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The free citizen. (Orangeburg, S.C.) 1874-1876, October 16, 1875, Image 1

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A Weekly Paper Devoted to Temperance, Literatura and Politico.
THK clay pits'mcar New Brunswick,
N."J.,yield annually sumo 235,000 lons
of clay, worth over ?1,000,000.
Tm: Phoenix Cotton Factory, near
Baltimore, on thc Northern Central Rail
way, ivas sold' tinder the hammer, last
week, for $95,000. Besides the mill
proper, thc sale included machinery, tene
ment ami storehouses, and loll j acres of
ground* i ~?
THE British Arctic expedition will
winter nt a point only 450 geographical
miles from thc north pole, and the explo
rers expect to start upon their important
mission in April. All that science and
experience can suggest has been done to
make this expedition ti success.
RxPJ?ltlMKNT? prove that coffee can be
raised in every portion ol'California where
the soil is congenial. California plants
produce twenty-two shoots,* while those
of Europe produce hut one. The Cali
fornia soil is believed to be more favor
able, as, unlike those of European coun
tries, it needs ho irrigation.
"MOUE stoves are annually manufac
tured, hy a single Albany firm, Utan ?ire
made in France ?md England combined
for Ute sante period. They employ 000
men ?iud a half million of capital, ?md
their business last year amounted to
$1,000,000. Thoy aro running to their
fullest capacity to fill orders, foreign ?md
PENNSYLVANIA has passed a new law
to cover cases of abduction like that of
Charlie Boss. The law imposes a fine
not exceeding live tlujiistuid dollars, ?md
imprisonment at harrtdabor not exceed
ing fifteen years, on conviction of "com
plicity in harboring, or concealing, or en
ticing away, any child, either within or
without that commonwealth.
THE population of the original thir
teen states of the Union in-1790, the
.period of ?the first census, together with
' that of ^??Tne,"V.?rmont, TCcTi(t???ty|aud
Tennessee, which were formed' from^tho
on^riW-' tlifftcen? a*h<T admi?eoto the
Union subsequent to 1700, was only
? 3,029,214. The population of the same
states, in 1870-our last census-was 19,
970,30!?; showing a gain, of 10,041,195
from 1790 to 1870.
PETROLEUM and arson are not thc only
enemies of the Underwriters. Sparks
from a lighted pipe have caused the de
struction of many a superb steamboat,
causing u fearful loss of life, as well as of
val ti abie cargoes. A gentlemanly smoker,
who throwsdown a eigarstumpcarelessly,
is often the " unknown cause " of many
fires. Cannot insurance companies de
vise greater care in this matter, and thus
avoid many heavy losses'?
THK Southern Pacific railroad is meet
ing with much opposition. The change
of guage, according to a report just made
to the Memphis chamber of commerce,
cuts Kentucky. .Tennessee, Arkansas,
North Mississippi, Virginia and Mary
land, ont of all chance to il participation
in its ad vantages. But can that be justly
called a Southern Pacific railroad which
excludes two-thirds of thc population of
tli? Southern states from ?ill participation
"inks benefits?
- %
IT appears from a statement just issued
by tiie Statistical Bureau that in thc fis
cal year ending June, 1874-tho last year
of which thc Bureau has made up full
returns-that our domestic exports
amounted, in specie'value,-to over $569,
500,000. For thc ??une; period of the pre
vious decade, that ending June ?0, 1804,
the special value of the exports was but
$763,5000,000-an increase of more than
three-fold in^?n years.
FROM the discussions ol' the Associa
tion of the Boards of Trade in England,
we gather thc pregnant fact, that not
withstanding the balance of trade with
the world at large is in favor of Eng
land, it yet frequently happens that gold
itt exported to meet balances against her
at particular periods. Another fact is
also demonstrated, and that is. that gold
is a commodity which goes where it is
needed, and where it will bring the best
THE state railroad tax assessors of
Tennessee have just completed their la
bors at Nashville, under the law, just
enacted, which mokes railroads liable to
a tax for both state and county purpose?.
