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WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 16, 1922.
\ Qur G\leMW JI Needy / I Improviivq _ Conference May W ? Make Radical Changer ET i t tub ST~W*»° L:-i / 1 IfS • tggsM’ '■<<: Ui 1i i 2 \ 3 I > .-d i 4 n Jr\ s' 1 8 9 V°J« <9» 2, 7/' r’V'T^UsM 27 ' 28 ] rWsSi® /x***, / \ \ \ ElsKilßnilWniMl \ 11 QJm v J \ y* r~z- I rsi v &\ LUljwaan \ : / vmAz' >4W HWff <-X Zr> S. 'fcU M 6 “IP*JH'4 .ill mw*- W IMi I* l WEEK 3 Ia WEEK S»WEEK 7 Wui f34 , SS7tUMIIrIIViBi«r7'M l »'a2iwnawli>iJn»sf" ■Bw?r HE Gregorian calendar | that we use Is an evo lution which had its be ginnings in the prehistoric times with the purpose of ascertaining and re- I cording the most propl I tious dates for the sow -9 Ing of craps. Since the 7 World war, the Russians, Siberians, Turks, Chinese, Japanese, Egyptians and other nations have adopted the Gregorian calendar for governmental, legal and other natural purposes. Nevertheless, as everyone knows, the Gregorian calendar has defects and every now and then somebody comes forward with a scheme for changing it. Now It is purposed to assemble the International Government Conference of Ail Nations to make changes which seem advisable and adopt an “inter national fixed calendar.” The defects lir the Gregorian cal endar and the changes which seem advisable, together with other useful and Interesting information are set forth in an Illustrated article in the Pan American Union with the title. “The Evolution of Calendars and How to Improve Them,” by Moses B. Cots worth, F. G. S„ F. S. A., F. C. A., sec retary treasurer of the International Fixed Calendar league. The defects In our calendar are summarized in the following outline: We earn and pay by the month, but have not an equal monthly measure, except for prisoners, whose time is counted in months of 30 days. Our months vary from 28 to 31 days —ll per cent difference—yet the same monthly salaries, rents, etc., must be inequitably paid. Monthly business charges for maintenance, de preciation, etc., are unfairly appor tioned, and monthly profits credited as though each month were produc tively one-twelfth of the year. The confusing changes in week-day names for the same dates In succes sive months, through the Intrusion of New Year and leap days, cause furth er disparities which are misleading In business, as evidenced when com paring monthly output of full working days from Monday to Friday, plus a half day on Saturday. On this basis March. 1922, has 14 per cent more earning time than February, which is only one-thirteenth of the year. The changing week-day names bring Christmas, New Year’s, and other hol idays on Sunday and into weeks which they split, depriving toiling millions In all countries of the more-prized holi day extensions combined with week ends. The shifting range of weeks through the months burdens business and so cial life with many tiresome refer ences, limitations, and troubles. A few examples here may suffice: We are constantly forced to consult the calendar to trace how many weeks Intervene between any given dates, and to ascertain the week-day names throughout the months. Periodical Silk Stockings It appears that Henry IT, when pre paring for the marriage of his sister in 1550, first had the idea for silk hose, M. F. (Bradford), and nt that epoch-making event he was the first to wear knitted silk stockings. A hundred years later one Hlndres es tablished a factory for stockings In the Hois de Boulogne. This was the first factory in France. It was a suc cess from the start, and when it re- 12 3 n dh.is ui7 . gH Bn .i,2 3 <BgnqCTn p o h.5,k h BjOSl iF?Vlmrf!»io ii'i2 1 2.3.4 5 mis mix id i»aEnaaj33wMß'ii: gfi Eh Irixlwfriooil 12, D H lilltnnwKFui 242525,»»2’5mW” 12 3 4 sSlXi™SlJMisi4l7ll!sCT©TCTg2l7rß2sM3l £« BQ J 7234,5 I 2 3 |gg IM ■ ; Umini7TliOlll2)3Wlsl6|nnnWTntl242sM372B2»»!H taas business and social meetings ».eld on selected Weekdays have to be de scribed In by-laws, etc., as the “first and third Wednesdays,” “the Friday nearest the twentieth,” etc. Dates for national holidays, festivals, etc., falling on Sundays have to be post poned by proclamation, etc. Bank drafts, trade bills, etc., due on Sun day have tn be held over, and one day’s interest thereon lost. Monthly trade balances, wage adjustments, etc., are complicated by weekly wages being split up In the week which, be ginning in any one month, quarter, semester, or year, end in the next fol lowing. Nine of the months extend in to five weeks, and three into six, as a glance at the chart will show. There were five Saturdays each In January, April, July, October, and December, 1921, when housekeepers were calendar-forced to buy a fifth week’s supply of meats, groceries, etc., out of equal monthly income quotas. Conversely, storekeepers in the months of five Saturdays are encour aged by their inflated Incomes to over buy. Now for the ways of remedying the calendar defects: We cannot alter the