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"1 1 f 0 t r r I II t. JL- Ll Sl'ijsciiiitiox, $1.50 Per Annum. Our Motto': "God will Help those who try to Help Themselves. Single Coiy, 5 Cent VOL. II. RALEIGH, N. C, SATURDAY, OCTOBER 9, 1880. NO. 2', f 0m In ir n JJLlVL II II 1 1 ORATION BY HON. FREDRICK DOUGLAS'S ON THE OCCASION OF THE SECOND ANNUAL EX POSITION OF THE COLORED PEOPLE OF NORTH CAROLINA, DELIVERED ON FRIDAY OCTO BER 1 ST, 1830. At tke CAticIuio of Gjt. JirvU' ad dress, tke Master of Cereinoaies iatrc daced ilit Honorable Fredenek Doug lass, Marskai of the District of Column bia. Mr. Douglass prefaced bis ad dress by expreaeiug thw pleasure which he felt at being called upon to eprak to so large a coneourse of colored y en- ' tle, aJ his gratification at seeing the Goreruor of the State present, aud spbttki'Z such words of gym path and Qiicourafcenient as he hud just heard. tl said he hud found thiBgs quite dif threat fr .di what he expected, aad that (Jov. Jsrvis bad occupiad a good deal of the fi di whiob h8 bad intended to nuke his ovrn. Ifi wp-wcia was iuter-spjM-ned with inaaj amusing anecdotes which our limited spao will not per mit u to print in full. ilr. Douglass spoke a follows : Fellow Citizens, GistfTLEUiLN asd Ladies : I regret that I have ta bajio my ed dres Uh an apology. The days hare tetn few aod raj cnsgetncutK many, iucv I was waited 'apo-i by oguiluu ti'e of gentle uae a frr North Carolina, representing this expceitioa, aud was f riuiiily incited to nppaar in tin place aud preseace ei:d deliver a ; ad--trffr-ppXWa.Sfd U Jbi occasion. The io;ft allotted fvr the piepiriitten and tr.e ixiaaitud of the bubji-c: up-i which you have desired rue to ep.-ak, c.iUftd me soma t'njbarrsi)ei)i r;d hv:d tLi at once to fcsk your kind in dn luetic. 1 ata howt'vor, enc ourrtgd to pro ceed by several coneiu'ertiutft : th tii st is tbi I nave ol'Un found aaytclf iu just mob c iron instances before. I have frequently beu callerl up.m to do tilings for which I had no special tiaia iug or preparation. Another encouraging fact is, that lunvcvci unskillfully ur:d icnpr'.ectly, I have been able to do my work, cay judges have ev?r betn generous, if not uhv.:ys just Tbey hatve measured my flV'rts, not so much by their intrinsic value as by the difficulties uud?r which they were made. But no more of apoogy. Miuu to-day i a sure privile. No aian iu this country was ever ealled upt;u to address such a concourse of newly emancipated people, as I ana upon ibis occasion, i meet with you to-day, at the starting point in the race of mental, moral, social and ma- terial progress. It is a groat circum stance. For naore tham two centuries you were cut off from the human race. You were not recognized among the rest of mankind, and the principles of justice and liberty suppostd to apply to other men, were not thought to be applicable to ycu. Yon were regarded and treatvd as standing outride the circle of civilizatioa, aud of civilizing forces. Having eyas, y oil were not ex pected to see. Having ears, you were not expected to hear. Having tongues, you were not expected to speak. The laws of the land elsssed yeu with bor ses, sheep and swine; articles of sale and barter, chattels personal, to all in tends and purposes wbatsc-ever. Your bodies, your bone8,yoar brains belonged not to you, but to other men. Your faculties and poweis were all the prop erty and support of those who claimed to own you, their thoughts are turned to the change. Behold that chaoge ! How sudden, bow complete, how vast and how woudenul is the transforma tion? In viw of this tremendous revolu tion, I feel less like dwelling on the particular subject upon which I am expected to speak, than calling upon you to join me, in loud, earnest aud long continued shouts of joy over our newly acquired freedom. The subject of agriculture is the main and most importaat which can claim our theugh ful attention. It is one of the oldest upoa which men have thought, spoken and written, and it must therefore readily eccur to you that there is little of originality to bo expected iu what I may have to say conceraing it. Genius itself, and I ara no g&nius, would find it hard to say anything new, edifying or striking in it praiyw or iu its explanation. I hav read over a number of agri cultural addresses lately. I have get little help from them. They are very much hke bricks on the sarae wall, or