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WHICH HAS BEEN THE GREATEST ACHIEVEMENT?
REVIEW OF THE STATE'S INDUSTRIES DURING THE PAST YEAR COMMERCa POPULATION, MANU> FACTURINC. HORTICULTURE, AGRI> CULTURE. MINING. PETROLEUM PRODUCTION -IMPERIAL'S PLACE IN THE YEAR'S AFFAIRS No one could, in thcnc cloning day* of the second year of the new century, outline even briefly (he great achieve ment* of the American people during the la»t twelve mouths, without con* miming a go*. it deal of newspaper •pace* 111 national affair*, however, in re* viewing the work of 1901, we cannot fail to note the horrible butchery of President McKinley, with the far* reaching influence of the rise to the presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, bringing into national politic* a broader recognition of the needs of the West than hail In-fore existed. One must by the force of circumstances note the continued activity toward the centralization of capital, and can afford to wonder for a moment at the significance of the practical collapse of a few of the trusts through inability to control small producers. Hut sufficent for our purpose today in it take a glance at the achievements of California, and the fact can well be noted that no small section holds a ntouoply of the State** resources*. There in a diversity of industries and of products which makes of California the greatest State in the Nation, and no fact better illustrates the growth of California during the last fifty years than the lynching of }>ctty thieves by a mob in Modoc county, and the refusal of the people of that county to convict the murderer*. By thin token we know that in that far northeastern county there remains a reign of lawlessness which is unworthy of the State, but which is illustrative of a time when there were many Mich r i* treats in the State. From the scmi*ciyilizaliou of Modoc county, there is a wide reach to the communities of the state possessing as advanced industries and an ad* vauced civilization as any portion of the world. Modoc county contain* the one remnant of the epoc of chaos. Two Great Cities More than ever before, California ha* two separate industrial and social organisms, San Francisco and I«o» AngclcH each being the heart of an important organism working to build up its section of the great State. To a degree this has been the Cane for some years, but during the year that ban lapsed the opening of the Coast tine of the Southern Pacific has tended to greatly extend the trade of the southern city, the dividing point be* twecu the influence of I.os Angeles and of San Francisco now being about midway between the two towns, where before the dividing line gave San Francisco more than two-third* of the Coast line between the cities. Another event of vast importance to I -os Angeles has been the change made iii relative rates into the San Joaquin valley from Los Angeles and San Francisco. The differential* have heretofore been greatly in favor of San Krin ciftco, but a change has been inlde which leaves San Francisco but slight advantage, and Los Angeles whole* salei'H now have a fighting chance for trade an far north as FrcHiio. The beginning- of the construction of the Salt Lake road, backed by Sen* ator ('lark of Montana, to open a rich and heretofore neglected pottioti of the Southwest, Is doing much to pro* mote the welfare of !.«»«* Angeles, and the fact that 11. IC. Iluutington has formed an alliance with I. W. llellinau for building a great network of electric roads reaching from Ix>s Angeles in all directions for twenty or thirty miles is still further Htiin itiating industry there. And yet these arc not the only railroad projects which arc working for the benefit of the Southern metropolis. One of the factors of greater im portance in the promotion of industrial life of Los Angeles is the fact that during the last decade it made a greater growth percentage than any other American city above £0,000 in habitants. People have confidence in the future of a town already famous for its advance, and thousands of people have been drawn to Lou An geles because of the advance during the last decade. Hut the very growth of Lor Angeles is promoting the growth of every other town in South* em California, and as a result there is a greater increase in population than ever before, and this in turn forces a boom in building never before equaled, both in the city and in the smaller towns. "X Sao Diego's Rivalry In speaking, of the supremacy of Los Angeles in the industrial and conY mercial life of Southern California, it is due to San Diego to say that it makes claims to rivalry of Los An geles. Hut ho Hoou as the latter man ifested a degree of success, it drew to itself men who had confidence in the town and men who were accustomed to achieve that which they started to do. And while Los Angeles was draw ing that class of people, a series of misfortunes befell San Diego, and the people who were there lost confidence in themselves, became utterly discour aged, and instead of uniting; for great works, the San Diegans came to quar rel with themselves, and internal strife practically ended the era of achieve ments. That this is to remain forever the Condition of San Diego i.s inconceiv able. The distance from Los Angeles to San Diego, laid along the Atlantic coast, would traverse a score of busy cities. There is room for both these cities, and while one may be greater than the other, the petty jealousy be tween the cities would be tin worthy of school-children. .". . Without undertaking to say that San Diego will rise to full competi tion with Los Angeles, one cannot measure the prospects of San Diego without recalling the fact that \he Southern California Mountain Water Company ttt constructing for San Diego county lauds the most extensive storage irrigation system in the South west, and probably in America. The further fact must be taken into con sideration that the 500,000 acres of the Imperial lands in this country lie in San Diego county. With the county given the greatest storage irrigation system i for fruit orchards, and the greatest diversion irrigation system for general fanning, the statement can hardly be made that the fate of San Diego is hopeless. If the growing* degree of prosperity is surticient to in spire the Sail Diegans with a grain of self-confidence, the place which San Diego can come to occupy in the next few years in a great one. San Diego people are making a sur vey for a railroad to open a gateway through Imperial to the Kast. The IMPERIAL PRKSS spirit of the people of Lo* Angeles in such if their need was as great for n road they would get it. Han Diego may possibly be spurred on