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ANNIVERSARY OF OCCUR IN AUOUS OLD üfl7Vi: RÜIWING IXRTfflUS Ol" AT vUJiBuRY ills Oí - V ' ' -r :? v . . Just 50 years ago next August, on the seventeenth day of the month, the first telegraphic message across the. Atlantic via the new cable was sent from England to America. The mes sage was of 90 words, from Queen Victoria to President . Buchanan. It took G7 minutes to transmit. It was the first tangible proof that one of Hie greatest attempts of man in the field of science had succeeded. When" a little company of men, un der the leadership of Cyrus W. Field, began to organize for the purpose of bringing the old world and the new within speaking distance of each oth er by means of a protected thread of wire across the Atlantic, they were hooted at as madmen. Capitalists who invested their money in the scheme were thought by their friends to have become bereft of reason. Few imag ined the feat possible. By formal agreement, on September 29, 1856, the Atlantic Telegraph com pany was organized. Its object, was "to layf or cause to be laid, a subma rine cable across the Atlantic." Among those prominent in the form ing of the company were Peter Coop er, Chandler White, Moses Taylor, Marshall O. Roberts and Cyrus W. Field. The first step In the program was to be the laying of a cable across the Gulf of St. Lawrence, from Cape Ray Cove to Cape North. The first trial was disastrous, because of a furious storm, but in the following year the cable was successfully laid. New foundland was to be the western term inus. Assistance was obtained from the United States, Newfoundland and English governments. The United Slates frigate Niagara, which was de tailed to assist in submerging the cable, went to England April 24, 1857. The colling of the cable in Liverpool occupied three weeks. A strand of seven copper wires composing the conductor, occupied the center. There was a gutta percha Insulation, coy- ípÉlKliilí A ITÓ LAYING WILL ra csn tfittMPI ering of specially prepared hemp, and then the outer covering of iron wire, for protecting the cable. Five large cones were arranged in the hold of the Niagara, round which the cable was coiled. The length car ried made a total of 1,264 miles. The remainder was carried by the English ship Agamemnon, 1,700 nautical miles being ' required between the temlnl at Newfoundland and Ireland. Nature seemed to favor the proj ect, for extending along the bed of the ocean, exactly between the two points to be connected, is a great pleateau, like an immense prairie', stretching over an extent of 1,400 miles from east to west, with an average depth of about two miles. As it approaches the Newfoundland coast it is entirely free from the effects of icebergs which ground on shallow bottoms. In every other part, the Atlantic is character ized by abrupt' declivities and moun tain heights. Another advantage was found ' in the depobit of infusoria, covering the bottom in abundance. The material showed a tendency to unite with the iron, wire protecting the cable, thus forming a concrete mass, making in effect a bed of down for the cable to rest upon. The landing of the cable in Dolus bay was successfully accomplished on the fith of August, 1857. Never before had such a mass of people assembled on the shores of that bay. They came from miles around from their huts on the steep hillsides and the moun tain passes, from the storied scenes of Killamey in the interior, and the bleak coast in the south. It was a great day for all. Five days the Niagara sailed, overcoming great difficulties in the laying of the cable; then, on the sixth day, when the Niagara had left the shore 300 miles behind, a mistaken order to put on brakes resulted in a strain which broke the cable. There was nothing to do but return to England. The Niagara sailed for New York the following November. Of course a great cry was raised that the scheme had been fairly tried once and failed, and that any further attempt to achieve this impossibility was madness and a criminal waste of the stockholders' money. But in the face of all this opposition, the little band of resolute men, led still by the Indomitable Cyrus W. Field, deter mined to make another attempt. They had learned by their experi ence many valuable lessons. One that it would be better for the two vessels carrying the cable to meet in mid ocean, make a splice, and then sail in opposite directions. Other lessons re lated to improvements in the paying out machinery it was found impos sible to wind in the cable after It was once out, as the very weight of the line was sufficient to break it. The telegraph squadron arrived at Plymouth, England, June' 3, and after an experimental trip of three days, having received a fresh supply of coal, started for midocean bn the 10th, the point of rendezvous having been de cided. . . ' . . When the splice was finished, con lecting the cable of the Niagara with that of the Agamemnon, the two ves sels parted. A terrible storm came jp soon afterward, and after 142 miles and 280 fathoms of cable had been paid out the line broke. It was only by good fortune that the vessels re turned to land in safety. While the squadron was lying in the harbor of Queenstown, meetings were held by the board of directors in London. It was proposed to aban Bon the enterprise and sell the cable. When the news of this reached Mr. Field, he started in great haste for London. He remonstrated with the despondent, upheld the wavering, and finally, by his will and courage, oh tained consent to make another at tempt. The vessels, accordingly, met again at the rendezvous, on July 28, and after making the splice with some ceremony, separated. Anxiety was keen, as a kink in the cable, or a hole running through the gutta percha through which not even a hair could be forced, 'would render all the work unavailing. On the 5th of August, 1858, the eastern end of the cable was landed in Trinity bay, Newfoundland, and