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The free citizen. (Orangeburg, S.C.) 1874-1876, May 27, 1876, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn92065529/1876-05-27/ed-1/seq-1/

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E. A. WEBSTER. Editor and Proprietor.
A Weekly Paper Devote'd to Temperance, Literature and Politic?? ^
Thc tot Anniversar} Exhibition
in Philadelphia.
Views of the Exhibition Build
ings and Full Descriptions
of the Various De
Arrangements for tho Gontunui.il.
The art of congress which provides for
"celebrating the one hundredth anniver
sary of American independence., by bidd
ing au international exhibition ol' arts,
mauufacturesend products of the soil
|tnd mine." "authorized the creation of
the United States centennial commission,
and * intrusted to it the management ol
the exhibition. This body is composed of
two commissioners from each, state and
territory, nominated by the respective
governors, and crom missioned by the
president of the United Slates. The en
terprise, therefore, is distinctly a nation
al one, and not, as has soluciones been
stated, thc work ol a privat--- corpora
tion. '
The exhibition was opened on May
lr)th, 1870, and remain open until No
vember Kith. There will be a fixed
A number of trade sind industrial as
sociations, which,.require large amounts
of space, are provided for in special build
ings. Among these are thc photo
graphers, the carriage builders, the. glass
makers, the. cracker hakers, the boot and
Biroo manufacturers, besides quite anum
her of individual exhibitors. The great
demand for space renders this coe rsc ne
cessary to a considerable extent, espec
ially for exhibitors who have been tardy
in making their applications. In the
main exhibition building, for example,
throe hundred and thirty-three thou
sand three hundred square feet of space
had lxHMi applied for by the beginning of
October hy American exhibitors only;
whereas, the aggregate space which it
has heen possihle to reserve for the
United Stales department is only one
hundred and Sixty thousand square feet.
Al ?out one-third is consumed hy passage
The. machinery building, like the
ohers, is already fully covered by appli
cations. There are about one thousand
American exhibitors in this department,
i one hundred and fifty 'english, and one
hundred and fifty from oilier European
countries-which is about two hundred
and filly more than entered the Vien
na machinery exhibition. Extra provision
hashecn made for annexes to accommo
date the hydraulic machinery, the steam
hammers, forges, hoisting engines, boil
ers, plumbers, carpenters, etc.
Power in the machinery hall is chiefly
supplied by a pair of monster Corliss en
gines. Each cylinder is forty indies in
diameter, with a stroke of ten feet ; the
Presbyterian Synod; Caledonian Club;
Portland Mechanic Blues; Welsh Na
tional Eistcdfodd; Patriotic Order Sons
of America ; California Zouaves of San
Francisco; an International Regatta;
thc Mic Insurance Companies; National
Hoard of Underwriters; State Agricul
tural .Society ; Second Infantry, N. (I.
of Cali tor nia; Philadelphia Conference,
Methodis; Episcopal Church ; Cincinnati
Society"; California Pioneer Society;
American Dental Convention; (.'athone
Total Abstinence Union of America;
Independent Order of IVnai B'rith;
National Alumni Association; Sales
men's Association ; Fifth Maryland
fciicghnciit ; Seventh New York Kegi
""MIC, American Poinological Society;I
in thc .Hftttic relativ, position* to each
other na tile longitudinal avenues. These
cross the wilding, and are four hundred
and sixteen feet in length. The inter
sections of these various avenues make
at the cen tor of the. building nine spaces
free from supports, which are from one
hundred tonne hundred and twenty feet
nquarc, amt which aggregate four hun
dred and fcfeclcen feet square. The gen
eral elevation of thc roofs of all these
avenues varies from forty five feet to
seventy fcc.
Thc building rests upon thc ground,
tho laud having been thoroughly graded
and prepared. Thc foundations consist
tho. ?fjlith from memorial hall and on thc
north from agricultural building. These
ravines are. spanned hy ornamental
bridgen five hundrcd'feet long and sixty
'cet wide, for convenience of necees. Car
riage roads, a. railway, and foo? walt's,
pass over them. The horticultural build
ing is designed in the Moresque style of
architecture of thc twelfth century, the
chief materials externally heing iron and
glass, supported hy fine marble and brick
work, j Thc building is three hundred
and eighty-three feet long, one Hundred
and ninety-three feet wide, and seventy
two feet bigli to the top of the lantern.
The main iloor is occupied hy the cen
tral conservatory, two hundred and thir
ty fc2t hy eighty feet,,and fiftyviive feet
high, surmounted by a lantern one. hun
dred and seventy feet long, twc-ity feet
wide, and fourteen feet high. Running
entirely around this conservatory, ut a
height of twenty feet {rom. the door, is a
gallery five feet wide.
On the north and south sides of this
principal room are four forcing houses
for the propagation of young plants,
each of them one hundred feet hy thirty
feet, and covered hy curved roofs of iron
and glass, which, appearing upon the ex
terior of the building, present a very fine
feiture. ,A vestibule thirty feet square
separates the two forcing houses on each
side, and there are similar vestibules at
the center of the east and west ends, on
either side of which are apartments for
reception rooms, offices, etc. Orna
mental stairways lead from these vesti
bules to thc internal galleries of the eon
' ^^^^ '
boiler houses, ?uni such other buildings
fin- special kinds of machinery as may bo
' r. quired. ,
?. The plan of the machinery building
?stfows two main avenues ninety feet
.wide, with a central aisle bet ween ami
an aisle on either side, these being sixty
feet in width. These, avenues and nish s
togelljer have three hundred and sixty
Tce.t widtlUfllid each of them is one. thou
sand three hundred and sixty feet long.
At the. center of thc building there is a
transept ninety feet in width, which at
thc south end is prolonged beyond thc
building. This extended transept, he
ginning af thirty feet from thc building
atul extending to two hundred and eight .
feet, is Hanked on cither side by aisles
sixty feet wide, and lunns an annex for
hydraulic machines. The promenades
? are: In thc avenue fifteen Icet wide, in
tho aisles ten feet, and in thc transept
twenty-five feet. The walks extending
across the building are all ten feet wide, "
and lead at cither end to exit doors.
Tho foundations of this building are piers
of masonry, tho superstructure consist
ing ot solid timber columns supporting
roof trusses, constructed of straight
wooden principal beams mid wrought
iron tics and struts. The columns arti
placed in longitudinal lines, and in
these rows stand sixteen feet apart.
Thc columns arc forty (cet high, and
support respectively thc ninoty-fect
root-spans over the avenues tit a height
of forty feet, and thc sixty feet rOof
spans over the aisles at a height of
twenty feel. Thc outer walls are built

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