scrapers in the Wall street district to getito their offices. ' At the Woolworth and Singer buildings it was announced that nearly all the elevators were being operated by women. The 'Equitable building had 30 of its 63 cars operating to lift its population of more-than 10,000 to their offices. Some buildings claim ed not to have been affected at all, and at others it was said that ser vice was 75 per cent normal. NEIGHBORS STEAL CROPS, SO CENSUS IS DENIED FACTS Washington, April 16. In return ing his agricultural statistics sub ject to the census bureau, a Penn sylvania farmer eliminated facts about crops altogether. An inquiry by the bureau brought this explana tion: ' "'The population near and about my farm has a tendency to relieve the owner from the labor of gather ing bis own crops. This altruistic impulse is so predominant that. I have refrained, from planting any thing tor the past 20 years., Am just now turning about 40 acres into a cemetery and hope to fill it soon." DISAGREE OVER APPLYING LAW TO COMMUNIST Views On Deportation Aired Before Wilson at Cabinet Meeting. BT DAVID LAWBEME. (Special to The Argus.) Washington, D.C.April 16. Pres ident Wilson has asked both the department of justice and the de partment of labor to inquire close ly into the relationship between so-called "radicals" and "commun ists' and the industrial disturb ances which have been cropping out of late throughout the coun try. , i The president gave the impres sion to his cabinet that while the government should proceed relent- lessly against disturbers of Indus- trial peace and deport aliens found guilty thereof, he wanted the judi cial process to be painstakingly fair. Mr. Wilson's first cabinet meet ing in nearly eight months was extraordinarily interesting. The president sat behind a mahogany desk in the upper apartments of the White house. It is a room used by him as a study. There is a tab let on the wall which recalls that President Lincoln held his Civil war sessions with the cabinet in ' the same room. Mr. Wilson sat with his back to the light which streamed in from the south por tico. Members of the cabinet shook hands with him as he sat at bis desk. To each he had a pleasant word of greeting, ('hairs were brought from adjoining rooms, and as the room is rather spacious, the cabinet members moved up close to the desk in semi-circular array. Nobody smoked. Asked Advice. Thd president opened the meet ing with a brief statement of the apparently critical . situation in which the country had been plung ed by the strike of railway em ployes and said be wanted the ben- th cabinet. Attorney General Palmer, who had brought a portfolio of papers to the meeting, immediately re sponded with an analysis of the underlying currents of mischief making which had been injected into industrial troubles by I. W. W.s, "radicals," "communists" and other malcontents. He said that wherever a strike existed or was threatened the disturbing elements promptly availed themselves of the opportunity to stir up more trou ble. He told of the policy which his department had pursued in in vestigating aliens and bringing the cases to the attention of the de- j partment of labor for deportation. A rather pointed colloquy occur red on the subject of the law in volved in deportations, and Presi dent Wilson asked many questions. When the attorney general had concluded, the president turned to Secretary William B. Wilson and asked for the viewpoint of the de partment of labor, which is charg ed entirely with the enforcement of the deportation laws. There had been during the discussion a plain . (Continued on last page.) ASK FOR MOTHER CATS TO NURSE NEWBORN FOXES New York, April 16 A call for mother cats to nurse baby silver foxes was received in New York today from an upstate farm owner. N. H. Bacon, president of the New York Fur Auction Sales cor poration, to whom the appeal for cats was sent, said the fox farmer was willing to take all the cats he could gel. A mother cat can earn $2.50 for six weeks' endeavor, he said. At the end of six weeks a litter of baby foxes becomes sufficiently mature to take solid food. The Weather 0 Unsettled weather tonight and ! Saturday. Probably showers. Not much change in temperature. j Highest temperature yesterday, ; 63; lowest last night, 35. - ! Vind velocity at 7 a. m., 12 miles : per hour. Precipitation last inches. H hours, 1.02 i 12 m. 7 p.m. 7 a.m. yester. yester. today .61 49 37 .54 49 35 .62 99 SO Dry bulb tern. Wet bulb tem. Rel. humid. . . Daily River Bulletin. . Change ,' Stage. 24 hrs. SL Paul 7.4 Red Wing 7.1 LaCrosse 9.0 Dubuque 14.6 LeClaire 10.8 Davenport 14.2 Muscatine .15.2 River Forecast. -0.3 i 0 " 0.2 l.O-i -0.3 04, 0.3! j The Mississippi will continue to printed propaganda to wean the fall rapidly from below Dubuque to (railroads away from all other or Clinton, and at a decreased rate ganizations until the one big union from LeClaire to Muscatine, unless! would have sufficient strength to further heavy rains occur. The declare a general strike on all precipitation of - Thursday , night ! lines, in all crafts, thus precipitat doe3 no SBDear 4o have been suf-Mne the crisiR rhronrh whlrh it i ficient to cause a rise at Muscatina j. m. sntAULM., Meteorologist. . MEXICO URGES RIGHT TO PASS OVER U. S. SOIL Asks Permission for Troop Moye Against Sonora Through Texas Ken Mexico and Arizona. Washington, April 16. Mexico hae asked permission from the Unit ed States to move troops through American territory so as to attack the state of Sonora from the north. So action on the request has yet been taken. Best Way In. The only other point of attack j against Sonora is through the Pul- pito pass, between Sonora and Chi huahua, and it was said that this pass could be defended by a very small force of Sonora troops. In making known today that Mex ico had requested permission t move troops through Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, officials said the United States was "under pres sure from the Mexican govern ment." Agua Prieta, Sonora, Mexico, April 16. Troops of the Republic of Sonora, stationed at Cauanea, numbering 800 have been ordered to proceed at once to defend this port, according to General J. M. Pina, in order to prepare against posible invasion of the state by Car ranza troops from United States territory, in event permission is granted the federal government to route troops through the United States.