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WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 6, 1922.
DRESS UP CANNED VEGETABLES TO OBTAIN BEST VARIETY FOR FAMILY MI ISI- i r/1 ! j I i 1 i.., ::;'i Bait Canned Peas or Beans will S tlr Family to Rebellion if Always Cooked in Same Way. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Turnips, carrots, cabbage, onions, potatoes, parsnips, kale, celery, and winter squash—for a good many win ter months these are the only fresh vegetables that appear on the table, so that for the sake of variety it is necessary to fall back on the stock of canned vegetables. Even the best canned string beans or peas, however, I will stir the family to rebellion if al ways served in exactly the same way. No matter how canned vegetables are served, they should be boiled thor oughly after they are poured from the can and before they are tasted. Scalloped canned tomatoes are not only good In themselves but help use up stale bread. Canned sweet pota toes may be mashed and baked, or made Into sweet potato pie, or baked in layers with slices of apple between. Impove Flavor of Vegetables. A little onion Juice or celery salt, or a bit of green pepper or celery tops, or a tiny piece of bay leaf. Improves the flavor of many vegetable dishes. The United States Department of Agriculture has a number of other suggestions for varying the appear ance and flavor of canned vegetables. Canned asparagus may be cut up and spread In layers In a baking dish, with bread crumbs In between, sprin kled with salt, pepper or paprika, sea soned with the liquor from the can. and baked. Okra or egg-plant scal loped in this way is equally delicious. Scalloped canned corn is good, and is Improved by a little chopped onion and pimento. A com pudding may be made by adding milk and egg to canned corn. Canned vegetables may be combined with each other or with the so-called winter vegetables. Tomatoes and pep pers are a popular combination, whether stewed, scalloped, or used In soup; and potatoes, okra, and onion added to meat stock make a good soup. Tomatoes and com may be baked or boiled together or scal loped. Tomatoes and string beans; to matoes, com and string beans; to matoes and celery, are all good vege- FACTORS AFFECTING COST OF BREAD LOAF Quality of Flour and Price of Much Importance. Where Different Materials Are Pur chased in Small Quantities Cost Is Much Higher—Use of Milk Increases Expense. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Tests in the experimental kitchen of the United States Department of Agri culture show that the quality of flour used, the retail price paid for It, the method of buy lug, whether in small quantities or by the barrel, the bread formula used, the kind and price of fuel, the sort of oven used, and the number of loaves made at one time are all factors affecting the final cost of the homemade loaf of bread. In case of a batch of five loaves for which materials were bought in small quantities and which were baked in an uninsulated gas oven when gas cost (1.20 a thousand feet, a single pound loaf was found to cost 7 1-3 cents. The recipe called for shortening, sugar and compressed yeast. Milk was not used tn the formula tested and would have Increased the cost of the bread. A batch of eight loaves was made by a more economical formula, and all materials, though bought at retail prices, were purchased to better ad vantage. “Strong” flour which gives a high bread yield was selected, and It was bought by the barrel, as the farm woman would bo likely to buy it. Dried yeast was used, shortening was omit ted, and the baking was done in a kerosene range. Under these condi tions the cost of a one-pound loaf was found to be only 4 1-5 cents. The de tails and figures obtained in these tests are available upon application to the department. ECONOMY IN USE OF CEREALS Relatively Low in Price and Furnish Some Tissue-Building Materials and Body Fuel. Because cereals are relatively low In price and because most of them fur nish some tissue-building materials, as well as body fuel, the United States Department of Agriculture considers It a good economy to use them freely, mil sometimes in place of part of the Jfcvr« expensive foods. table combinations which the family Is certain to enjoy. Fresh or canned turnips cooked with fresh or canned celery may be an Innovation to many The com bination may be served with white sauce, or after being covered with *> white sauce In a baking dish, it may be sprinkled with grated cheese, bite of butter, seasoning, and bread crumbs, and.browned In the oven. Ohrrots diced and mixed with capned peas or string beans cut In simill pieces, are one of the best kwwn and best liked of the vegetable mnttures. Peas or small lima bears In beet or turnip cups, are attractive for a change; and lima beans with com, need no Introduction. Pastry trimmings baked in patty pans or muffin tins make good cups for creamed vegetables, which are also good when served on toast. Reheating canned string beans with a ham bone or a piece of bacon and then serving them with vinegar makes them seem an entirely different vege table. A sour sauce can be made for canned string beans by blending one tablespoonful of fat, the liquor from a pint can. one tablespoonful of vine gar, salt and pepper to taste. After simmering the beans In this sauce for several minutes a well-beaten egg Is added just before