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OI MARRON NXWft.
WE MUST OPEN UP GATES OF TRADE AH Important Problem Which Now Confronts Congress, Says President. SHIPS OUR GREATEST NEED America Feare No Nation and la Am ply Able to Defend Itself Great Taak Ahead in Helping to Root o re Peace Economy fa Strongly Urged. Washington, Dec. 8. President WI1 eon today delivered hie annual address ta congress. Problems brought out by the great conflict In Europe engaged the greater part of hia attention. The meeeage follows: Gentlemen of the Congreaa: The session upon which you are now entering will be the cloeing sees Ion of the Sixty-third congress, a congreaa, I venture to say, which will long be re membered for the great body of thoughtful and constructive work which It haa done, in loyal response tot the thought and ueeds of the coun tr I ahould like in this address to re view the notable record and try to make adequate assessment of it; but no doubt we stand too near the work that haa been done and are ourselves tajo mtch part of it to play the part of historians toward it Moreover, our thoughts are now more of the future than of the past. While we have worked at our tasks oí peace the circumstances of the whole age-have been altered by war. What we have done for our own laad and our own people we did with the beat that waa In us, whether of char acter or of Intelligence, with sober enthusiasm and a confidence in the principles upon which we were acting which sustained us at every "tep of the difficult undertaking; but it is done. It has passed from our hands. It is now an established part of the legislation of the country. Its useful ness, Its effects, will disclose them aelvea in experience. What chiefly strikes ua now, as we look about us during these closing days of a year which will be forever memorable in tjie history of the wprld, ia that we face new taaks, have been facing them these aix months, most tace them in the montha to come face them with out partisan feeling, like men who have forgotten everything but a com mon duty and the fact that we are representatives of a great people whose thought Is not of us bnt of what America owes to herself and to all mankind in such circumstances as these upon which we look amased and anxious. Europe Will Need Our Help. War haa Interrupted the means of trade not only but also the processes of production. In Europe It ta destroy ing men and reaources wholesale and upon a scale unprecedented and ap palling. There la reason to fear that the time is near, If it be not already at hand, when several of the coun tries of Europe will find It difficult to do for their people whst they have .liberto been, Urays easily able to do, many essential and fundamental things. At any rate they will need our help and our manifold aervtcea aa they have never needed them before; and we should be ready, more fit and ready than we have ever been. It ia of equal consequence that the nations whom Kurope has usually sup plied with Innumerable articles of manufacture and commerce of which they are In constant need and without which their economic development halts and stands still can now get only a small part of what they formerly Im ported and eagerly look to us to supply their all but empty marketa. This is particularly true of our own neighbors, the states, great and small, of Central and South America. Their lines of trade have hitherto run chiefly athwart the seas, not to our porta, but to the porta of Ureal Hritaln and of the older continent of Kurope I do not stop to Inquire why, or to make any comment on probable causes. What Interests us Just now Is not the explanation, but the fact, and our duty and opportunity to the presence of it. Here ara mar keta which we must supply, and we must And the means of action. The United fttates. this great people for whom we speak and aot, should be ready, aa never before, to serve Itself and to serve mankind: ready with Its resources, Ita energies, ita forces of production, and Ms means of distribu tion We Need Ships. It la a very practical matter, a mat ter of ways and means. We have the resources, but are we fully ready to qae tbem? And if we can make ready what we have, have we the means at hand to distribute It' We are not fully ready; neither have we the means of distribution We are willing, but we ae not fully able We have the wish to serve and to aerve greatly, gener ously: but we are not prepared as we should be We are not ready to mo bilize our resources at once. Wo are not prepared to use tbem Immediately and at their beet, without delay and without waate. To apeak plainly we have grossly erred In the way In which we have etunted and hunt, r.