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VOL I. GROWING SORGHUM FOR FEED GOVERNMENT EXPERTS FURNISH VALUABLE INFORMA TION RELATIVE TO GROWING AND CURING SORGHUM FOR STOCK FEEDING PURPOSES. CONDITIONS AS THEY EXIST IN THE IMPERIAL SETTLEMENTS FAVORABLE TO SORGHUM. Sorghum as a Forage Crop. Thero aro few plants that will flour tali under such widely different condi tions of soil find cllmuto hh sorghum. AlthoiiKh there are several varieties of sorghums information of those vu rletlos host adrpted to forage pur poses will probably bo of Interest to many of our readers. The following article Is copied from the latest re ports of the United States Agricul tural Department: Conditions of Growth. Sorghum, like corn, does best on rich. Btindy loams. It Ih a Btronger feeder than corn and gives better re- Htilts on thin lands. It is maintained that vhen land has become too poor and thlr to Mine corn or small grain. MILLET CUT AM) BUNCH KD IS TIIK KOKBOKOUNO ANI> BOKOIIUM STANDING IN THE BACKGROUND. SOWN AITEK JULY FIRST. riIOTO(SRAPII TAKEN NOVEMBER I, 1901. two or throe good crops of sorghum may be obtained from it. and the land will be left in better condition fo> corn, cotton and other surface feed ing crops. In California and else where good yields are obtained on soils containing a high percentage of alkali, and hence It Is regarded as a good crop to uao In rotations for such lands. Sorghum Ih generally regarded as harder on land than corn, and this Is undoubtedly true to a great extent, since It Is a deeper feeder and two or more crops aro often harvested In a single season. Still there are many Instances of sorghum being grown on the same Held for many years with out any apparent lessening of the quantity or quality of the crop from the Impoverishing of the land, and there nre many soils that are un doubtedly benefited by the deep growing roots of tho plant. Sorghum, llko corn and other related plants, drawn a largo proportion of Us food elements from tho atmosphere. Tho prlnclpnl materials taken from tho "Water Is King- Here Is Its Kingdom." IMPERIAL, CAL, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 7, 1901. soil are potash, phosphoric acid and nitrogen. Comparatively little of the hint substance Is used. As sorghum is grown in many places It Ih certainly not ob hard on the land ;ih most other crops. When planted late, sown with cow peas or field peas and cut before the seeds ripen, the land is left In excellent condition, especially if It is plowed soon after the crop is taken off. A native of the tropics, sorghum naturally reaches Its best develop ment where high temperatures pre vail. Because of Its wonderful adap tability, however, varieties have been developed which are perfectly hardy throughout the greater part of the United States and In many portions of Canada. As a general thing, sor ghum will do well In the North wherever corn can be successfully grown, while It is a standard crop in many places In the South where corn is grown in limited quantities. Both the saccharine and nonsaccharine va rieties of sorghum endure drought better than corn, and hence aro ex tensively grown In many of tho dryer regions of the country. In parts of the South and West where severe droughts sometimes occur, sorghum Is regarded as a sure crop, though corn and other grain and forago crops may fall to reach maturity. It will remain fresh and green through a dry spell that would ruin corn. Even when drought has been so sever© as to check Its growth. It will recover Immediately on the renewal of the supply of moisture. i ho seeds germinate best when tho soil Is quite worm and should not bo planted until after danger from damp, chilly weather is past. At first tho young plants make a large root growth aa compared with the growth of the atom, and hence aoem AND FARMER to develop slowly. Hut as soon as the roots ore well established, the stem growth Is very rapid and Is not easily checked by dry weather. Methods of Culture. Preparation of the Soil.