Tho railroads were all allowed to choose
between being taxed I* per cent, on
t heir gross earnings or 40 cents on the
$100 on tho assessed value of their prop
erty lying in the .ptate. Nine embraced
the former pronosjtion,^ including the
Memphis and Cha'rlfcslon'-while fourteen
refused the. U ,pt'r, cen?, alternative
ootne denying tito right of tho Btate to
Uta tboU roadSi It is eatha&ted that the
tuxes derived from all lines of railroad
in Tennessee will aggregate ?100,000.
THE arguments in favor of a Southern
Pacific railroad, of proper gauge, may he
briefly ?tated, as follows: Such a road
can only be built with government aid;
bc government need not risk any thing
in granting the aid required to build it;
it can be built nt less than a third ol the
expense of the existing linc, and cat] be
operated proportionately more cheaply ;
it will furnish much the shortest transit
across the continent; it will not be liable
to the snow and ice barriers of the north
ern natte; it will open thc best part of
our western territories and states to set
tlement; it will increase foreign immi
gration and attract foreign capital ; and,
finally, it will be of incalculable advan
tage to thc trade interests of thc whole
country d>y breaking up a formidable,
monopoly, and greatly reducing the cost
.? transportation* between thc eastern
and western divisions of the continent as
well as between the Atlantic arid Pacific
I oceans.
OUR soureesof wealth, says the. New
York Expr?s, are remarkable. Thc
gold and silver products of the. United
States in 1874 was $72,000,000. Of this,
California furnishes $20,300,000, Nevada
$05,452,000, Utah ?5,000,000, Colorado
?4,191,000, Montana ?3.489,000, and
Idaho ?1,880,000. Nearly all of this
went abroad to pay for imports. Gold
and silver, adds the editor, are an im
portant source to wealth ; but compar
ing their yield with some other products,
thc mistake is found.' The United
States corn crop is worth four times as
much as the gold and silver crop, and
thc wheat crop five times as much ; the
cotton crop more than three times as
much, and the hay crop four times as
much. California, with all its gold
would be a poor state but for its wheat
ero]). Carlysle is right. Let us plant
potatoes and corn, by all means, and do
not busy ourselves too much digging for
THE report of the Massachusetts bu
reau of statistics shows that, the annual
surplus earnings of the families of me
chanics, as indicated by the earnings of
397 families, is ?24.72; of these 497 fam
ilies, 58 ran in debt, 92 earned a surplus
of ?9.80, 110 a surplus of ?20.25. 71 a
surplus of ?32.48, 38 a surplus of ?57.77,
10 a surplus of ?49.51, 4 a surplus of
?105.80, 4 a surplus of ?129.35, 2 a sur
plus of ?172, and 1 a surplus ol ?228.75
and of ?275.80. The wages of two fam
ilies were over ?1,000, 64 between ?900
and ?1,000, and 331 from ?300 to ?1,000.
The average earnings of the whole were
?702, and the average expenses ?738. Of
250 families, however, the seale of wages
ranged from $500.to ?800, with a propor
tionate scale of expenses, leaving an
annual average surplus of ?5.13 to ?20.25*
' Only one workman in a hundred owns
the house in which his family resides.
THE failure of the Bank of California
is now known to have been precipitated,
in large part, by the unprecedented ship
, men ts of gold from San Francisco from
.lunusiry to July. The shipment of gold
for the first six monthsof 1874 footed up
?2,311,400; for the same period in 1875,
it reached the startling sum of ?18,257,
400! No such amount of gold had ever
been shipped from that city in the same
period. In fact it was more than the
market could bear. Even during the
London panic in 1800, no such volume,
of coin disappeared. Hence the incon
venience. But the coin movement be
.gan-to.fall off in July, and has been still
less this month to date.
PERionsof financial depression,amount
ing sometimes to panics, have, pervaded
all nations. Of the cause no satisfactory
solution can bc made. For more than
two years past England has been subject
to this depression. It seems to be
greater now than at any previous time.
Heavy and disastrous failures have ad
ded to the trouble, and hence capital is
unnecessarily cautious, and thereby a
great existing evil, without apparent
cause, has been greatly aggravated. Thc
same state of things, toa considerable ex
tent, exists on the continent.
