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WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 27, 1922.
RIGHT ELEMENTS FOR DAIRY COWS Lime and Phosphorus Have Much to Do With Milk Pro duction and Unborn Calf. BEST RESULTS FROM FEEDING Not Profitable Practice to Neglect An imals When They Are Running Low in Milk Yield and When They Are Dry. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Lime and phosphorus, although they are found in relatively small quanti ties in feeds, have a great deni to do With milk production and building up the body of the unborn calf. If the cow does not have enough of these elements in her ration she will draw on the supply In her body for a time, and heavy producers commonly do this. Therefore, says the United States Department of Agriculture, It is a good practice to feed cows well when they are running low in milk yield and when they are dry, so that they may store up these elements as well as others In their bodies for use when the large demand Is made. Must Have Reserve Supply. The common view is that dry cows need only enough feed for main tenance, but experiments carried on by the department show that this Is not true. The cow is a milk-manufac turing plant, and. like many factories, she must have a reserve supply of ma terials to draw on when heavy de mands are made. A cow that has been well fed when dry and has stored up this reserve is able to produce more on full feed than a cow that has been given only a maintenance ration dur ing that resting period. In this way a cow can utilize her capacity the year round, although site may not be giving milk all the time. In keeping up the necessary lime and phosphorus supply It is well to keep in mind the fact that certain feeds are richer than others In these Legume Hays Contain the Most Need ed Supply of Lime. elements. The feeds which contain the most lime are the legume hays, which Include cowpea, alfalfa, soy bean, the clovers, and some others. Os those mentioned cowpea hay contains the most lime, and the others are named here In the order of their rich ness in lime. The lime content of hay depends to a great extent on its qual ity. Leafy alfalfa hay contains more lime than coarse, stemmy hay, and the same is probably true of other hays. Contain Most Phosphorus. The common dairy feeds that con tain the most phosphorus are wheat bran, cottonseed meal, standard wheat middlings, and linseed meal, In the or der given. Less common feeds that are high in phosphorus are, In order, sesame-oil cake, rice polish, buck wheat middlings, rice bran, sunflower seed cake, rapeseed cake, buckwheat bran, and malt sprouts. No grain or other concentrate con tains anywhere near so much lime as the legume hays; and no kind of rough age contains phosphorus In quantities comparable to those found In the con centrates mentioned above. Grass hays, corn silage, and corn products with the possible exception of those made from the germs are low in both lime and phosphorus. NEXT SUMMER’S ICE SUPPLY Material Stored Thia Winter Will Be Greatly Appreciated During Hot Weather. Thoughts of ice cream, lemonade and eold drinks are apt to start shivers along the spine at this time of year. But ice stored this winter will be greatly appreciated next summer when the temperature climbs toward a hun dred. The old ice house Is likely to need some attention and a good many folk* would like to make any necessary re pairs before the weather becomes too cold. If no house is available, an in expensive one can be constructed. A house double-walled, well roofed and properly insulated throughout, is worth the extra cost, because it will keep the ice better. However, n very Inexpensive building in which the Ice, Is properly packed will save about two-thirds of the supply, and where the farmer desires to make only tem porary storage or where It Is neces sary to economize, an Inexpensive iHJildJng will surve. MORE EGGS SECURED BY ELECTRIC LIGHT Yield Increased in Winter Months When Price Is High. An Average Day of From 12 to 13 Hours Gives Best Results and as General Rule Only Profitable to Use Mature Pullets. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Although the use of electric lights in the poultry house does not greatly increase the total annual egg produc tion of hens, says the United States Department of Agriculture, It does Increase the yield during the winter months when the price is high and is therefore profitable. In experi ments carried on by the department during the full and winter of 1920 and 1921, lights were used from November 1 to March 20. Each year a flock of 50 pullets was used. The first year, during the pe riod when lights were used, the light ed pen produced 50 dozen more eggs than the same number of pullets in an unlighted house. The second year the pullets in the lighted pen laid more than 00 dozen eggs in ex cess of an unllghted flock of the same size and quality. One 75-watt light was used for the 50 pullets for 2H hours daily for 140 days. It was turned on at 4:30 In the morning and allowed to run until daylight, being turned off by the poultryman when he came to work. It was turned on au tomatically by an alarm-clock device. An average length of day of from 12 to 13 hours gives the best results. Adding the ex.:ra lights In the morn ing is the most convenient method, al though some poultrymen use lights both morning