length of the days, weeks, or years, but we can easily amend the months, so that each, like February In 1914, will contffin 28 days in 7-day weeks, which exactly and best quarter the month for busi "ness and social convenience. That ideal month is tlie standard proposed, because It is not an experiment but the easiest and best now used. To ex pedite long counts of days between any two dates, it would be better to number, instead of to name, the months; but if names are more de sirable, the new month "Sol’’ could be Inserted between June July as readily ns “leap day” was Inserted between February and March, 1920. This proposed new month, with the other 12 equal 28-day months, will constitute the amended calendar year proposed, after “New Year day” (with out any week-day name) is prefixed as an extra whole Saturday or Sunday holiday to precede the Ist of January, In which month New Year day will be included as “January 0.” This will absorb the extra week day (over and above the 52 weeks) width now needlessly and most Incon veniently causes the names of all week-days to change throughout the successive 365 dates of each year. In leap years, leap day should precede celved protection from the ministers It became a gold mine. In 1666 the venture was turned into a company. From It arose the society of stocking makers. At this time ribbed stock ings were made In England, but It was not until nearly a century later that such wear was Introduced Into France. Th® Worthy Amateur. There is no excuse for amateur work being bad. Amateurs often ex cuse their shortcomings on the ground either “Sol 1” or July 1 as “0,” being in either case an extra Saturday in ternational holiday with no week-day name. When these changes are made, it follows that the same day in each week will always fall on the same four fixed dates each month, so that each week-day name will always de note its monthly dates, and vice versa, as the “standard month” would then apply to all months. A less essential change is the pro posal to abolish moon-wandering Eas ters by the international churches fix ing Easter at the most convenient date In April. Referring to the Illustrations given herewith: Stonehenge, the collection of great monoliths in England whose purpose was so long a mystery, is now known to have been for calendar pur poses. Sir Norman Lockyear has cal culated that the so-called “Sunrise Stone” was erected about 1680 B. C. The pyramids were erected .by the ancient Egyptians in order to meas ure the shortest noon-shadows, that tlie days between might be counted. The sphinx played its part in the cal culations by which the Egyptians reckoned a year of 365 days and a fraction. Thus the pyramids were built to safeguard the life of Egypt, which depended upon utilizing the Nile valley’s advantages by applying calendar knowledge to agriculture. The various pyramids were used as tombs for Pharaohs only after each one except the one In use had been superseded by a more perfectly sloped pyramid. “The Standard Month” and the “Day Pointer” below it practically explain themselves. “Sol,” it will be noted, Is twenty-eight days, four complete weeks. Every month is to be like it and will be ticked off by the “Day Pointer.” The calendars for January and Feb ruary of 1922 show unequal months split the weeks at month-ends most awkwardly, causing rnuny Inconveni ences. The remaining figure of monthly dates show the broken weekly range in 1922, which includes 42 complete and 21 broken weeks, including also the odd day, December 81. The latter, by being Sunday, like January 1. forces the Inconvenient change ol week-day names in all the months and years which follow. This shows the j need of a monthly measure in which j the day names are “fixed” as to the numerical dates. that they are not professionals, the professional could plead with greater Justice that he Is not an amateur. . . . The question Is, what is the amateur an amateur of? What is he really in love with? Is he In love with other people, thinking he sees something which he would like to show them? ... If this Is his po sition he can do no wrong, the spirit in which he works will Insure that ids defects will be only as bad spelling or bad grammar In the pretty saying of a child.- Samuel Butler. Rain Dries Air, Says Scientist Sort. Interesting Paradoxes Are Explained by Dr. Humphreys of Smithsonian Institution. HOTTER SUN—COLDER EARTH Old Sol Rises Before He Is Up and Sets Before It Goes Down—Bent Rays of Light Account for This Paradox. Washington.