houses in Philadelphia, one is exactly the counteipart of the other, only soma are a tr.rle smalUr than others. Mine to-day, should it g't into print, will lis like the others, only a little smaller. I think it is somewhat presumptive in ma. any how, to speak here on this subject at all. There are undoubtedly hundreds of colored men ia North Car olina who could tell yea more about farming than I can. Ycu have among you practical farmers and mechanic e and others well qual fUd by experience and observation, to teach intelligently and effectively the conditions e9eatial to success, in their various vocations. The only trouble with theso is tbat they live heie and ara easily attainable. They have not to travel a thousand miLs whon invited to speak and you do cot have to travel a thouand miles to invite them. it ever is, the prophet is not v.ithout honor, save ia his own. country. 'beu we consider the importance ef agriculture, as tue souice and main sprnjc of all other forms of industry, that it .8 to all othsr forms of labor wl at vr,oJ and coal ia to the lncouio tivo, rind the foundation f all the wealth of the world, when further consid-r th vast amount of thought ami btudy dvoti'd to it, threia ur rhe thar. the sum of knotrisd ou V i.- tikj ct is ao s;u!",U, and that it has ncn used to slowly. -Thw saes of to day do but echo the wisdom of ;h t.-.t'.- of antiquity. The principles of Mio-tees in tilling the oi), must l?ave Lei-n discovered very early iu the life of the mc?. There was bread before there wore b jok.-:. Men wors eaters before they were readers. Thy were rictical furmeri before they wore ag ricultural speeob uiwkrs. The mot tuat such speech makers can now do is to preach aid teach the principles which other men have discevcred and applied, and asked people to obsotve and do them with idl thwir might. There are doubtless many truths in respect to agriculture that remibi to be discovered and applied. Nature is iuexhaustable sind does not favor mo nopoly of her secrets to any. Mau are so nearly on a level that no one of them can properly claim any discovery as exclusively his. Here as elsewhere, nature is never partial or exclusive. Her revelations ate opea to all alike. Most that has been done in modern times, in the matter of tilling the soil to advantage has ben the application of new infereaces from old and well knowu principles and the same of implements. The plow of to-day is simply an improvement upon the plow of a thousand years ago. Like many other good and useful things, the plow, the king of aaricuN tural implem&nts, comes to us all the way from Africa. The Egyptians knew the plow pefere the white race was knowa to history. Their sense of its value is shown by their deiricatien of its invemtor as was done iu Egypt. Deep plowing, under draining and thorough pulverization of the soil, so earnestly iusisted upon of late years, were known ia the east mora thaa two theusand years ago. SMALL FARMS. Much has been said of lata in favor of small farms. They are said to be conducive to general prosperity, but the gmall farm theory, by which a man may double the number of his acres or make one acre equal to two, a theory by which tae late Horace Greeley coupled kis name and fame with agri culture so honorably, is by no means new or original with him. The an cients held and advocated the selfsame idea The philosophy too, of keeping the soil in good condition, was under stood in the earliest dawn of history. It was known that the soil must be fed as well at fed upoa. China knew this when Britain was a wilderness and America unknown. We make mouths at the Celestials snd persecute tkem now, bt they were far advanced in civilization, understood well the laws of fertilization, when western Europe was groping in the midnight darkness of barbarism. Gar dens in China which have been culti vated, from generation to generation, for thousands of years, are still rick and fruitful. Perhaps I cannot do better at tbis point, before leaving small farms, than to say a word or two upon their advan tage ia our case. Out people are poor, large farms are impossible to us, and what was wisdom to the ancient Ro mans is both wisdom and necessity to us. We can only get possession of land in small quantities and it should there fore, be our study how to make the best of the little we do get, kow to make one acre count two in the matUr of productiveness. The law in