and evening. The hours added to the hens’ working day should be the same in either case. Making the day longer than 13 hours forces the birds too much. When lights are used in the evening some arrangement for dimming them is required so that the hens will go to roost before they are turned out entirely. When artificial lights are used the hens must be fed more. In fact, the object of the plan Is to give the hens an opportunity to eat more, with the tesult that they will be forced to lay more eggs, provided they are of a laying strain. Dry mash should be available «t all times and scratch feed should be used In deep litter to make them exercise. A feed of grain should be put in the litter at night so that the hens can go to work as soon as the lights go on In the morning. It is Important to have plenty of fresh water Randy so that the hens can got it whenever they are eating. In the winter when lights are turned on automatically In the morning some provision must be made to keep the water from freezing when it As kept in I the house all night. The department uses an electric light with a carbon bulb immersed in the drinking water. The bulb Is tightly covered with a piece of cloth, so no light is thrown into the pen. As a general rule it Is only profit able to use artificial lighting on pul lets, and the best results are obtained on well-matured pullets. Hens to be used for breeders should npt be forced for egg production with electric lights during the period just preceding the breeding season, as forced laying at that time is apt to cause podrer hatches and produce weaker chickens than would be obtained from hens kept under normal winter conditions. BREEDERS FOR NEXT SEASON Farmer Trying to Breed Up High- Laying Strain Cannot Afford to Use Whole Flock. The farmer who is endeavoring to breed up a high laying strain of poul try cannot afford to breed from his entire flock of hens and pullets. IX pays to make up a special breeding flock each spring using yearling hens or other birds In the flock. It Is eas ier to pick these birds now than it will be In late winter or early spring. One way of doing this is to go over the flock just as it is done for culling. J It Pays a Farmer to Use a Standard- Bred Cockerel in Building Up His Flock. but pick out the best birds rather than the poorest. These hens can be marked to go Into the breeding flock next spring. Many farms still have a larger num ber of cocKgrels on hand than will be eaten or can be used for breeding pur poses. In most cases the cockerels take up more room and feed which should be given to the pullets than they will pay for in extra weight or price if held. LIVE STOCK FACTS Idle Work Horse The Idle work horse will live I; through the winter and rema’n i ’ iu good condition on roughage <■ j alone. If of good quality. One- ;■ half of the roughage should be : composed of clover or alfalfa, ; Y while the other half may be corn J; stover and straw. If no legume Y : hay Is available and timothy and / other carbohydrate roughages ; must be depended upon for the :j: : : horse’s feed, he should be given ;: a small amount of oats, say from ' five to seven pounds a day, oth- : : erwlse his strength and vitality < will suffer. With these non- ? legume roughages one should not feed corn in place of oats be- ■ j cause the former lacks protein. ; While oats are not rich in this constituent, they are neverthe- ; less much better than corn. FAVOR SMOOTH-TYPE MERINO Will Produce Good Mutton Lamb Without Sacrificing Appreciably Fineness of Wool. (Prepared by the United State* Department of Agriculture.) Sheep breeders of eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, end the Pan- Handle section of West Virginia, are leaning more strongly to the smooth type, broad-backed. Delaine Merino, which will produce a good mutton lamb without sacrificing appreciably the fineness of the wool. While the lambs cannot be marketed so easily as those of the down breeds, says the United States Department of Agricul ture, they are ready for market before they are a year old. In some cases the breeder waits until they are a year old, shears them, and then sells them In good flesh, thus getting a double return. Sheepmen In those sections have found that they usually can get a wool of longer staple and of less shrinkage with the smooth-tvne Merino than Smooth-Typo Merino Ewe. with the wrinkled type, at the same time it lias sufficient fineness to make a very salable wool. The choice lambs produced by these sheep, together with the gain in the length of staple and gain in net yield of clean wool, more than offset a slight sacrifice in fineness of wool, and promise to make the Delaine sheep more popular in most sections than his wrinkled cousin. PASTUrFrEQUIRED FOR HOGS Sufficient Grass for Sow and Her Lit ter Should Not Be Expensive to the Farmer. The economy of having plenty of meat, lard, sausage and other products from hogs seems not to have occurred to many fanners, else more would raise their meat. But it Is a fact In some communities very few hogs are raised. For best results pasture is required for enough pigs to he raised for meat enough to do the average farmer. But sufllciei.t for a sow and her litter should not be very expensive. A small area of land fenced so the land may be sown to two or three different crops will go a long way toward furnishing economical pork for the