-d the development of our merchant marine. And now. when we need ships, we have net got tbem We have year after year de bited, without nd or conclusion, the hast policy to puisje with regard to the nee of the oren and forests and water powvr of our national domain In the rich states of the Wont, when wo ahould have acted; and they are still locked up. The key la still turned upon them, the door nhut faat at which thousands of vigorous men, full of Initiative, knock clamorously for admittance. The water power of our navigable streams outside the na tional domain also, aven In the east ern states, where we have worked and planned for generations, is still not used aa It might be. because we will and we won't; because the laws we have made do not intelligently balance encouragement againat restraint W withhold b, regulation. I have come to ask you to remedy and correct these mistaken and omis sions, even at this short session of a congress which would certainly seem to have done all the work that could reasonably be expected of it. The time and the circumstances are extraor dinary, and so must our efforts be also. Use and Conaervation. Fortunately, two great measures, finely conceived, the one to unlock, with proper safeguards, the resourcea of the national domain, the other to encourage the uan of the navigable waters outside that domain for the generation of power, have already passed the house of representatives and are ready for immediate consider ation and action by the senate. With the deepest earnestness I urge their prompt passage. In them both we turn our backs upon hesita tion and makeshift and formulate a genuine policy of use and con servation. In the best sense of those words. We owe the one measure not only to the people of that great weatern country for whose free and systematic development, aa It seems to me, our legislation has done so little, but also to the people of the nation as a whole: and we as clear ly owe the other In fulfillment of our repeated promises that the water pow er of the country should In fact as well as In name be put at the disposal of great Industries which can make economical and profitable use of it, the rights of the public being ade quately guarded the while, and mo nopoly In the use prevented. To have begun Such measures and not com pleted them would indeed mar the record of this great congress very seriously. I hope and confidently be lieve that they will be completed. And there Is another great piece of legislation which awaits and should receive the sanction of the senate: I mean the bill which gives a larger measure of self-government to the peo ple of the Philippines. How better, in this time of anxious questioning and perplexing policy, could we show our confidence in the principles of liberty, as the source as well as the expression of life, how better could wo demonstrate our own self-possession and steadfastness in the courses of Justice and disinterestedness than by thus going calmly forward to fulfill our promises to a dependent people, who will now look more anxlous'y than ever to see whether we have in deed the liberality, the unselflshnesa, the courage, the faith we have boast ed and professed. I cannot believe that the senate will let this great measure of constructive justice await the action of another congress. Ua passage would nobly crown the record of these two years of memorable la bor. An Important Duty. But I think that you will agree with me that this does not complete the toll of our duty. How are we to carry our goods to the empty markets of which I have spoken it we ha-e not the certain and constant means of transportation upon which all profit able and useful commerce depends? And how are we to get the ships if we wait for the trade to develop with out them? To correct the many mis takes by which we have discouraged and all but destroyed the merchant marine of the country, to retrace the steps by which we have, It seems al most deliberately, withdrawn our flag from the seas, except where here aud there, a ship of war Is bidden carry It. or some wandering yacht displays It, would take a long time and, In volves many detailed items of legisla tion, and the trade which we ought immediately to handle would disap pear or And other channels while we debated the Items. The case is not unlike that which confronted us when our own conti nent waa to be opened up, to settle ment and industry, and we needed long linea of railway, extended means of transportation prepared beforehand. If development waa not to lag intoler ably and wait Interminably. We lav ishly subsidised the building of trans continental railroad. We look back upon that with regret now, because the subsidies led to many srandala of which we are aihamed; bul we know that the railroads had to fan built, and if we had It to do over again we should of course build them, but in another way Therefore I propose another way of providing the means of transportation which must precede. not tardily follow, the development of our trade with our neighbor stataa of America. It may sem a reversal of the natural order of things, but It la true, that the routes of trade must be actually opened by many ships and regular sailings and