. -' A LATE London letter gives this report
of thc condition of monetary affairs
there : "The official minimum is stil 2 per
cent., and in open market the best bills
are taken at 1\ to 1 jj per cent. The
supply of money seeking employment is
very large, aud there is but little pros
pect of any dtmunition. There ie just
now, owing to the timidity of the public,
a great demand for sound dividend-pay
ing securities., These have been forced
tip in' value tri a tKn?it which yields Ju
t,ho investor but a small, return C -inter
est, ; but aa aafety is every consideration
i with the public, it ia necessary to be
content with email profita, Among these
arc United States government and firutj
mortgage railroad bonds. These aros
quoted at high prices. Second-rate se
curities cheap and much neglected.
,THE president of the Continental in
surance company of New York, in a con
vention of insurance men held last week,
made the astounding statement, that the
hisses of insurance companies in this
country are six times greater than ?iii
England ; that in his. own company, he
thinks twenty per cent, of the losses paid
arc for fraudulent claims, saying nothing
of claims that are fraudulent and not
paid ; that legislatures often do all they
can to help swindlers of insurance, com
panies; thal the law courts " generally "
strain the law in favor of incendiaries,
and that the honest patt ol* the com
munity has to make up for those-bur
dens on thc companies. .This cannot be
said to form an agreeable picture for
THE consumption of Brazil coffee in
this country is enormous. During trie
season of 187-1 it was 103,751 tons, or au
average of 8,640 tons per month. This
was thc largest consumption ot Brazil
coffee in the United States that waa ever
known, with theexception of t hat of 1 STU,
when 108,502 ton.< were consumed. ' The
coffee trade is now oil a firm
footing, and the consumption stead
ily increasing, especially in this couti
try, where it is about one-fourth
of that of the entire world. It is worthy
of note that the world's consumption of
coffee is nearly, if not. fully, 425,000
tons, or 1)35,000,000 pounds 1 The people
of the United States consume more coffee
than any other people on the glolx;.. The
main source of coffee supply is Brazil,
but Java, Ceylon, and the West Indies
furnishes a considerable quantity. The
yearly value of the coffee crop is esti
mated, by an Amsterdam authority, at
.first hands, at $125,000,000, and this
amount is considerably reduced before it
flows back from the consumer
THE September report of the deparat
ment of agriculture says bf the cotton
crop:- Could it be thorouglyripened, its
aggregate would exceed any previous
crop, and the yield per acre would be one
of the best, notwithstanding the losses
by the overflow of bottoms and the
saturation of heavy flat soils. Such
losses have, proved less than the usual
damages by drougth and insects, while
the rains have greatly benefitted the
crops on drier and higher sails. Nearly
everywhere corn is late in maturing from
one to two weeks. In general a high
condition is still maintained, the average
being one per cent, higher than in
August. Thc state averages arc:
Maine ----- 107'Ncw Hampshire - 100
Vermont ----- OBjMassuchuseetts - - li?)
Connecticnt - - - 108|New York - - ' !?!?
Pennsylvania - 108
Maryland - - - 1(18
North Carolina - !105
New Jersey - - lil
Delaware - - - 100
Virginia - - - 112
.South Carolina - - 87
Florida - - - - 83
Mi.Hnissi]ipi - - - 116
Texas - - - - 8U
Tennessee - - - - tu
(ieorgia - - Ul
Alabama - - - - ll?)
louisiana - - S3
Arkansas - -. - - net
[West Vfiginin - - 107
Kentucky - - - lOStOhio. :>7
Michigan - - - - 10111 adiana - - - - ?1
Illinois - - 05'.Wisconson - - - -. ito
Minnesota - - - 72] Iowa - ... >.y>
Missouri - - - lll|Kan?us - - - - UKI
Nebraska - - - - 8?l;Cali?orniH - - - sr,
Oregon - - - - 100
DIRECT Trade with South America,
from S^outiicrn ports, is certain sooner or
later to be accomplished. At thc present
time there is no regular and reliable com
munication willi Venezuela, and hence
they are now importing steam engines
from England. Our hold upon Brazil
has sensibly diminished since thc failure
of a Baltimore firm that was engaged in
exporting provisions and manufactures
thither in exchange, for Brazilian cottee
and other products. This circumstance
will result favorably to the efforts of the
Mississippi Valley Company in establish
Direce Trade in that i>ortion of the world.