farm home. GIVE CATTLEGOODSHELTER Windbreaks oi Bimple Sheds Are Bet ter Than Nothing—-Breeding Herds Need Care. Simple sheds or windbreaks of some kind are better than no shelter at nil. Protect your breeding herds. The breeder who la ever fortified with the necessary feed and shelter, enabling him to give the proper care to his cattle from the time the snow begins to fly until all signs of frost have dis appeared in the spring, never experi ences the dr**ad of an approaching winter. Fall F’ock Management. Autumn management of the flock Is quite an outstanding part of the sheep raising business. Next year’s profits will depend largely on the care and management from now until winter. Successful Stockman. A successful stockman must under stand feeding, breeding, buying and selling, as well as the science of crop production. Ground Bone for Hogs. Experiments show ground bone fed to growing pigs results In much strong er skeletons. Ration for Work Horses. During the working season when pe:*formlng heavy w’ork horses need s UVeral ratlou of grain and roughage. "Rintf Oui the Old, ft JI fe- w j v Laurlger Horatius, quem dixlsti verum Fugit Euro citius tempus edax rerum. Temnora mutantur et nos mutamur in Illis. By JOHN DICKINSON SHERMAN SHE Lutin has a terse and forceful way of r putting things. Now, the first quotation above lias been ren- i dered in free-and-easy style: j Old Man Horace, sprigged ? with bay Truly thou dost say, sir, Time speeds faster on its way 1 | Than the swiftest racer. 7 Clever, but the Latin says it more forcibly : Crowned-with-laurel Horace, what you say is true: Flies than the southeast wind faster time the devour er of things. Ami the second quotation above neatly supplements the first by say ing: Times change and we are changed In them. All of which suggests most forcibly that time has destroyed the old-fash ioned method of observing several ol our American national holidays; that the times have changed and we in them. Now, there’s the Fourth of July, for example. The old-fashioned Fourth is so entirely gone that we don’t quite know what to do with the day. In the old days we used to twist the Lion's tail when we didn’t know what else to do, but since we fought side by side with the British in the Great War, that seems as out of place as do fire crackers and the casualty list of small boys. And it’s just about the same with New Year’s Day. About all that’s left us is to listen to the whistles blow ing at midnight and to make good res olutions. And what changes the day lias seen since first Americans began its celebration! America’s celebration of New Year’s Day owes nothing to Puritan New England. In the North New York, be ing Dutch, was the center of New’ Year’s gayety. The South, being Eng lish, but not Puritan, also celebrated enthusiastically. The custom of mak ing calls probably is as old as civilized man; it is likely that it originated independently in almost every clime. Old-time European chieftains used to set “New Year’s’’ apart as a day on which they would condescend to re ceive substantial tributes from their underlings. Queen Elizabeth re ceived New Year’s calls every year, and there was always much rivalry be tween her ambitious courtiers as to the quantity and yalue of the gifts they should bestow upon the virgin sovereign. It was on a New Year’s Day that Sir Walter Raleigh gladdened the queen’s heart with a memorable pair of silk stockings—the first ever made and worn in England. In Holland the custom of making New Year’s calls had been general long before the settlement of New Amsterdam, and the natives of the Netherlands who came to live In the New World brought the practice with them. And, of course, they had plenty to eat and drink —for who ever heard of Dutchmen who did not take good care of their stomachs? Up to the beginning of the Nine teenth century the typical New Year’s observance was a neighborly custom. 7 hen it became an observance decreed by fashion and was observed In every city of any size in the country. The younger women of such house holds as had daughters w’ere the host esses, and great was their rivalry, one with another, in respect of richly load ed refreshment tallies and elegance of • Wings of Birds and Fishes IV studying the wing structure of flying fish, an authority on the flight □f birds has found that their wings ire some four or five ttinM as efficient for soaring flight ni the wings of birds. He attributes this to the fact hat the fin rays formed projected •Idges on the under surface of the ’ngs. By experimenting with models I hloned on similar lines, he found I at the flr My caused u sheltered ‘ x 'C' 1/ 7, / toilet. The “beaux,” and "dandles,” and “gallants" attired themselves in their best and starred out early in tire morning, calling first at the houses where matrons received, and afterward upon the younger ladies. The drinks that were offered at every house of any prominence were ardent and di verse. It was not until about the middle of the century or thereabouts that the abuse which finally led to the cus tom’s decline began. For years the dandies rivaled one another in the length of their calling lists, and the calls soon came to be nothing more than hasty gorgings of cake and gulp ings of wine. Then the ladies —the matrons as well as the young women —began to vie with one another in the number of their callers. This led