- DISARMAMENT OF GERMANY IS Paris, April 16. The representa tives in Berlin of France, Great Britain, Italy and Belgium will join in a warning to Germany that she must execute without delay the disarmament and demobilization clauses of the peace treaty, accord ing to present plans. It is understood that the charge d'affaires will also say to the Ger man government that in case the insurrectionary movements in Ger many are not suppressed the allies mav refuse further deliveries of foodstuffs. London. April 16. The London evening newspapers feature promi nently the semi-official statement from Paris that the allies, on the initiative of Great Britain, are about to take energetic steps to en force German disarmament, even to the extent of cutting off food supplies, if necessary. Most of the journals in their editorials welcome the news unqualifiedly. In official quarters here it is stated that the final decision re garding the situation will be taken at San Remo. I. W. W, AFTER ONE BIG UNION, HAYWOOD SAYS Chicago, April 15. Plans of the Industrial Workers of the World to advocate the "one big union" move ment during the present unrest c' among railroad workers, were re . ! vealed in a statement by William D. I ! Havwood. former general secretary and treasurer of the I. W. W and John Sandgren, editor of the One Big Union monthly, published here today. The two leaders were quoted as denying any connection between the Industrial Workers of the World and striking organizations, but said efforts had been made to institute industrial unionism in the unauthorized strikes as in all other strikes of importance. "We have always agitated toward securing recruits for the one big union idea," Haywood was quoted. "We did so in the Gary steel strike, and we probably will do so as long as we are an organization for w consider that the goal of all in- dustrial organization. "Plans which the I. W. W. has been advocating include a complete orranization for a one bie union with the ultimate goal ' of taking over the railroads and oneratirs them by the union. "These plans arej briefly: "The use of both verbal and sloped the companies will paaa into! tne lianas oi me -union. ' - GRUNAU IS WILLING TO GO TO JAIL Rebel Leader and Aide Eager to Serve Time for "Cause." BULLETIN. Chicago, April lti-Charters of three lodges of the Brother hood of Railway Trainmen were revoked today by A. F. Whit ney, vice president of the order. The lodges are 4'fi. of which . John (inmau, presideut of the "outlaw" yardmen's union, was a member; 647, a stockyards local, and 10N. of San Fran cisco. More than 700 strikers in Chicago were thus removed from anion mem Iters hi p. losing their seniority and all o(Iit rights. All other strikers in the Chicago district have been given until midnight Saturday to return to work, Whitney an nounced. If they refuse their memberships will he canceled and their seniority rights lost. Chicago. April 16. John Grunau, presideut of the Chicago Yardmas ters' association, and H. K. Read ing of the United Enginemen's as sociation, the two "outlaw" rail way unions, announced this morn ing that they would go to jail on the government charge of conspir acy to violate the Lever act. The two, with 22 of their follow ers, were arrested yesterday by federal agents and released on their recognizance until 2 p. m. to day, to give them a chance to ob tain the $10,000 twnd set by Com missioner Mason. Won't Seek Bait "I can raise the required bail with ease," Grunau said, "but I don't intend to do it. I question the right of the government to ar rest me. I have, committed no crime against .the laws of the coun try, and if the government officials want to put me in jail, I won't hin der them." Reading declared that "it's prin ciple that prompts me to go to jail rather than give bail." 1 "The organization will not dis band." he said. "Another set of officers will take the places left vacant by those who choose to go to jail with me. There will be no letup in our campaign. Fighting Brotherhoods. "We have no quarrel wiih the government or with the railroads. What we are fighting is the old au tocratic rule of the brotherhoods. "Our only compromise will be for them to accept our constitution, including the initiative, referendum and recall as applied to the admin istration of the brotherhoods." Department of justice agents were hunting today for five men who escaped the dragnet spread over union meetings yesterday. One of the five is Bennett G. Do lan, a "four-minute" speaker dur ing the war and brother of a for mer municipal judge. FEAR FOR JOBS BREAKS STRIKE MORALE IN N, Y. New York, April 1G. Indications that the unauthorized rail strikes were nearing an end in this vicinity were declared to be .visible today by railroad officials and officers of the "Big Four ' brotherhoods. Thev said