—A rainstorm dries the air; more goes up than comes down; as the sun sets the air grows warmer; the hotter the sun grows, the colder the earth becomes; the sun rises be fore it is up and sets after it is down; these are strong statements and sound like a fairy tale, but they are all true. Dr. W. J. Humphreys, quoted in the annual report of the Smithsonian in stitution which has just been made public, explains all of them. They are perfectly well known to scientists, if not to laymen. As everyone knows, Dr. Humphreys declares, water evaporates and Is taken up In the air as vapor. This ac tion is continuous all over the earth and the atmosphere would soon be come very soggy if it weren’t’ dried out. Rain is the collection, or con densation, and precipitation of these moisture particles, consequently the more it rains the less water there Is left in the atmosphere, or the drier the air becomes. Contradicts Old Saying. Tlie second of Dr. Humphrey’s para doxes seems flatly to contradict the old saying ‘-‘whatever goes up must come down.” However, as the writer expresses it, vertical circulation in the atmosphere is only gravitational ac tion, consisting in the sinking of rela tively cold and therefore dense air, and rising of warm and light air. Con tracted air descends, expanded air ascends. Therefore, mass for mass, the volume of ascending air Is always larger than that descending. The third paradox is merely away of stating that the warmest part of the day is not at noon, when the sun is at meridian or overhead and should seemingly be pouring down greater heat, but several hours later In the afternoon. That is because the sur face of the earth and the lowpr lay ers of air continue to absorb more heat from the upper layers for some time after the latter have been re ceiving the maximum amount of heat radiation from the sun. While it is not yet universally con ceded that the next puzzler, “the hot ter the sue, the colder the earth, Why They Call It the Melting Pot A V ' ' r / “ V *; /"S'" _l > T■ 1 I - . J A?. C ’ Here is an amusing example of ti>e democracy and cosmopolitanism of America —three Japanese youngsters doing a Dutch dunce, wooden shoes and ail, at a school in Monte Bello, Cal. CUPID LETS DO Russian Refugee Stowaway Per mitted to Enter Country. First Officer of the Manitowoc Faile In Love With Girl He Found in Hid ing on Ship—Passports Are Waved. Washington. —Love came to Anna Vlvdenko, a Russian refugee stowaway on the high sens, after she and her companion, Evguenla Bonar, had been discovered hiding on the American steamship Manitowoc, bound from the Black sea to Baltimore. When John Brukka, first offeer on the Manitowoc, ordered the trembling girls to emerge from their hiding place, he little thought that before the voyage ended he would have plighted his troth to Anna. But this is exactly what happened, and the bureau of Im migration, Department of Labor, has set aside the recommendation of de- really is true. Dr. Humphreys states, the evidence in favor of it la already very strong. Another Paradox Explained. The paradox of the sun rising be fore it is actually up and setting after it has actually gone down is explained by the bending of light waves when passing through the air. A stick when placed in clear water seems to bend; a light ray when sent through the air does actually bend. The rays from the rising sun are bent when they strike the air envelope. This angle varies according to well-known laws, but on the average the light from the sun is bent 34*4 seconds of degree, so that the upper limb of the sun when first seen is actually half a degree be low the horizon. As the angular diam eter of either sun, moon or star Is less than this fraction it follows that when the sky Is sufficiently clear the whole of either may be seen before even its HAS LARGEST ANNUAL INCOME New York State Gets Eighth of Total for the Nation. Analysis of Distribution of Income by States Shows Diversity in Per Capita Income in Different States. New York. —New York leads every state in the Union with an annual In come of $9,074,859,000. or more than one-eighth of the total national in come, according to figures announced by the National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. Nevada brings up the rear of the procession of states with $65,791,000 as the total income re ceived by Us inhabitants. These figures form part of an ex haustive investigation of incomes in the United States, made by the re search staff of the National Bureau of Economic Research, led by Dr. Wesley The bureau’s re port on “Distribution of Income by States,” prepared by Oswald W. Knauth, shows the extraordinary di versity in the per capita income of people in different parts of the coun try. While per capita income in the United States as a whole in 1919 was $627, the per capita income in the re gion embracing the Pacific states was $796 and in the middle Atlantic states $783. In the south central and east south central states the rate sank to <463 and $364, respectively. New York State also heads the list ; f per capita incomes, striking an iWN THE U. S. BARS portatlon made by the board of spe cial Inquiry at Baltimore, and admit ted them for six months. The State department, "for humanitarian rea sons,” waved passport requirements. Anna and Evguenia, the former a vocalist and typist, the latter an act ress, were employed on the dock at Neveressick, Russia, when the Manitowoc arrived for cargo. They conspired to stowaway on the Amer ican vessel and seek fame and fortune In the new land. Two Russian boys, with whom bey had worked, were taken Into the se cret, and the four found a black hole big enough to accommodate them all. Two days out they were discovered, and their problem becalm the problem of Capt. Wai demar Knud sen. The captain decided to put the boys ashore at Messina, Italy, but the girls pleaded so piteously to be al lowed to remain that his heart soft ened towards them. So, when soviet PAGE SEVEN Woman Making Record Killing Wyoming Snakes Gillette, Wyo.