— Many different methods of preparing the soil for sorghum are practiced In the various parts of the country. In gen eral It may be said that the land should receive essontially the same treatment as If It were to be planted to corn or cotton. The time and depth of plowing will necessarily vary according to the season and the character of the soil and climate. In any case the soil should be in fine tilth to a good depth, so as to afford a good seed bed. In the West and Southwest good re sults are obtained by plowing shallow In the fall before planting, or In eaily spring, and then a second time to a greater depth after the weeds have started well and Just before the time to plant This gets rid of the early weeds and allows the sorghum to get well established before another lot can spring up. If the land is at all rough or cloddy, it should be gone over with a harrow or pulverized and reduced to a smooth, mellow eondl tiop In the South, the land is usu ally bedded as for cotton. When sorghum Is grown for forage and In ordinary farm rotations, there is seldom need of much of an applica tion of fertilizers. Many soils have been known to produce successive crops for eight or ten years without any apparent decrease in fertility. Well-rotted barnyard manure Is per haps tho beet fertilizer, should any be needed. The commercial sorts con taining potash, phosphoric acid and nitrogen may also bo used, though as ii rule but little of the last substance will be necessary. In the South It Is a common practice to use 150 to 200 pounds of cotton-seed meal on land to be sown to sorghum. Tlmo and Methods of Planting.— Tho best tlmo for planting this crop for forugo varies from about the mld dlo of April In tho South to the mid dle of May or the first of June In the North. As a rule, it should be planted soon after the corn Is In. The seed shou.d not be put Into the soil until SORGHUM NUMBER the latter has become well warmed, bo that germination may take place at once. Moreover, the young sorghum plant grows slowly If the weather is cold and weeds are likely to become troublesome. On the other hand, If the soil Is warm and free from weeds to start with, the sorghum will keep ahead of the weeds and cultivation will be much easier. As a rule, the best forage Is ob tained by sowing the seed broadcast or with a press drill, such as is used in planting small gran. In the West and Southwest the latter method 1b preferred, as the cane stands up bet ter and Is not so likely to suffer from drought. On some soils, particularly in some parts of the East and South, better results are obtained by drop ping or drilling the seed in rows far enough apart to allow an occasional stirring with one or two horse culti vators. This is also a good method to follow for cane to be fed early in pre paring hogs for market, or as a soil ing crop for stock in pasture. The plants grow too coarse for dry for age, however, and for general pur poses broadcasting and seeding with press drills will give better satisfac tion. The lister has been used with good results and in some Instances in the West, but the practice is hardly t6 be recommended because of the often slow growth of the young cane al ready mentioned and because of a lia bility of the plants being washed out of the furrows by heavy rains. Some farmers report good results by sowing the seed broadcast on un prepared land and plowing it under, while others condemn this method of seeding. Covering the seed with a disk harrow seems to be more suc cessful, especially in loose, sandy soils. Many farmers mix corn, millet and various kinds of peas or beans with the sorghum, and in this way secure a better quality of forage. The sow ing of lagumes with sorghum is an excellent practice. The large amount of muscle-making substances In the lagumes, together with the sugar and other fat-forming elements in the cane, affords a much more evenly balanced ration than either of the plants would make alone. Moreover, the lagumes will do much to replace whatever nitrogen the sorghum may take from me soil. Quantity of Seed Per Acre. — Sor ghum should always be sown much thicker when sown for forage than when It Is to be used In the manu facture of sugar or molasses. The amount of seed needed per acre will vary somewhat according to the kind of forage desired, the method of planting to be followed, and the char acter of the soil. The practice varies greatly in different parts of the coun try, ranging from one-half bushel to three bushels per acre, broadcast or drilled. Under ordinary conditions one and one-half to two bushels (45 to 60 pounds) will be sufficient when sown broadcast, and a somewhat less amount will suffice when planted with a press drill. If the cane Is Intended for a sum mer pasture, a little more seed may be used. If peas or like crops are sown with sorghum, three pecks to one bushel of each will be ample. When planted in hills or drills for cultivation with hoe and plow, the seed should also be planted more tuickly than when grown for the manufacture of sugar or molasses, otherwise the cane is likely to be too large to be easity handled, and stock will not eat it up clean. In many places in the South one seeding Is sufficient for several years, as the cane sprouts up eac. season from the old stubble. Cultivation. — If the cane has been sown broadcast or put Jn with a No. 34.