moderate charges before streams of merchan disc will flow freely and profitably through them. Must Open Gates of Trade. Hence the pending shipping bill, discussed at the last snaalou, but aa yet passed by neither houae. In my Judgment such legislation U impura lively needed and ran not wisely be postponed The government mus open these gates of trade, afcd open them wide, open them before it Is moflíanla to open them, or altogether reasonable to ask private capital to open them at a venture It la not a question of the government monopolising the Meld. It should take action to make It certain that trans portatlon at reasonable rates will be promptly provided, even where the carriage la not at first profitable; and then, when the carriage has become sufficiently profitable to attract and engage private capital, and engage It In abundance, the government ought to withdraw. I very earnestly hope that the congress will be of this opin ion, and that both houses will adopt this exceedingly Important bill The great subject of rural credits atlll remains to be dealt with, and It Is a matter of deep regret that the difficulties of the subject have seemed to render It Impossible to complete a bill for passage at tbls session. Rut It can not be perfected yet, and there fore there are no other constructive measures the necessity for which I will at this time call your attention to; but I would be negligent of a very manifest duty were I not to call the attention of the senate to the fact that the proposed convention for safe ty at sea awaits its confirmation and that the limit fixed In the convention Itself for Ita acceptance is the last day of the present month. The con ference In wh'.ch this convention or iginated waa called by the United states; the representatives of the United States played a very influen tial part indeed in framing the provi sions of the proposed convention; and those provisions are In themselves for the most part admirable. It would hardly be consistent with the part we have played In the whole matter to let It drop and go by the board as if forgotten and neglected. It was ratified In May last by the German government and in August by tha parliament of Great Britain. It marks a most hopeful and decided advance In International civilization. We should show our earnest good faith in a great matter by adding our own cceptanceaof It. Charting of Our Coasts. Theie is another matter of which I must make special mention, if I am to discharge my conscience, lest It should escape your attention. It may seem a very small thing. It affects only a single item of appropriation. But many human Uves and many great enterprises hang upon It. It la the matter of making adequate provision for the survey and charting of our coasts. It is immediately pressing and exi gent In connection with tho Immense coast line of Alaska. A coast line greater than that of the United States themselves, though it Is also very important indeed with regard to the older coasts of the continent. We cannot use our great Alaskan domain, ships will not ply thither. If those coasts and their many hidden dangers are not thoroughly surveyed and charted. 1 The work Is incomplete at almost every point. Ships and Uves have been lost In threading what were sup posed to be well-known main chan nels. We have not provided adequate vessels or adequate machinery for the survey and charting. We have used old vessels that were not big enough or strong enough and which were so nearly unseaworthy that our Inspec tors would not have allowed private owners to send them to sea. This Is a matter which, as I have said, seems small, but Is in reality very great. Us Importance has only to be looked into to be appreciated. Economy Is Urged. Before I close, may I say a few words upon two topics, much dla cussed out of doors, upon which It Is highly Important that our judgments should be clear, definite and steadfast. One of these Is economy In govern ment expenditures. The duty of econ omy Is not debatable. It is manifest and Imperative. In the appropriations we pass we are spending the money of the great people whose servants we sre not our own. We are trus tees and responsible stewards In the spending. The only thing debatable and upon which we ahould be careful to make our thought and purpose clear Is the kind of economy demand ed of us. I assert with the greatest confidence that the people of the United States are not Jealous of the amount their government costs If tin' y are sure that they get what they need and desire for the outlay, that the money la being spent for objects of which they approve, and that It la being applied with good business sense and management. Governments grow, piecemeal, both in- their taska and in the means by which those tasks are to be per-, formed, and very few governmenta are organized. I venture to say. as wise and experienced business men would organize them If they had a clean sheet of paper to write