to the most extraordinary practices. Callers were recruited, drummed up. Cards an nouncing that Miss Thls-or-That would be “at home” on January 1 were sent out almost indiscriminately. The Sun day newspapers began to print lists of those who would receive, and the houses of those mentioned In the lists were sure to be besieged by numbers of men whom the ladies hud never met er heard of and desired never to meet again. Men would go calling in couples and parties, and even In droves of 30 or more, remaining as short a time at each stopping place as possible, and announcing everywhere how many calls they had already made, and how many they expected to make before they finished. At every place they drank. The result was a most ap palling assortment of “Jags" long be fore sundown, aud a crowding of the police stations at night. This New Year’s observance finally became so abused that it was called a “national evil,” and was attacked by i eformers everywhere and ministers thundered against it from the pulpit. Finally fashion set its face against it and it died a gradual death. Its place was taken after a while by eating and drinking in the restaurants, and by the street carnivals. If Croesus himself had coine back to earth and had visited New York— <»r any big city in the country—ln 1005, he couldn’t have got a seat in any restaurant of note after ten o’clock the night of December 31, for all his fabulous wealth. In fact, he probably couldn’t have got inside tiie door. Every table was engaged—at big j ' prices and long in advance. Diners I • had to get out at nine o’clock and I ' I area to appear back of the ray when the model moved through the air. His conclusion is that this sheltered area act* as a force to drive the wing ahead when soaring. “Saint Tammany." St. Tammany, the tutelary genius of the famous Tammany Society of New York city, was a famous In dian chief, about whom many fancied legends have gathered. He Is said to have been a native of Delaware. After attaining his majority, St. Tam- PAGE SEVEN guards at the doors saw that none ex cept those with credentials got in. Dur ing the last hour of the Old Year the people feasted, and at the first stroke of the New Year everybody in every restaurant arose, wine-glass in hand, and drank a health to the New Year. It was comparatively quiet indoors, but the people in the streets made noise enough to scare, young 1900. Every sort of noise-making implement known to man except cannon and dy namite bombs was in active use. “Get your horns and ticklers 1” was the prayer roared by thousands of fakers all evening. Trucks and wagons were halted at the curb, load ed with tin horns and thin sticks with a bunch of hackle-feathers at the tip. If you were a real devilish New Year's humorist you proceeded like this: First, tickle some stranger un der the chin with the feathers; then, as he turned to protest, you blew the horn in his face. A universal custom of New Year’s of those days was the carrier’s New Year’s address. This was often in rhyme if the carrier or any of his friends could string the jingling lines together or find an old carrier’s address to copy. Such verses us these were popular: This day devoted now to mirth. To open house and social hearth. New friendship mounts on airy wings And gives her tuneful harp new strings. While plenty spreads a festive board. Os wine and food and ample hoard. In idleness and laughter gay. To spend the hours this happy day. All save the carrier, whose snowy feet Still must pace up the snowy street. So give to him a moment's heed, Since he alone this comfort needs, And to your ample, jovial store Let him not find a closed dcor, etc., etc. By 1914 there were strong indica tions of a saner celebration of New Year’s. The feasting in restaurants New Year’s Eve was still in full blast, with singing and dancing added. But most of the large cities had ordered the police to enforce u “sane” celebra tion on the streets. In consequence there was less noise and rowdyism out of doors. Chicago, for instance, for bade horns, confetti and ticklers. Cleveland probably had the “sanest” New Year’s Eve in 1914. That city gave the New Year a “community greeting,’’ in keeping with the spirit of community Christmas celebrated a week before. Twelve bands, with 280 musicians, were massed in the public square. To an audience of thousands they played hymns and patriotic airs. Announcement by the police that the midnight closing law would be en forced rigidly cut hotel and restaurant festivities down markedly. In Cin cinnati the police had the promise of every hotel, case and saloon keeper to close promptly at midnight. Similar conditions prevailed in Detroit and Indianapolis. Then came the Great War. And then prohibition. So at present the celebration of New 1 Year s Eve and New Year’s Day is be twixt and between. What will it be ten years from now? And what a century hence? nfhny removed to the banks of the Ohio, where he became the great sachem of his tribe, and acquired a wide reputation for wisdom, fimmess and moderation. According to tradi tion, he signed the treaty with Wil liam Penn, and w s chosen by tiie troops of Washington as patron saint in place of St. George. His princi pal maxim was “Unite. In peace for mutual happiness; In war for mutual defense.” For what reason he whs called “Saint" does not appear in any of the literature about him.