the ultimatum of the railroad managers yesterday, giv ing the men until Saturday noon to report back for work on penalty of being dropped from considera tion, was a body blow to the morale of the strikers. As an indication of the effect of the decision, Ho boken railroad men belonging to the brotherhoods, as well as the men on strike, have voted to stick bv the loyal unions. They have asked Vice President Timothy J. Shea of the Brotherhood of Rail way ' Firemen, to request Mayor Hague of Jersey City, to use his influence with the roads to have all the men taken back. Meanwhile, the brotherhood lead ers continued their efforts to iu duce the men to return and suo mit their grievances to the new railway labor board. K. A. Dodge, assistant president of the Brother hood of Railroad Trainmen, said, "the men had better go back wh.le the going is good." A gradual improvement - in the transportation situation was re ported by the raiiroads. Passen ger service showed the greatest improvement, due largely to the continued successful use of yolun w crews. More than 65.000 com muters were carried on the "volun-1! ter". trains yesterday. 5 - While the freight tieup cont'.nucd serious, railroad officials declared some improvement had been made, i '1 fi urt PICK HUNT, CINCINNATI, AS LEADER Consideration of Wage Dispute Begun; Hanger Is Elected Secretary. Washington, April Nh The railroad labor board iicrfected a tmprary organization at Its initial meeting today by elect ing Henry Hunt, former mayor of Cincinnati. Ohio, as chair, man, and Wallace Hanger of this city as secretary. BoJi are members of the public group. The wage dispute as it stood with the breaking up of the bi-partisan wage conference here two weeks ago was sub mitted (4i the hoard, Mr. Hang er announced, and the board will begin consideration of it at once. ' ' Others Due Tomorrow. The iioard will meet again tomor row and by that time the two ab sent members. Judge R. M. Barton of Memphis, Tenn., representing the public, and A. O. Wharton of the labor group, are expected to be present when the organization of the boerd probably will be made permanent. Secretary Hanger's announce ment made it clear that the board would not consider separately the wage demands 'of the railroad men now on strike. The hi-partifan conference here between the rep resentatives or tne roads and the union undertook a settlement of the whole wage question and the board will take the matter up where that conference left it, Washington, April 16. The new ly appointed railroad labor board, which is to coubider immediately the wage demands of railroad em ployes, held its first meeting- here today with six of Uie nine members present The three railroad representa tivesHorace Baker, J. H. Elliott and William L. Park were on hand, but J. J. Forrest r was Hie only labor representative present, while only two 6f the public group were at the meeting. They were G. Wallace W. Hanger of this city, and Henry Hunt of Cincinnati. Judge R. M. Barton of Memphis. Tenn., the third public representa tive, has been limed to come to Washington and is expected tomor row. The president has also tele graphed to Albert Phiiiips and A. O. Wharton, the other two labor representatives, to hurry to the city. Mr. Phillips is expected today from Cleveland, and Mr. Wharton should arrive tomorrow from Kan sas City, where he has been attend ing a railroad union meeting. Continued Yesterday. The nine members of the board. called by the president, to meet and organize immediately, were con firmed yesterday by the senate after two days of discussion of Mr. Wil son's selections. Virtually all strikers throughout the country who have voted to re turn to work, did so with the stipu lation that their demands would be referred to the board, hence speedy completion of organization by the board is anticipated. Chicago, April 16. Speedy disin tegration of unauthorized railroad; strikes in the central and far west? was forecast today with a serious blow struck by the government ati the insurgents stronghold in Chi-, cago by the arrest of 25 strike leaders. The arrest of the Chicago lead ers, who were at liberty today un der bonds of $10,000 or arranging for bail, left local insurgents vir tually loaderless. Five other lead ers for whom warrants have been issued were expected to surrender today. Federal officials announced they had gained their objective in the strike and indicated that no fur ther arrests were scheduled. Chiefs Deny Charge. The arrested leaders, including - John Grunau, organizer of the Chi cago Yardmen's association, the first organization which went on strike, and Harold E. Reading, president of the United Engine men's association, denied that a strike existed in violation of the Lever act. They simply had re signed because they could not live on existing wages. Although some leaders declared they had "just begun to fight," it' was understood that a meeting would be held during the day to determine the attitude of tha in surgents' organizations toward the government's ultimatum that inter ference with shipments of food and other necessities must stop. . Jobs ia Jeopardy. ' Warnings were issued In the principal strike centers in the west that unless the men returned to work by tomorrow their positions would be declared vacant and new men employed. In Chicago 830 switchmen em ployed on various roads returned to work yesterday, railroad execu tives announced, while a continued improvement was reported in traf fic conditions.' Steel mills at Gary, " lnd , whe.-a 10,000 workers haye ' been idle, were preparing to re- : same operations today. - -