the case is easily compre hended. Its chief element is tune. Time is money, and whatever savsa time saves labor and money, and mon ey is only stored labor, and has only thw value and purchasing power which labor gives it. Every dollar that a man lavs by, represents a certaiu amount of labor performed and stored away, for a time of need. If bis wages are a dol lar a day, and be has a hundred dollars he has just on huadre-d days work done add stored away. If overtaken by sickness or acoident he has a hun dred days in which to get well, and is able to work again. The principle to be remembered is, that whatsover saves time saves money, and whatsoever saves the needless expenditure of thought, saves ability for useful labor. Now all kiiow, that more time and streujjth are required te travel two miles than one, to walk, work, dress and p!o77 over two acres thau one acre, and n' wo gel out cf 01 acre a j much products as out "of two, we have got thxx aud more too, for we h?ve aved a large amount cf extra time and strugth. If called upon to choose between one rich acre of ground aud two pior ones, all other things baiug equal, I should in every instance, prefer the one acre rich to the two acres poor. We have twice bs much walking, plowing and hoeing to do in the one casa as in the other, while we rsach only the earns results. The same reasoning applies equally well iu othar directious. Take for in stance the trade iu timber. North Carolina is not only a tar producing State, but a timber growiug State. Now it takes just as many hands and just as much time to handle an inferior piece of timber as it does to handle a superior piece of timber, while you only get iu exchange half as much money for the one as for the other. This idea is capable of indefinite appli cation. It applies to every form of ia. dustry and teaches th? lesson whieh we cannot repeat too often, that wkat ever is worts doing at ax,l. is worth doing well. It is always better to produce a superior article and get a high price for it than an inferior one and get a low price for it. Hence also it is better to buy a good article, cne that will endure longer and srve bet ter than t buy a cbeap artiole, which will soon wear out and oonstautly chs for repair when in use, which wdl causes you long hours of time and labor in re placing it. This applies especia'lt t the purchase of agricultural au i othsr implements. Then about th? care of tools, much could be said hero. It li fair to assume that about one-t -n .h of all the timo of some farmers is w3te-d in searching for and mending tools which have been carelessly flung down anywhere and everywhere, abandoned to rust, decay aod destruction. I have seen in some of our Western States, amid the snows and rains of winter, costly plows, cultivators, mow ing machines exposed to all the de structive foroes of the weather. Men who farm thus bring trouble upon themselves and discredit upoa agricul ture and make their own lives a bur den. The loss of time, labor and money by this careless style of farm ing is not the only evil. It is about a much of a loss of time and temper. The mental confusion which comes of this will do more damage to a man than the steadiest and heaviest strokes of well directed and oven tempered exertion. No where more than on the fsrm should everything be kept in its place. t A man should know just wkere ha caa pul his hand on the implement be may wish at the moment t ue whether that shall be a spadf, a rake or a hoe. L spoakiugof what may be called the smaller econioiie of the farm, I want to sny a word fr the wood pile and the we'l I th:nk there cau be bo happy home, r successful farmiu, where the won pile aad the well are neglected When the wife smiles and the children arn gleeful and happy, the toils and burdn s of the husbandman are liht and ea i y borne. Everything therefore which tends to make home happy is in the direct l ne of a wise eeonomy. Where a woman 14 com pelled to go a half a mile in the woods' iu search of brush or rotten b irk, to make the kettle boil, and a quarter of a mile to the spring iu all weather to fetch water, it is impossible for house hold affairs to go in smoothly. The?e should always boa good supply of dry wood withiu e.sy reach of the house keeper and a well of sweet water at the door. If these are not supplied and you come burnt tirtd aod huDgry from the ii-dd, if your house is not ueat and in