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The Spanish American. [volume] (Roy, Mora Co., N.M.) 19??-19??, July 25, 1908, Image 6

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92061524/1908-07-25/ed-1/seq-6/

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Just 50 years ago next August, on
the seventeenth day of the month, the
first telegraphic message across the.
Atlantic via the new cable was sent
from England to America. The mes
sage was of 90 words, from Queen
Victoria to President . Buchanan. It
took G7 minutes to transmit. It was
the first tangible proof that one of
Hie greatest attempts of man in the
field of science had succeeded.
When" a little company of men, un
der the leadership of Cyrus W. Field,
began to organize for the purpose of
bringing the old world and the new
within speaking distance of each oth
er by means of a protected thread of
wire across the Atlantic, they were
hooted at as madmen. Capitalists who
invested their money in the scheme
were thought by their friends to have
become bereft of reason. Few imag
ined the feat possible.
By formal agreement, on September
29, 1856, the Atlantic Telegraph com
pany was organized. Its object, was
"to layf or cause to be laid, a subma
rine cable across the Atlantic."
Among those prominent in the form
ing of the company were Peter Coop
er, Chandler White, Moses Taylor,
Marshall O. Roberts and Cyrus W.
The first step In the program was
to be the laying of a cable across the
Gulf of St. Lawrence, from Cape Ray
Cove to Cape North. The first trial
was disastrous, because of a furious
storm, but in the following year the
cable was successfully laid. New
foundland was to be the western term
inus. Assistance was obtained from the
United States, Newfoundland and
English governments. The United
Slates frigate Niagara, which was de
tailed to assist in submerging the
cable, went to England April 24, 1857.
The colling of the cable in Liverpool
occupied three weeks. A strand of
seven copper wires composing the
conductor, occupied the center. There
was a gutta percha Insulation, coy-
ípÉlKliilí A
ra csn
ering of specially prepared hemp, and
then the outer covering of iron wire,
for protecting the cable.
Five large cones were arranged in
the hold of the Niagara, round which
the cable was coiled. The length car
ried made a total of 1,264 miles. The
remainder was carried by the English
ship Agamemnon, 1,700 nautical miles
being ' required between the temlnl
at Newfoundland and Ireland.
Nature seemed to favor the proj
ect, for extending along the bed of the
ocean, exactly between the two points
to be connected, is a great pleateau,
like an immense prairie', stretching
over an extent of 1,400 miles from
east to west, with an average depth
of about two miles. As it approaches
the Newfoundland coast it is entirely
free from the effects of icebergs which
ground on shallow bottoms. In every
other part, the Atlantic is character
ized by abrupt' declivities and moun
tain heights.
Another advantage was found ' in
the depobit of infusoria, covering the
bottom in abundance. The material
showed a tendency to unite with the
iron, wire protecting the cable, thus
forming a concrete mass, making in
effect a bed of down for the cable to
rest upon.
The landing of the cable in Dolus
bay was successfully accomplished on
the fith of August, 1857. Never before
had such a mass of people assembled
on the shores of that bay. They came
from miles around from their huts
on the steep hillsides and the moun
tain passes, from the storied scenes
of Killamey in the interior, and the
bleak coast in the south.
It was a great day for all. Five
days the Niagara sailed, overcoming
great difficulties in the laying of the
cable; then, on the sixth day, when
the Niagara had left the shore 300
miles behind, a mistaken order to put
on brakes resulted in a strain which
broke the cable.
There was nothing to do but return
to England. The Niagara sailed for
New York the following November.
Of course a great cry was raised
that the scheme had been fairly tried
once and failed, and that any further
attempt to achieve this impossibility
was madness and a criminal waste of
the stockholders' money. But in the
face of all this opposition, the little
band of resolute men, led still by the
Indomitable Cyrus W. Field, deter
mined to make another attempt.
They had learned by their experi
ence many valuable lessons. One that
it would be better for the two vessels
carrying the cable to meet in mid
ocean, make a splice, and then sail in
opposite directions. Other lessons re
lated to improvements in the paying
out machinery it was found impos
sible to wind in the cable after It was
once out, as the very weight of the
line was sufficient to break it.
The telegraph squadron arrived at
Plymouth, England, June' 3, and after
an experimental trip of three days,
having received a fresh supply of coal,
started for midocean bn the 10th, the
point of rendezvous having been de
cided. . . ' . .
When the splice was finished, con
lecting the cable of the Niagara with
that of the Agamemnon, the two ves
sels parted. A terrible storm came
jp soon afterward, and after 142 miles
and 280 fathoms of cable had been
paid out the line broke. It was only
by good fortune that the vessels re
turned to land in safety.
While the squadron was lying in
the harbor of Queenstown, meetings
were held by the board of directors
in London. It was proposed to aban
Bon the enterprise and sell the cable.
When the news of this reached Mr.
Field, he started in great haste for
London. He remonstrated with the
despondent, upheld the wavering, and
finally, by his will and courage, oh
tained consent to make another at
tempt. The vessels, accordingly, met again
at the rendezvous, on July 28, and
after making the splice with some
ceremony, separated. Anxiety was
keen, as a kink in the cable, or a
hole running through the gutta percha
through which not even a hair could
be forced, 'would render all the work
On the 5th of August, 1858, the