—Gillette ranch- ;■ ers have declared open season on ;;; rattlesnakes, and a woman. Miss : Betty Carter. Is ru.« ling the head of the list a neck-and-neck race in disposing of the rattlers To date she has killed fifty-six ' In the Pleasant HUI community, which Is n close second to the ; number reported by Dick Bell and Bill Jones, who have slain slxty-four from two dens. -z-z -z-z -z-z--z~z--z-z-z--z--z-z-z-z--z-w--c-» --.**'*. topmost portion Is geometrically aoove the horizon. Contradicts Old Saying. While the reverse Is not absolutely correct astronomically, it is added, when sun. star or moon set, because of the slight modification of refraction due to earth rotation, nevertheless the difference is exceedingly slight. Con sequently. as the light rays are bent upward by earth’s atmosphere the sun has actually gone down before It is seen by a terrestrial observer. average of $874. Nevada. California. Wyoming, Massachusetts and Wash ington are next with per cnp’ta In comes around SBOO. The people of the middle Atlantic states alone re ceived more than one-fourth of the entire income of the country in 1919. and with the east north central states received nearly one-half of it. On the other hand, the people of the twelve Southern states, comprising more than 21 per cent of the popula tion, received less than 15 per cent of the total national income. Farmers in the Pacific states In 1919 had an average Income of more than $2,800; in the west north central states their average was $2,300. These fig ures are in excess of the average of $1,160 for farmers In New England, $1,340 in south Atlantic states and less than SI,OOO in the east south central st a t es. The total Income of the south is de rived largely from farming. The south Atlantic states draw about one-fourth of their income from this source, and the south central states about one third. The only other group of states that is equally dependent on farming is the west north central states, which draw about one-third of their income from this source. New England and the middle states draw less than 4 per cent of the income from agriculture. $450 BUYS RARE DUTCH ART C. J. Fitzgerald Refuses $25,000 for Painting of Horses Purchased at Auction. New York. —Christopher J. Fitzger ald has loved horses all his life. His affection goes so far that he wants pictures of horses around him. Re cently he saw in in auction room a painted study of several horses. He bid $450 and got it. When he took the painting homo and had it cleaned he discovered he had purchased a work of Isaac Van Astade, a Dutch master of the Seven teenth century. An offer of $25,000 has been made for the painting, but Mr. Fitzgerald says it is not for sale. | SAVAGE FISH STOPS BATHING Capture of Barracuda Near Montreal Puts End to Water Pastime in That Vicinity. Montreal. —Consternation has spread through bathing circles here by the capture of a barracuda, near Montreal, one of which ferocious fish recently caused the death of Miss McClatchle of Montreal. She was bitten while swimming off the Florida coast. Fishing in I.achine rapids, two men caught a barracuda. They killed it when It attacked them. Bathing activ ities virtually have ceased us a result of their catch. Slips on Banana Painting. London. —William Boggerty sued a street pavement artist for damages owing to a broken leg. Boggerty claimed that the artist used greasy chalk, causing him to slip on a draw ing of a banana on the pavement. soldiers searched his ship at other Rus sian ports lie found a hiding place for the girls and brought them to the United States. The barrier of language did not pre vent John Brakke from speaking to Anna in the language of love, and before the ship reached Baltimore she had consented to become his wife. Anna sang small parts in Russian grand opera and Evguenia was an actress of ability, their papers show. Anna is nineteen and her companion twenty-one. Brakke is forty-one. When they reached Baltimore the girls’ combined wardrobe consisted of three pieces and one hat. Abandons Three-Headed Kitten. Elkhorn, Wls.—Elkhorn mourns the death of Wyncken, Blmken and Nodd of Dr. L. 11. Coulson’s ent family, which promised to make Elkhorn fa mous. The kittens were born with one body but three heads. Life was sweet until their mother, win fell dis graced by such oud-looklng offspring, left for parts unknown.