Their ships will have thc advantage, loo,
nf ? shorter distance from New Orleans
to South America, and all thc gains of
interior watercommunication. Even the
Philadelphia North American confesses
that the interosts of the people of Ibo en
tire country will be directly or individ
ually benefited by Direct Trade between
?-kmtborn porta and South America, the
enterprise being really National and not
an eminent Frencli chemist, announces
to thc French Academy of Medicine his
belief that life exists only in eomhuston
which occurs in our lxidies-like that
which takes place in chimneys-leaves a,
detritus which is fatal to life. To re
move this, lie would administer lactic
acid with ordinary food. This acid ia
known to possess the power of removing
or destroying the intrustations which
form' on thc arteries, cartilages, and
valves of the heart; and, tts buttermilk
?.abounds in such acid, and is, moreover,
an apceptable kind of food, its habitual
use; it ja urged by M. Robing, will free
the system from these causes, which in
evitably cause death between the seventy
fifth and ene hundredth yeur.
Th? Modern Ktr.v|il<?ii ii* nijf UH HI?.
Elf.vptinii ol' Tliou* ni4ls ol' YVIII-H Au??
-Tito Modern i:inrll?lntijiii Itliruei
l imn flin AneeHtor?.
There never was a delusion with less evi
dence for it, except a permanent impres
sion among mankind, which is often the
result, not of accumulated experience,
but of an ever renewing discontent with
the actual slate of things. There is not
the slighest evidence anywhere that man
jvas ever bigger, stronger, swifter, o
more enduring under thc same condir
tiona of food and climate than he is now.
As to the bigness, thc evidence is pos
itive. Modern Egyptians are as big as
the mummies who were conquerors in
their day, and modern Englishmen are
bigger. There are not in existence a
thousand coats of armor which an Eng
lishman regiment could put on. Very
few moderns can use ancient swords, be
cause the hilts arc too small for their
hands. Endless wealth and skill were
expended in picking gladiators, and
there is no evidence that a man among
them was as big or as strong as Shaw.
No skeleton, no statue, no pictures, in
dicates that men in general were
bigger. The Jews of to-day are as large
as they were in Egypt, or larger. The
people of the Romngna have all the
bearing and more than the size of the
Roman soldiery. No feat is recorded as
usual with Greek athletes which English
'acrobats could not perform now.
' There is no naked stvago tribe which
miked Cornishmen or Yorksbircmcn
.could not strangle. No race exists of
which a thousand men similarly armed
Iwould defeat an English, or German} or
Russian, regiment of equal numliers.
Nothing is recorded of our forefathers
here in England which Englishmen
could not do,.unless it be some feats of
archery; which were the results of a long
[training of the eye continued for genera
tions. Thc moat civilized and luxurious
Jjfaniily that ever existed, the European
royal casts, is physically as big, heath ly,
and as powerful as any people of
[whom we nave any account that science
'can accept. Theirs' Frenchman in
[Casar's Gaul in all liodily conditions,
[and with an increased power of keeping
[alive, which may be partly owing to
'unproved conditions ol living, but is
/probably owing still more to developed
yit.dity. There is no evidence that
even, the feeble races are feebler than
t?h?v-*KCT-Kmc-.rfter-tiiclr nrsc acclimatiza
The Bengalee was what we know bim
twelve hundred years ago, and the Chi
namen was represented on porcelain
just as he is now before the birth of]
Christ. No race ever multiplied like
the Anglo-Saxon, which has had no ad
vantage of climate, and till lately no
particular advantage of food. Physical
condition depends on physical condi
tions, and why should a race better fed,
better clothed, and better housed than it
ever was before degenerate ? Because it
eats corn instead of berries? Compare
the California and the Digger Indian.
Because it wears clothes? Thc wearing
of clothes, if burdensome-which the ex
perience of army doctors i n India as to
the best costume for marching makes ex
cessively doubtful, they declaring unan
imously that breech less men sillier from
varicose veins, as men wearing trousers
do not-must operate as a permanent
physical training. You carry weight
habitually. Because they keep indoors ?