upon. Certain ly the government of the United Statea Is not. I think that It Is gen erally agreed that there should he a aystematlc reorganization and reas sembling of Its parts so aa to secure greater efficiency and effect consider able savings In expensa. But the amount of money saved in that way would. I believe, though no doubt considerable In Itaelf, running. It may be. Into th. millions, be relatively small small, 1 mean, In proportion to the total necessary outlaya of the governmeut It would be thoroughly worth effecting, aa every aavlng would, great or small. Our duty Is not altered by the scale of the savings. Hut my point Is that the people of the l ulled Statea do not wish to curtail the activities of this government; they wish, rather. to enlarge them; and with every en iargement, with the mere growth, In dead, of the oountry itself, there must coma, of course, tha Inevitable ta rrease of expensa. Tha sort of economy wa onght to practice may bo effected, and ought ta be effected, by a careful atudy and assessment of the tasks to be per formed; and the money spent ought to be made to yield the beat possible returns in efficiency and achievement. And, like good stewards, we ahould so account for every dollar of our ap propriations aa to make it perfectly evident what it was spent for and in what way it waa spent It la not expenditure but extrava gance that we should fear being criti cised for; not paying for tha legiti mate enterprises and nndertaklngn of a great government whose people command what It should do, but add ing what will benefit only a few or pouring money out for what need not have been undertaken at all or might have been postponed or better and more economically conceived and car ried out. The nation Is not niggardly ; It is very generous. It will chide us only If we forget for whom we pay money out aud whose money It la we pay. These are large and general stand ards, bnt they are not very difficult of application to particular caaea. The National Defenae. The other topic I shall take leave to mention goes deeper Into the princi ples of our national life and policy. It is the subject of national defense. It cannot be dlscuesed without first answering some very searching ques tions. It la said In some quarters that we are not prepared for war. What Is meant by being prepared? Is it meant that we are not ready upon brief no tice to put a nation in the field, a na tion of men trained to arms? Of course we are not ready to do that; and wa shall' never be In time of peace so long as we retain our pres ent political principles, and Institu tions. And what Is it that it is sug gested we should be prepared to do? To defend ourselves against attack? We have always found means to do that, and shall find them whenever it is necessary without calling our peo ple away from their necessary tasks to render compulsory military service In times of peaca Allow me to speak with great plain ness and directness upon this great matter and to avow my convictions with deep earnestness. I have tried to know what America is, what her people think, what they are, what they most cherish, and hold deer, I hope that aome of their finer passions are In my own heart, some of the great conceptions and dealres which gave birth to this government and which have made the voice of this people a voice of peace and hope and liberty among the peoples of the world, and that, speaking my own thoughts, I shall, at least In part, speak theirs also, however, faintly and Inadequately, upon this vital matter. Pear No Nation. We are at peace with all the wcrld. No one who speaks counsel based on fact or drawn from a just and candid Interpretation of realities can say that there is reason for fear that from any quarter our indepen dence or the integrity of our territory in threatenad. Dread of the power of any other nation we are incapable of. We are not jealous of rivalry in the fields of commerce or of any other peaceful achievement. We mean to live our lives aa we will; but we mean also to let Uve. We are, Indeed, a true friend to all the nations of the world, because we threaten none. covet the possessions of none, desire tha overthrow of none. Our friend ship can be accepted and is accepted without reservation, because it is of fered in a spirit and for a purpose which no one need ever question or suspect. Therein lies our greatness. We are the champions of peace and of concord. And wa should be very jealoua of this distinction which we have sought to earn. Just now we should be particularly jealoua of it, because it is our dearest present hopo that this character and reputation may preseutly, In God's providence, bring us an opportunity to counsel and obtain peace In the world and reconciliation and a healing settle ment of many a matter that haa cooled and interrupted the friendship of nations. This Is the time above all others when we should wish and re solve to keep our strength by self pos