to an equal achievement. Northern California Turning to Northern California, now limited to the territory north of San Luis Obi spo county on the coast and of Tularc county in the great central valley, it is not difficult to sec that there is a distinct improvement in the spirit of the people, who have been confessedly less enterprising than those of the South. Some of the northern cities have even gone ho far during the Ust few months an to neud representatives to live in Lo* Angeles, that southern brains and southern capital might lie interested in the North, and these efforts have not been without success. The industrial life of the North was shaken to its foundations during the pant year by a strike which was not only the worst ever known on the coast, but which became famous the world over. To what degree this up heaval was destructive to the standing of San Francisco as the greatest of the coast cities it is impossible to Hay, but that other cities, both to the north and to the south of San Francisco were gainers by the strike seems certain, while San Francisco lost many inhab itants. To take the industries of the State, and particularly those in which South ern California us are most interested, horticulture naturally first suggests itself. With 54,4(0 carloads- of fruit and vegetables shipped from the state in a single year, it is evident that the part California has come to play in the markets of the country in of vast im portance. By far the greatest branch of California's horticultural activity is the production of citrus fruits, oranges and lemons haviug'each run far ahead of any previous year's record, making a combined total of approximately 24,000 carloads. With oranges espec ially it is evident that California, with what fruit is grown in Florida, is now capable of meeting all the require ments of the United States/while the trees now growing will make import ant additions to the output in the next few years. Prices realized for the fruit have paid a fair profit to most growers under favorable conditions; but it is evident that henceforth there must be a closer study of economics in producing and marketing citrus fruits, leading to co-operation between all factors in producing, transporting and marketing the fruit. Surplus production of raisins, and more particularly of prunes, dur ing the past few years has led to con siderable discussion and some hard feelings in the sections of Northern California where they are most exten sively produced. Peaches, apricots, pears and other common varieties of fruit, have devel oped nothing sensational during the past year, but olives have come for ward with one of their surprises, the yield being vastly greater than ever before known in California, the pro* ductiou being so great as to embarrass those handling' the fruit. This is in spite of the fact that after much dis couragement, hundred a of acres of old orchards have been dug up and other crops planted. The ca prilled tig has been making great strides of late, and probably this fruit, grown for the first time commer cially in the United States two years ago, will be the next one to advance to great proportions, followed by the date a few years later. Horticulture General Agriculture, In the field of general agriculture the past year has been one very satis factory on the whole. It is true thnt in the southern third of the state we have not yet gotten back to the darn of bi^ grain crops which prevailed in the years preceding the three yearn* drought, for the reason that, though the annual rainfall has improved of late somewhat, it is but about to the average, and one of the good old wet winters we read about in needed. The price of wheat is not encouraging, and wheat growing can not be said to be particularly booming-. Barley has* been considerably better in price, but an bad as wheat in yield. Stock raising has been conducted with unusual profit during the past year wherever there is pasturage, and growers of cattle feed and stockraiscrit have each had a most prosperous season. Sugar beets, while having been abandoned on a large portion of the Chiuo and Orange county lands where previously grown, have in the sum total made remarkable gain, the most profitable section of Southern Califor nia for beet growing thuif far' demon strated being the rich alluvial deposits of the Ventura county coast plain; the great factory at Oxuard having in creased its output and lengthened its season, while success has been achieved in irrigating beets. This was thought to be impossible a few years ago with out destroying the sugar value of the crop. Beans have succeeded this year be yond any recent season, and the good prices have brough large profits to the producers. •■- Mining Industry There has been a very general re sumption of activity in mining through California and by Californiaus through adjoining states and territor ies. The greatest activity in gold mining has been in Trinity and -sev eral other counties in Northern '"Cali fornia, though the most important step taken in gold mining has pro bably been that in the Picacho mine, on the Colorado river, some sixty miles east of Imperial, where prepara tions arc being made to work a vast body of low grade ore on a great scale. Copper mining, in California, has centered principally in the extreme north, though in the southeast, bn the Mojave desert, and along the Colorado river, considerable progress has been made in developing prospects. In Arizona there has been great activity in mining, but the recent slump in cop per must have* somewhat of a depress ing influence. The great silver mines of California are still mainly idle, with no prospect for an early resump tion of work. A rapid rise in the price of quicksilver has greatly stimulated that branch of mining and San Luis Obispo county in particular is making great gain in output. Petroleum Production The petroleum industry throughout the State is in a badly demoralized con dition, but with natural forces at work which are expected to restore a balance between production and demand in the course of time. There is no immedi ate prospect for an improvement in the market, though consumption has great ly increased during the year. There has been a gradual extension of the various oil fields, and one new Held, that in the Santa Maria valley, north ern Santa Barbara county, has been discovered. Wildcatting continues in some thirty counties in the State, as has been the case for two years, but in that time the one new field mentioned is the only addition to California's list of producing oil fields. Several efforts to create marketing agencies for handling oil on a cooper- l 'on tinned on page 8 5