Compare Iinglisli professionals with Tas
manian savages, living in identically the
same climate, but living out of doors.
Tie conditions of civilization not only
ilo not prohibit Capt. Webb, who won lil
have out-walked, out-swum, or strangled
?my German that Tacitus ever romanced
about, but they enabled him to live to
seventy instead of dying at forty-five, as
two thousand years ago he. then probably
?1 slave bred for the arena, would have
That the human race, even under the
liest conditions, advances very little in
physical capacities is true, but then it is
true also that those conditions are not
fata! to the most powerful of the old im
proving forces, the survival of the fittest.
?Still an advance is perceptible in vital
power, and we question whether a Greek
swimmer would ever have crossed from
Dover to Calais, just tts strongly as we
question whether thc ancient world ever
posses.* d a horse which would have
achieved a place at Epsom. Why should
men crow feeble in civilization any more
than korses.-farndon Spectator.
The (Wmcrcial Prosperity of France.
A. financial journal publishes some in
formation respecting tue commercial sit
uation of France Indore and since the
war, linell prove to a certain extent
what Macaulay said about no form ol'
government hindering the march, of pros
perity.] Wealth in England steadily in
creased under Iilizabeth, James 1,
OharJesJ, Cromwell, etc., nor havea pro
visional government and?h republic prc-,
vented thc development of thc resources
of this \country. The total commercial
movement, exports and imports, for 1871
(which, will prove inferior to that of
1875) ?mounted to 7,t'2f>,7ti4,000 francs
-say ??00,000,000-exceeding that of
18o9 by about ?50,000,000, when the
l?mpire was at the height of its prosper
ity, and when Alsace and Lorraine be
longed to France. The railwavs are con
sequently doing a larger business. Thc
Western line has improved 6,000 francs
a mile; thc Northern, 7,000 francs;
Lyons, 9,000 francs; the Eastern, 14,000
francs; ilie Southern, 10,0*00 fiancs. As
far as Pi ris is concerned there are fewer
failure.-!, and the theatrical receipts
sign bf luxury-show an increase cf
7,000,00( (.francs over thoso O?1869. in
spite of restle?* politicians*'flood* and
other pi rtial disasters, there can bc no |
thjubt th at Fruit? hu nothing to wm
plan, of, and that she has more than r c
covered dint material welfare which is
supposed tb have unnerved her under the
immoral and luxurious empire. There
is, ol* coli rsc, a dark side to this brilliant
picture hot alluded to by the financial
writer, to wit, thc extra burden-- with
which tlie country is saddled.
Deep Til li mr ami Undcr-lh'tthiilig.
intelligent and observing tillers of thc
soil in almost every eeetion of thc coun
try where the drouth has prevailed to
any considerable extent during the past
season, have been strikingly impressed
with the surprising advantage to the
growing crops arising from thorough
drainage of heavy soils in connection
with deco tillage and abundant fertiliza
tion ol' tile seed-lied. W hen the water
line of a heavy soil that is disposed to bo
wet, is sunk by means of a system of
thorough undcrdraining, say thirty or
more inches beneath the surface of the
soil, if the seed-bed be broken up deep,
thc lindy comminuted soil will retain a
much huger quantity of moist-lire in
dry and hot weather than if there were
no under-drains. As the soil is deepened
by under-draining and deep plowing, the
capacity to absorb moisture from the at
mosphere is greatly augmented. Hence,
in a dry season, if the seed-bed be bro
ken up deep, the roots of growing plants
spread farther in every direction through
ti io soil ; and us the mellow earth will
ahsorh a much larger quantity of moist
ure than if the entire st raia wcrconcsolid
mass, every growing plant is, in a great
measure, fortified against the trying in
fluences of hot and dry weather. I'nder
draining and deep ploughing, in numer
ous instances, have, been thc means of
saving large crops from utter ruin by
protracted drouth. Hence, many farm
ers have been led to appreciate thc ad
vantages of under-draining and deep til
lage where the soil was heavy, as they
have never done before. It will pay weil
to under-drain wet land and to plow it
deep, whether the growing season is to
bc too wet or too dry.