the press of the country sounded loud praises in honor of the triumph. On the 17th of August, the famous mes sages were sent and received by cable between Victoria and President Buchanan. Concerning the message, one of the electricians on board the Niagara is reported .to have made the statement that it was "cooked up" for commer cial purposes, his ground being that the cable, had ceased to test out long before reaching Newfoundland, and that on several occasions in paying it out accidents had occurred that had destroyed the insulation of the cable. In 18G5 another ;unsuccessful at tempt was made to lay an Atlantic cable. . i ' A part of transcontinental cable his tory that possesses special local in terest Is the landing of the French Atlantic cable at Duxbury,, in the year 1869. This- was the first cable to Btretch áctually from the shore of America to the shore of Europe. SEND MANY RUSH MESSAGES. English People Are the Greatest Users of the Telegraph. '.' According to figures published by the German imperial post office, the record for sending the most telegrams in a year belongs to the people of England, who dispatched about 94,000, 000 during the year 1906. The United States comes next, with G5,500,000, and then France with 58,000,000. Germany occupied fourth place, with 52,500,000, and those for Russia only 28,000,000, including all that coun try's Asiatic possessions. But Russia paid for them the large sum of $20, 675,000, while Germany's outlay was only $8,750,000. During the same pe riod, the American companies took in roughly $29,000,000. Of the European countries Spain, for its size, has the smallest telegraphic traffic, the small est number of miles of wire, and the smallest income proportionately to her population. So far as mileage is concerned, the United States leads all the other nations, but no one who has resided abroad ever fails to note how much more frequently English and Germans use the telegraph for short distance communications than is the case here. Of course, the develop ment of the telephone in this country, also far ahead of anything similar in Europe, accounts in large measure for this state of affairs. The long-distance telephone, call in this country has become a greater competitor of the telegraph than it will be . for years to come in Europe. The reason for the larger number of messages sent in England Is simply cheaper rates and generally bettor servio BEST WAY TO CLEAN ZINC. Sulphuric Acid Will Do it, But It Must Be Handled with Care. Zinc is one of the ' most difficult metals to keep bright and stainless. It can be cleaned with sulphuric acid but the greatest care must be ob served In using this strong chemical. If you will do the work yourself, or have it done under your personal su pervision, you will find this method satisfactory:. ' Have the zinc well washed with soap and hot water, that no trace of grease may remain on it; wipe It very dry. Make two mops by fastening pieces of cloth on two sticks; have on hand two pails of clean, cold water and a cleaning cloth. Put into a stoneware bowl one quart of cold water and very grad ually add three ounces of sulphuric acid. Pe very careful not to allow the acid to touch your hands. Dip one of the mops in the acid water and swab the zinc; in a few seconds it will begin to look bright and clear. When this . occurs wash with the second mop and clear Water; follow this with a good washing with a cloth and water to which household am monia has been added in the propor tion of a tablespoonful of ammonia to a quart of water. Rub the cleansed surface with dry whiting. Be sure to add the acid to the water, and not the water to the acid. TO MARINADE OR LARD MEAT. Two Processes That Will Distinctly Improve the Flavor. While meats are so very high, many a housewife will buy the cheaper cuts, and marinade them to make them ten der. Marinading is a process with a formidable name and a simple mean ing. To marinade is simply to soak meat in a mixture for some hours, or even days, with the idea of improving its flavor or softening its fibers and making it tender. Vinegar, oil, pepper, and salt -are mixed together, and the meat is packed in the mixture; some times a slice of onion and some herbs are added. The meat should, of course, be wiped first, but not washed. The process is more frequently used for meat than for fish. Larding is quite easy it only requires care and accu racy. It simply needs a larding needle and some neatly and evenly cut strips of fat bacon or pork, which are used exactly as if they were pieces of wool or thread, one large stitch being taken through the meat and the short ends of the fat left sticking out. The strips are called lardcns. The fat bacon or pork to be used in the process should be kept in a cold place. Use that part of the pork which lies between the rind and the vein. Lean and dry meal arid some kinds of game are much im proved by larding. Crumb or "Grangers'" Pie. Four cups of flour, one cup lard (half butter, if you wish) and a half cup sugar. Rub these well together. Then to one cup molasses add one cup hot water, one level teaspoonful soda, one teaspoonful flavoring (win tergreen preferable); keep out three-, fifths cup of first mixture. Pour last mixture over first and beat all "well to gether. Line pie pan with crust, partly fill (for this rises), with mixture,, strew with crumbs (first mixture you! have kept out) and bake half an hour in moderate oven. You may just pour in the molasses mixture and then fill in the crumbs, if desired. Porch Basket. To make a beautiful and inexpensive hanging flower basket for porch, use an ordinary round half bushel basket with side handles Paint green and suspend with heavy picture chains fas tened to either handle of basket. Put a small flat box or round tin pan up side down in bottom of basket aad place the soil on top of this as. it will not" be as heavy as if all filled with dirt. Geraniums and downward grow- J in? foliage make a pretty effect.