serving. Spinach Souffle Recipe. To make spinach souffle, chop drained canned spinach very fine and rub it through a coarse sieve. Heat with one tablespoonful of flour, one tablespoonful of butter, salt, pepper, a dash of nutmeg, and one-half cupful of milk. Separate an egg. beat both yolk and white very stiff, fold Into the spinach mixture and bake In in dividual ramekins for fifteen minutes, or longer If baked In a larger dish. When serving canned baked beans, reheat them with a little extra sea soning consisting of a tablespoonful of molasses, a pinch of mustard, and a bit of bacon or salt pork; put into the oven to brown. The canning process saves the long preliminary cooking necessary with home-cooked baked beans, and yet a similar flavor may be developed in this way. BREAD CAUSES INDIGESTION When It Does So It Is Because of Lack of Essential Characteristics, Not Because Hot. Hot bread Is often thought to cause Indigestion, but the United States De partment of Agriculture says that when It does so it Is because It lacks some of the characteristics of good bread, not because It Is hot. Large or thick biscuits, whether raised with yeast, baking powder or soda, are likely, if cooked only a short time, to be soggy on the Inside, and this, when It hap pens, Is the objection to them, rather than the fact that they are served hot. MEAT BONES FOR FLAVORING Those From Veal Especially Useful With Cream Sauces and Soups— Pork Is Excepted. Meat bones, especially those from veal, that have been slightly browned In cooking, as in the case of steaks, chops, or roasts give a particularly good flavor to cream sauces and soups. This Is a suggestion made by the United States Department of Agricul ture, which adds that pork bones are an exception to this statement. Their taste is less acceptable in this way. Household ® ® Questions Good quality knives should be cleaned with charcoal powder. • • • The life of baskets can be pro longed by scrubbing them occasionally with hot soapsuds. • • • The water In which vegetables have been boiled Is an excellent founda tion for soup stock. • • • Discolored brass curtain rings may be boiled In soda and water and after ward enameled in any color desired. • • • Dampen a piece of grease paper with vinegar and wrap it around cheese. Tills keeps the cheese moist and prevents it from going moldy. • • • Try removing spots from your bath tub with olive oil. The oil is sprinkled on a flannel cloth and the spot rubbed with this. Warm water and soup Is then applied to the spot. BREEDING FLOCK DOES BEST IF PERMITTED FREE RUN OF RANGE I y V- \ /v \ ww\ 2 t s & W\ /vn y.\ ( z. I H*ads of Cockerels and Cocks Showing Defective Combs. Defects of These Kinds Should Be Guarded Against in Selecting Breeders. 1, Thumb Mark; 2, Blade of Comb Following Neck Too Closely and Points Showing Tend ency to Lop; 3, Rose Comb Showing Hollow Center; 4, Side Sprig; 5, Un even Serrations and Double Point; 6, Twisted Comb. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) If cockerels or pullets are used in the breeding flock they should be well matured, poultry specialists in the Uni ted States Department of Agriculture advise. Hens are better than pullets. They lay larger eggs, which produce stronger chicks. Yearling and two year-old hens are better than older ones. Pullets used as breeders should be mated with a cock rather than with a cockerel. If a cockerel Is used he should be mated with hens rather than with pullets. As a rule, well-matured cockerels will give better fertility than cocks. Free Range for Breeding Pen. When possible free range should be provided for the breeding stock. It is better to provide it during the entire fall and winter before the breeding season, but, if this is not possible, free range just preceding and during the breeding season will be of great value. Birds of free range will get more ex ercise and, therefore, will be in better health and will give higher fertility, better hatches, and stronger chicks. The breeding flock needs careful su pervision to make sure that the fowls keep in good breeding condition. The birds and the houses should be ex amined often to see that they are not infested with lice or mites. Either of these pests in any numbers will se riously affect or totally destroy fer tility. Care must be exercised also to see that the male does not frost his comb or wattles. If these are frosted his ability to fertilize eggs will be im- HARD TO MAKE TEST OF BLUEGRASS SEED das Been Giving Dealers and Ex perts Much Trouble. Great Variation in Behavior of Va rious Samples Has Been Found in Germinating Tests Made by Department. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Canada bluegrass seed seems to be extremely sensitive to a number of con ditions that affect its germination and for that reason the United States De partment of Agriculture is trying to develop a method for testing it that will give uniform results. Up to the present time blue grass seed has been giving seed dealers and state analysts much trouble. The department, In its attempt to de termine the factors influencing the germination of Canada bluegrass, has found a great variation iu the behavior of various samples. All samples arc found to require a daily alternation of temperatures for successful germina tion. A temperature of 20 degrees C. for 18 hours and 30 degrees C. for six hours is satisfactory. Many samples give a distinctly higher germination when exposure to light is added to the above temperature schedule. How ever, it is important that the temper ature schedule be not sacrificed in ob taining the light exposure. Some samples of Canada bluegrass do not germinate completely even with the above conditions satisfied. Work in progress is expected to determine all the factors necessary to make a dependable germination test of Canada bluegrass possible. PREPARE SOIL FOR ALFALFA Sweet Clover Paves Way for More Aristocratic Neighbor and In sures Good Stand. One big thing about sweet clover is that it paves the way for its mon* aristocratic and exclusive neighbor, al falfa. Farmers who have tried the plan of seeding a plot to sweet clover for one or two years and then putting In alfalfa, have found that they Invar ably get a good stand, for the soli has been properly Inoculated for the al falfa .and it takes right hold. Winter Meals for Cows. When it comes to figuring out an »con<unlcal winter ration fur dairy •oww the mnn with the silo has the Ir»t necessity. paired and may not be recovered for several weeks. On very cold nights when there Is danger of the combs be ing frosted the males to be used as breeders must be put In a warm place, such as a box or crate of suitable size partly covered by a bag or cloth. The breeding male should be examined oc casionally after feeding to see that his crop is full and that he is not growing thin. Some males will allow the hens to eat all the feed, with the result that they get out of condition. If this hap pens the male must be fed separately from the hens at least once a day. Provide the breeding stock with com sortable quarters. The house must be draft proof, yet well ventilated and dry. The birds should not be crowded. If the birds are yarded, four square feet of floor space per bird should be allowed, but on free range from three to three and a half square feet pel bird will be enough. Feeding Breeding Stock. The breeders must be fed so as to keep them in such condition that they will produce eggs. Any good laying ration is suitable for this purpose. Beef scrap should not run above 10 or 15 per cent of the total ration. The birds should be kept in good flesh, but should not be allowed to become exces sively fat. All whole or cracked grain should be fed in litter. This forces tlu fowls to exercise by scratching for it. As a supply of green feed is usually lacking late In the winter or early in the spring, sprouted oats, cabbage, mangels, or cut clover or alfalfa should be fed. r ? BILLION FOR ROADS | | States and counties of the | | United States have recently au- | • thorlzed $635,000,000 bonds for t ? road construction, much of it of | i concrete. Throe hundred and | ? ninety-one million dollars bonds ? | are in process of authorization | t and the federal government has ? ? appropriated $200,000,000 toward • i road construction, making a to- J ? tai fund of over $1,200,000,000 i I for good roads. t BEST SELF-FEEDER FOR PIGS Small Device Is Handier to Move Around and Takes Up Less Room in the Feed Alley. The small self-feeder is much hand ler to move around and also stands the moving much better than the large one. It takes up less room when placed in the feed alley of the hog house or in some other sheltering build ing, and is safer to feed from. Any feeder is apt to clog up occasionally, especially in feeding ground feed, and for that reason they should be looked after often. The larger the feeder the stronger Is the tendency to let it take care of itself. From the standpoint of construction the advantage is also In favor of tlie small feeder. With a length of much over four feet the load on It will be heavy and the strain of moving it will tell much sooner than on the smaller size. Many good types of ready-made self-feeders can be bought today, and If the freight on them has not been too high they should be sold almost as cheaply’ us they can be made. SCARIFY ALL CLOVER SEEDS Hard Coating Can Be Scratched by Machine and Made Permeable to Moisture. Sweet clover, like all other legumes, always contains a quantity of hard seeds, 1. e.. seeds with such a hard covering that moisture does not pene trate and the seeds do not germinate the first year. Therefore In purchas ing sweet clover seed it is advisable to have It scarified. This Is brought about by putting through a machine which scratches the seed coat, and this renders it permeable to water. Seed Treated for Smut. At least two and a half million bush els of seed wheat were treated for smut last year, according to county agent reports for the whole United States. Paris Hat Modes Chapeaux Reveal Surprises and Originalities That Thrill. •‘Shaved Rooster” and “Burned Pea cock” Among the New Materials Used by Milliners. Hats are always the loveliest of all Parisian creations. The modistes have the art of chapeau making devel oped to the last degree, and whatever they do is bound to be artistic as well as beautiful and suited in every way to the feminine mode of thinking and behaving. It is hard to pick one hatinaker from another as being su preme In her art. The things they turn out are all so extraordinarily lovely. But a study of the hats and toques and turbans which come from the hands of each of them reveals surprise and originalities which are destined to thrill the heart of any woman bent upon dressing In the height of the season’s mode. Because there are so many high