Dull Lire in Portugal.
A writer on Portugal life says: The
larger of the country towns have streets
full of gentlemen's houses, and here veg
etate from year to year families who arc
just rieh enough to livewithou!working.
Trr llvepiTUeeti; us the Portuguese do in
such (owns need cost but little. A large
house, with a plot of cabbages,"a kale
yard behind it; with whitewashed walls,
Hours uncarpeted, a dozen wooden chairs,
one or two deal tables; no fireplace, not
even a stove, either in si tiing or bed room;
no curtains to the windows, no covers to
the tables, no pictures on thc willis, no
mirrors; no tables pleasantly strewn with
books, magazines, newspapers, and ladies'
work; no such thing visible as a pot of
cut flowers; no rare china, no clocks, no
bronzes-none of thc hundred trifles und
curiosities with which in our houses we
show our taste or want of it, hilt which
either wuy give, such an individual char
acter and charin to English homes. All
these negatives describe the utterly
dreary habitations of thc middle-class
Portuguese. Foroccupations the women
do needlework, gossip, go to mass daily,
and look out of window by the hour.
Except the one short walk to church ut
eight o'clock in the morning, a Portu
guese lady hardly ever appears in the
streets. As to the men, they lounge about
among tho shops, they smoko innumera
ble paper cigarettes, they take a "siesta"
in the heat of the day. If there is any
sunshine they stand in groups at the
street corners, with umbrellas over theil
heads; in-winter they wear a shawl ovei
their shoulders, folded and put on three
cornerwiseV ns a French or English wo
man's shawl is worn-for this is a fashior
in Portugal, and the Spaniards laugh 1
good deal at their neighlxirs on the score
of their being a nation who invert thc
due order of things. In these town:
there is never any news, and if two mei
are seen in cager discussion of some mat
ter of apparently immense importance
and if one. happens to be near enough t<
overhear thc subject of conversation, IM
sure that one of them is plunged in dc
spair or killing with enthusiasm at a ria
or fall of a half-penny in the price of i
pound pf tobacco. There arc not evei
fashions for them to think about; your.)
men and old men dress alike, but tin
younger men wear exceedingly tigh
boots, and when they " take their walk
abroad" it is obvious thal they do so ii
considerable discomfort. Thc young mci
however, have one occupation more im
portant even than wearing tight boots
thai of making the very mildest form o
love known among them. The process
indeed, is carried on in so platonic a man
ncr and with so much proper feeling thu
I doubt if even the strictest Engh'sl
governess would find anything to objec
to. Thc young gentlemen pay their ad
dresses by'simply standing in front of th
houses occupied by the objects of thei
affections, while the young persons ii
question look down approvingly. from th
upner windows, and there the matte
ends. _
ny hus been formed in Berlin which prc
poses to found at Chou, the most sou tl
ern province of Abyssinia, a permanen
settlement,' in order to send out Rcicntifi
expeditions into the unexplored porti?
of Africa, and to develop the commcrc
of Mia country. The objects of the con
pany are, however, supposed to be mor
commercial than scientific. r
-Only nine, persons out of a hundre
are insane from hereditary causes. Th
jini-jiuns f instance, tire more read-hcac
itary than hereditary.
Mc ODY and' Saiikey will jjronn lt
wardlv when they return to Chicago an
find tho Uihfo banlshuil ftum th? jmbli
-A tree in Ceylon is said to have
been standing more than two thousand
vcars. The Buddhist priests sell it?
loaves as a panacea for sin, and it is a
real bonanza to those pious teachers.
-It is said that the game of chess was
invented by a tender woman, more than
two thousand years ago. She was a
?jileen, and played the first game with
thc teeth she had extracted from one of
her slaughtered enemies.
Hans Tammer, an Austrian, is exhi
biting in Paris a canine quartet. He
has four dogs, and he luis taught each
dog to bark in two notes, and each dog's
notes are different from those of the
other dogs. He thus commanda eight
notes, and gives " IHJ donne mobile "
ami some other pieces.
-While a couple of women were dis
cussing, the other day, the merits of a
certain physician, one of them asked
the other what kind of a doctor he was,
" Sure, I dunno," was thc reply, "but I
think it's" an alpaca doctor they call
-Chateaubriand said, " Mme. Chat
eaubriand would not diue later than
five. I was never hungry till seven.