session, our Influence by preserving our ancient principles of action. Ready for Defense, r'rom the first we have had a clear and settled policy with regard to military establishments. We never have had, and while wa retain our present principles and Ideals we never shall have, a large standing army. If aaked, are you ready to defend yourselves? We reply, most assured ly, to the utmost: and y at we shall not turn America into a military camp We will not ask our young men to spend the best years of their lives making soldiers of themselves. There is another sort of energy in us. It will know how to declare Itself and make Itself effective should occasion arise. And especially when half tha world la on fire we shall be careful to make our moral Insurance against the apread of the conflagration very definite and certain and adequate in deed. "Let us remind ourselves, therefore, of the only thing we can do or will do. We must depend In every time of national peril,' in tha future as In the past, not upon a standing army, nor yet upon a reserve army, but upon a citizenry trained and accuetomed to arms. It will be right enough, right American policy, based upon our ac customed principles and practices, to provide a system by which every citizen who will volunteer for the training may be asada familiar with tha use of modern arma, tha rudi ments of drill and maneuver, and tha maintenance and sanitation of campa We should encourage such training and make it a means of disciplina which our young men will learn to value. It la right that wa ahould pro vide it not only, but that we ahould make It as attractive aa possible, and so induce our young men to undergo it at snch time as they can command a little freedom and can seek tha physical development they need, for mere health's sake, if for nothing mora Every means 1 y which such things can be stimulated Is legitimate, and such a method smacks of true American Ideas. It la a right too, that tha National Guard of tha states should be developed and strengthened by every means which Is not Incon sistent with our ot ligations to our own people or with the established policy of onr government. And this, also, not because the tima or occasion specially calls for such measures, but because It should be our constant pol icy to make these provisions for our national peace and safety. More than this carries with it a re versal of the whole history and char acter of our polity. More than this, proposed at this time, permit ma to say, would mean merely that we had lost our self-possession, that we had been thrown off our balance by a war with which we have nothing to do, whose causes cannot touch us, whose very existence affords us opportun ities of friendship and disinterested service which should make ua ashamed of any thought of hostility or fearful preparation for trouble. This Is assuredly the opportunity for which a people and a government like ours were raised up, the opportunity not only to speak but actually Jo em body and exemplify the counlels of peace and amity and the lasting con cord which Is based on Justice and fair and generous dealing. Ships Our Natural Bulwarks. A powerful navy we have always regarded as our proper and natural means of defense; and It has alwaya been of defense that we have thought, never of aggression or of conquest But who shall tell us now what sort of navy to build ? We shall take leave to be strong upon the ,seas, in the future as In the past; and there will be no thought of offense or of provo cation In that. Our ships are our natural bulwarks. When will the ex perts tell us Just what kind we should construct and when will tbey be right for ten years together, if tha relative efficiency of craft of differ ent kinds and uses continues to change as we have seen it change under over very eyes in these last few months? But I turn away from the subject. It la not new. There is no new need to discuss it. shall not alter our attitude toward it because aome amongst us are nervous and excited. We shall easily and sensibly agree upon a policy of defense. The ques tion has aot changed ita aspects be cause the times are not normal. Our policy will not be for an occasion. It will be conceived as a permanent and settled thing, which wa will pur sue at all seasons, without haste and after a fashion perfectly consistent with the peace of the world, the abid ing friendship of states, and the un hampered freedom of all with whom we deal. Let there be no misconcep tion. The country has been misin formed. We have not been negligent of national defense. We are not un mindful of the great responsibility resting upon ua. We shall learn and profit by the lesson of every exper ience and every new circumstance; and what Is needed vlll be adequately done. Great Duties of Peace. I close, as I began, by reminding you of the great talks and duties of peace which challenge our best powers and Invite us to build what will last the tasks to