eastern end of the cable was landed in
Trinity bay, Newfoundland, and the
press of the country sounded loud
praises in honor of the triumph. On
the 17th of August, the famous mes
sages were sent and received by
cable between Victoria and President
Concerning the message, one of the
electricians on board the Niagara is
reported .to have made the statement
that it was "cooked up" for commer
cial purposes, his ground being that
the cable, had ceased to test out long
before reaching Newfoundland, and
that on several occasions in paying
it out accidents had occurred that had
destroyed the insulation of the cable.
In 18G5 another ;unsuccessful at
tempt was made to lay an Atlantic
cable. . i
' A part of transcontinental cable his
tory that possesses special local in
terest Is the landing of the French
Atlantic cable at Duxbury,, in the year
1869. This- was the first cable to
Btretch áctually from the shore of
America to the shore of Europe.
English People Are the Greatest Users
of the Telegraph. '.'
According to figures published by
the German imperial post office, the
record for sending the most telegrams
in a year belongs to the people of
England, who dispatched about 94,000,
000 during the year 1906. The United
States comes next, with G5,500,000,
and then France with 58,000,000.
Germany occupied fourth place, with
52,500,000, and those for Russia only
28,000,000, including all that coun
try's Asiatic possessions. But Russia
paid for them the large sum of $20,
675,000, while Germany's outlay was
only $8,750,000. During the same pe
riod, the American companies took in
roughly $29,000,000. Of the European
countries Spain, for its size, has the
smallest telegraphic traffic, the small
est number of miles of wire, and the
smallest income proportionately to
her population. So far as mileage is
concerned, the United States leads all
the other nations, but no one who has
resided abroad ever fails to note how
much more frequently English and
Germans use the telegraph for short
distance communications than is the
case here. Of course, the develop
ment of the telephone in this country,
also far ahead of anything similar in
Europe, accounts in large measure for
this state of affairs. The long-distance
telephone, call in this country
has become a greater competitor of
the telegraph than it will be . for
years to come in Europe. The reason
for the larger number of messages
sent in England Is simply cheaper
rates and generally bettor servio
Sulphuric Acid Will Do it, But It Must
Be Handled with Care.
Zinc is one of the ' most difficult
metals to keep bright and stainless.
It can be cleaned with sulphuric acid
but the greatest care must be ob
served In using this strong chemical.
If you will do the work yourself, or
have it done under your personal su
pervision, you will find this method
' Have the zinc well washed with
soap and hot water, that no trace of
grease may remain on it; wipe It very
Make two mops by fastening pieces
of cloth on two sticks; have on hand
two pails of clean, cold water and a
cleaning cloth.
Put into a stoneware bowl one
quart of cold water and very grad
ually add three ounces of sulphuric
Pe very careful not to allow the acid
to touch your hands. Dip one of the
mops in the acid water and swab the
zinc; in a few seconds it will begin
to look bright and clear.
When this . occurs wash with the
second mop and clear Water; follow
this with a good washing with a cloth
and water to which household am
monia has been added in the propor
tion of a tablespoonful of ammonia to
a quart of water. Rub the cleansed
surface with dry whiting. Be sure to
add the acid to the water, and not the
water to the acid.
Two Processes That Will Distinctly
Improve the Flavor.
While meats are so very high, many
a housewife will buy the cheaper cuts,
and marinade them to make them ten
der. Marinading is a process with a
formidable name and a simple mean
ing. To marinade is simply to soak
meat in a mixture for some hours, or
even days, with the idea of improving
its flavor or softening its fibers and
making it tender. Vinegar, oil, pepper,
and salt -are mixed together, and the
meat is packed in the mixture; some
times a slice of onion and some herbs
are added. The meat should, of course,
be wiped first, but not washed. The
process is more frequently used for
meat than for fish. Larding is quite
easy it only requires care and accu
racy. It simply needs a larding needle
and some neatly and evenly cut strips
of fat bacon or pork, which are used
exactly as if they were pieces of wool
or thread, one large stitch being taken
through the meat and the short ends
of the fat left sticking out. The strips
are called lardcns. The fat bacon or
pork to be used in the process should
be kept in a cold place. Use that part
of the pork which lies between the
rind and the vein. Lean and dry meal
arid some kinds of game are much im
proved by larding.
Crumb or "Grangers'" Pie.
Four cups of flour, one cup lard
(half butter, if you wish) and a half
cup sugar. Rub these well together.
Then to one cup molasses add one
cup hot water, one level teaspoonful
soda, one teaspoonful flavoring (win
tergreen preferable); keep out three-,
fifths cup of first mixture. Pour last
mixture over first and beat all "well to
gether. Line pie pan with crust, partly
fill (for this rises), with mixture,,
strew with crumbs (first mixture you!
have kept out) and bake half an hour
in moderate oven. You may just pour
in the molasses mixture and then fill
in the crumbs, if desired.
Porch Basket.
To make a beautiful and inexpensive
hanging flower basket for porch, use
an ordinary round half bushel basket
with side handles Paint green and
suspend with heavy picture chains fas
tened to either handle of basket. Put
a small flat box or round tin pan up
side down in bottom of basket aad
place the soil on top of this as. it will
not" be as heavy as if all filled with
dirt. Geraniums and downward grow-
J in? foliage make a pretty effect.

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