But we compromised and (lined at six,
so that wt; could neither of us enjoy it;
and that is what people call the happi
ness of mutual concessions."
-lt will hardly lie necessary to tell
thc haine of the facetious party who
went into a village dry goods ?tore the
other day, and was observed to be look
ing about, when thc proprietor remarked
to him that they didn't keep whisky.
" It would save you a gootl many steps
if you did," was the stage-driver's quick
-A tramping printer on the route be
tween New York and Newburgh, is ac
companied hy his wife. When asked
the other day by a country editor, why
he carted her around with him, re
murketl that she took him for better or
worse, and, having bad a good taste of
the hitter, was endeavoring to i; \d out
where the better came in. ? \
-"Job printing?" exclaimcd\ip old
lady, the omer day, tts she peep ;over
her'spectacle?, at the advertising1^ %e of
a country paper, " Poor Job I t (y've
kept him printing, week ai?ter week^ever
since I larrit to read ; anoS-jf hejtwS"&^
the patientest man that ever was, he ?
never could have stood it so loik no
flow!" ' -
-I was acquainted once with a gallant
ioldier who nssured me that his only
method of courage was this: Upon the
(irst fire in tm engagement he immedi
ately looked upon himself as a dead
mun. He then fought out the remaui
ler of the day perfectly rcgardle jj of all
manner of danger, as becomes a dead
mau to be. So that all the life or limbs
ie carried hack to his tent he reckoned
is clear gain, or, as he himself expressed
t, "\so much out of the fire."-Sterns.
How to Hold Fertility of the Soil.
Gypsum attracts. It is not only a ma
nir? in itself, but it attracts the atmos
phere that comes in contact with it,
which is abundant on windy days, but it
?atches and holds the fertility of the
?round that in some soils escapes. Lime
?rill also do this-so will clay. Clay,
Iried and powdered, is an encellent thing
o put on a barn-yard, or to cover a cern
ios t heap with, or work through the heap;
tenec we usc gypsum or lime in our sta
lles or privies. Gypsum is best; it has
;he most attraction, besides other proper
ties. A little should be kept by every
armer for use, even at high cost, as the
)cnefit is sometimes more important than
die high price. But we waste our manure;
ve not only permit its strength to escape,
mit wc are glad toget it out of the way.
riie same recklessness extends to the
?ind. It is well our land has a good pro
portion of clay to hold its strength.
We must conserve. The time is not
?tr distant wdien we shall be compelled to
lo it. Already there 'are symptoms of
ack in our soil; we do not raise as heavy
:rops as we used U)-here and there a
lela, herc and there a farm is less pro
bative. It is not so much that weneed
ilastcr here in the west to hold the
itrength of the soil, aa to use it to ab
itract it from the atmosphere, and to
?ave the ammonia of our barn-yards and
?tables. For tb is let us always keep a
ittlc on hand. Let us save and improve
?ur manure and thus save our farms.
Rural World.
ms prevailed among commercial men
ince the establishment of the new fast
nail trains that their interests were being
acrificed to those of the morning news
mpers by the post-oihee department.
The idea got abroad that mercantile let
ers wc- ; delayed until morning, and that
he time of transmission to the west was
hereby increased instead of diminished
tnder thc new arrangement. A number
>f merchants and publishers of evening
?ewspapers met at No. 17 Broadway yes
erday, and Major Bangs addressed tho
isseniblage, explaining the system of
ailway service of the United States very
tilly, and said that the city could not
jossibly lie better served than It i? flt
iresent. The morning trains from this
i ty had been arranged to catcli most of
he through trains in the west. .Thus
very thing combined to render a,.last
?vening train of no practical Jvalne.. m
?lannintr the new se?vico all these.tbjngs
ind been carefully weighed, the pruicipal
bicet being to accommodate trleJargo .
?ties which aro thc distributing <jg*ncics. *
Should any "cw consid?rations ofinipor
ance bf offered to the department Major
iani?? promised that care wottU betaken
u .rive them the attention .'bey might

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