which we can address ourselves now and at all tlmea the free-hearted zest and with all the fin est gifts of constructive wisdom we possess. To develop our life and our resources: to supply our own people, and the people of the world aa their need arises, from the) abundant plenty of our fields and our marts of trade; to enrich the commerce of our own states and of the world with the prod ucía of our mines, our farms, and our factories, with the creations of our thought and the fruits of our charac ter this is what will hold our atten tion and our enthusiasm steadily, now and In the years to come, as we strive to show in our life as a nation what liberty and the inspirations of an emancipated spirit may do for men and for societies, for Individuals, for states, and for mankind. Skunks Yield $300,000 a Year. The skunk brings annually to the trappers of the United State about three million dollars It stands sec ond in Importance only to the musk rat among our fur-bearlng anímala. Tha value of a skunk In the raw for market averaged from about twenty-five cents to $3.50 in December, 1913. and usually runa higher. In 1911 2.000,000 skins were export ed to London alone. Although this fur ia not very popular in America, Europeans favor It, because It wears wall and haa a luster which makes It rival the Russian sable in appearance. The Mexican States. Mexico consista of 32 statea and ter ritories and Is poUtlcally a federated republic, Ita constitution being pat terned after that of the United Statea of America. The population of tha country in 1900 was 18,697,000. On account of the strenuous Ufa of Mexico for several year past It 1 likely that Ita present population la not much la excaaa of that of 14 years ago. LATE MARKET QUOTATION e7trn NwiRpir Union tTtm Bmrrlriv DENVER MARKETS. Cattle. Baef steers, corn fed. good to choice ri.J5ii7.75 Baef steers, corn fad, fair to good .7f7. Baef steers, graaaera, good m3 to choice 7.0007.63 Baef steers, graasera, fair to good 6.5007.00 Heifers, prime, corn fed . . 6.6007.00 Cows and helfera, corn fed, good to choice 6.2506.75. Cows and heifers, corn fed fair to good 5.7506.2S Cows and heifers, graaaera. good to choice ,75if.F0 Cowa and heifers, graaaera, fair to good 5.0005.75. Cows and heifers, graaaera, common to fair 3.7504.75- Feeding cows 4.1505.2! Veal calves T.IMH. 9.0 Bulls k... 4.50'a.6 Btags $.000 6.6 Feeders and stockers. good to choice .., 6.650 7.40 Feeders and blocker, fair to good 6.000 6.85 Feedera and Blockers, com mon to fair 80006.0 Hogs. Good hogs 8.8507.00 Sheep. I-ambs $7.8608.45 Bwes ... 4.56 Yearlinga 5.7508.50 Wethers 5.25rfi.0O Feeder lambs, f.p.r. .....6.5047.25 Feeder ewes, f.p.r. 3.50 0 4.30 Breeding ewes 4.60 0 5.25 Hay. IF. O. B. Denver. Carload Colorado upland, per ton.. 10 Price.) 0)11.6O Nebraska upland, per ton 9 Second bottom, Colorado and Nebraska, per ton S Timothy, per ton 14 Alfalfa, per ton 7 .00010.00 .500 9.50 .00 13.00 .000 8.0O .50012.60 .00010.00 11.50 3.-503.5 So. Park, choice, per ton. San Luis Valley, per ton. Gunnison Valley, per ton Straw, per ton Grain. Wheat, choice milling, 100 lba. . 1.47 Rye, Colorado, bulk, 100 lbs 1.35 Idaho Oats, sacked 1.56 Nebraska oats, sacked -..1.65 Corn, chop, sack 1.36 Corn, in aack 1.34 Bran, Colo., per 100 lbs 1.06 Flour. Standard Colorado, net 2.56 Dressed Poultry. Less 10 Commisslou. Turkeys, fancy dry picked.. IT 01 Turkeys, old touts 15 016 Turkeya, choice 14 Hens, large 12 013 Hens, small 7 O k Broilers 18 017 Springs 12 013 Ducks 13 011 Geese 13 014 Boosters 7 0 8 tlve Poultry. Less 10 Commission. Hens, fancy 11 0lg Hens, small 7 j Broilers 14 015 Springs 11 013 Roosters 6 0 7 Turkeys, 10 lb, or over ....14 016 Ducks 10 011 Geese 10 011 Egts. 1-: (-..- graded No. 1 net, F. O. B. Denver 3 Eggs, graded No. 2 net, Y. O. B. Denver 22. Eggs, case count, leas com mission 7-2608.5 Butter. Elgia 32 Creameries, ex. Colo., lb.... 33034 Creumertea, ex. East, lb.... 33034 Creameries, 2d grade, lb... 2 Process 2s Packing stock 22 Fruit. Apples, Colo., new, box 7501. HO Pear. Colo 1.2502.0 Vegetables. Celery, dozen, Colorado Cabbage, Colo., cwt Oniona, Colo., cwt .4 ... .76" 1. 00 ... 1.0001 26 ... .o0T.ie Potatoes, t olo MISCELLANEOUS MARKETS. Lead and Spelter. New York. bead $3.75 03.8'.. Un don, 19. Spelter $6.4005.50. Lon don, 26 5s. Copper Electrolytic, lW912c; casting, i: U. St. Louis.- Lead $3.70. Spelter -$5.17 H. Silver In London. London.- Bar 8llver 23 l-16d pea ounce. Butter and Eggs. Kansas City. Butter Creamery. 32c; firsts, 2 (it; packing, 20 He. Egga Firsts, 31c; seconds, 24c. Poultry Hen. 10c; roouter, 10; turkeys, 13 He. Chicago Grain and Provision Prices. Chicago Wheat No. 2, red, $1.141 01.16; No. 2 hard. $1.1501.164. Corn No. 2 yellow, new, 634 9 64H; No. 3 yellow, new 6l4062ic. Oats No. .3 'white, 47H 048H4r; standard. 48H049C. uve -No. 3, 11.OAH01.1O. Barley 59076c. Timothy $3.7506.60. Clover- $12.00014.50. Pork $10.50. Lard $9.(10. Riba $9.120$ SJ. 1