fur collars, Jane Blanchot makes all of her hats slightly narrower in the brim at back. She is making an equal pro portion of large roll-brim hats and small toques. Velvet and panne velvet In all ot the various gradations of the leather shades are used for her hats. And the scale of green Is run In many smart models. She uses, with great originality, feathers so that they simu late the appearance of fur, giving In this way the smart look of a fur trimming in much less expensive medium. Charmingly she uses gray ostrich so that It appears as though it were nothing less than the luxurious chinchilla. Little ribbons exquisitely curled represent the spirit of astrak han. A large hat of gray panne vel vet is incrusted with huge circles of lace, leaving the sides of the crown transparent. Some cf the small hats are trimmed SKATING SEASON DRAWS NEAR vsfjg I w IB The sweater is sand-colored. The scarf is of camel’s hair and the skirt Is of wool corduroy in sand, striped In brown to match. FROCKS FOR THE LITTLE WOMEN Comfortable Apron Developed In Wool Jersey; Gowns Follow Line of Grownups’ Wear. For the little girls of from four to ten years old the comfortable sum mer apron dress has been developed In wool Jersey. With Its woolen bloomers and attractive overdress it makes a practical and inexpensive school costume. One o* the most attractive models Is to be found in the Jumper dress which somehow gives to the elght-year old a delightfully prim air. In this little Cress of dark blue polref twill with Its heavy linen blouse, mannish < dffs, equipped with red cuff-links, round collar and red leather belt the little girl becomes a miniature replica of her college sister. Velvet combined with soft woolen cloth io extremely popular. Most at tractive is the brown velvet smock blouse and the lighter brown wool can ton crepe skirt. These wool crepes are this season offering a welcome substitute f<w the ever-present serge. They are somewha* dressier In char acter and may be used alone or In combination with soft silks or vel vets. Oats are cheaper than they have been for some years past. The dressier models are made for the most part with the loose, full back, but with a conservative sleeve. Best of all for the youthful, though, are the tweeds and mixture weaves. One dark blue imported model Is particularly attrac tive. The material Is of uneven roughness, with an almost Indistinct pattern worked out in bright fleckings PAGE SEVEN HOW TO PLACE THE DRAPERY : Wi This charming arrangement of drap ery is held in place with buckles. The material used Is a fawn canton crepe, with a graceful draping of the mate rial which Is used for the hat Itself. New materials noted are “shaved rooster.” which process leaves a mere tuft of short feathers. There Is also the “burned peacock,” which means that the feather itself is burned away, leaving only the bare and slender spine. THE HIGH HEELS ARE BACK Straight Line at Back Rather Than Curved Type; Height Comes With Long Skirt. Following the vogue for browns, many of the smartest women on the continent complete their costumes with white stockings and bronze slip pers. There Is always a smart note In the slipper of bronze, even In seasons when it is not particularly favored, and the new ones with their square colonial buckles are stunning. Heels, by the way, are at least two inches high for fall. They show the straightline at the back, which Is Spanish, rather than the curving out line of the true French heel. High heels are the result of the long skirt vogue, which without doubt has come to stay for a season at least. Tailor-Made Suits. The tight-fitting tailor-made suit, with a clearly defined waistline, is on the way back. The coat will be long almost knee-length. It will fit so snugly that the normal waistline will be ac centuated. All the loose, indefinite, long-walsted effects are doomed, so far as tailored suits are concerned. Gloves. In Paris short length kid gloves are being worn with very short sleeves. The fad is scarcely attractive enough to warrant any great popularity over here. < of contrasting blues, reds and tans. School days call for school frocks. And the word school Is indicative of middy blouses and plaited skirts. All white middles may be chosen, or mid dles with Copenhagen, or red at col lars and cuffs, and with a similarly colored emblem on one sleeve. Striped or plaid skirts go with these. These may be box or side plaited. Over this costume a polo coat may be worn. Polo coats are beloved by every schoolgirl. And here Is the lat est for the schoolgirl’s millinery ward robe —angora felt hats with grosgrain silk quills. For parties, what could be prettier than a white net dress with oodles and oodles of frills? To be worn over this, a white coat with fuzzy rabbit fur trimming. And a white ribbon hat. The picture Is proof adequate of its charm. And then, finally, it may be noted, that here In the land of the Jeune fille fashions, simplicity must govern style. Jersey Is Popular Fabric. Jersey is a popular fabric for fall street wear. An unusual model de veloped In this material conies In a very soft shade of green with collars, cuffs and belt of white kid. The skirt is quite circular in cut and the sleeves are long. Among the New Colors. Green Is becoming a popular color In millinery. It is particularly liked In the soft shades of moss or almond green. Rust shades are also popular, working into flame color.