order, if the chimney smokts, if tho ey s of jour wife aud daughters are red aud their tempers uaaruable, aud i to crown all your aininr is uov ready, you have, in fact, only yourself tu blamo for it. With an ample quantity of sound, well seaOLed wood ai the door and a wdl of water near at hand, you Lao complied with primary arid important conditions of peae, o infjrt anu good order m your household. A WOCD OV MAS CUES. I have already hinted at the uecessi ty of feeding the soil as we'll as feediug ourselves. Successful fanning dows not entirely depend upon deep plowing and skihtul hoeing, nor upoa prompt I attention to neod time aud harvest. Ev?iy orop gathered from the Held takes something valuubla from the soil which should bj promptly replaced, if it can be. The neh. st land in the world ca.i be mad j poor if in our greed, we take cverytuin fvoui it ntd tive it nothing iu retu.n. While piovidiog for ourselves, oar next best thought is how to husband the iesoU'C.s at our command for re-iioriiij to tho soil feotnethiag iu return for what we re ceive from the soil. All flash is grass. The amouut of vegitable matter we ob tain from the earth is the measure of the well-being aad happ nessof animl l'f.3 and of aim's life m common witW all animal life. WORN OUT LA.NDS. We hear a grrat deil about worn out lauds, aud of the necessity of leaving such lands and plautiug ourselves upon virgin swil. In our earlier history it was thought inevitable that land should wear out This was ispeei illy so in the Southern fckat?s The better op niou of to-day however, is that there need be no such thing as worn out land. I have recent'y visitid my nUive country and saw this opinion s istia;d in the State of Maryland. I was agrectb'y surprised to rind that field s which fifty years ago were given up as hopelessly wo.thWs, supposed to ho oniy capable of producing swdge grass and mu 1 n, are noiv bearing rich hir vests of wheat and corn. S uce the abilitnnof slavery iu Maryland, men from the free Stages have mored itto my native couuty and by a wise appli Oiti ja of f .Ttdizers and a skillful cuK tivation, they h.tve reclaimed and en riched the o d waste places and made them blossom like the ros. The 6rt p.iuciple of the practical farmor should be: Lei noUdag bs was ted. For nothing that win decay in 1 the ground is useless, and nothing saouid be allowed to waste itself. Ev erything that can be should be utilized. i The very soap and water employed ra washing your hinds and cl thes should find their way to your ttimly kept bed of compost. The bones from your ta ble should be made to do double duty. The soil of England is richer and yields better crops t -day than It did two hundred years ago. They who food the soil will themselves be fed. They who starve the soil will themselves be starved. To be a successful farmer one) moat read as well as work. I cannot too strongly advise the reading of agricul tural pspers. They are the repositories of the best knowledge on the subject. Nobody caa keep abreast with tke times without this knowledge. Musel is important but mi ad is more irupoi tant. Iu farming as elsewhere, know edge is power. There is no work i the world which men aro requird t perform which they cannot per fori better aud more economically with ed uoation than without it. The troubl with us as a people, has been, that w have worked without a knowledge the theory of work. We build ship but are not draftsmen, we bu Id houie but aro not architects, we sail vessel but know nothiug of navigatios. W. cast the article, but do not make tht mould. Heietcfore we hve been situ ply muscle for the white man's brain We have worked by note, not by in graiued knowledge, by memory, not bj rellectiou. 1 atu not taking blame to ouraelve or reproach any Ixxly. The fault is no ours. It belongs to the unfr'endl ciicuui6tances which have surroimdeC us iu the dark past from wbich we ar now etuetfc'ing. Under the old regime wi were not expected to think but tc work. We were not to do as wi thought, but as wo were told. Wi were not allowed even to profit by our owu experience as workmen, and ut things iu the easiest and best way pointed by cur practical knowledge. The negro t:u.k the blow, but th: master and the ovr!-e;r dirpetrd th arm. We wre but human inaohiuea operated under the lash and atiag of siavcry. Hut let the dead piut bury i tie ad. We l;ve to-day uodsr new conditions. Vre iiust now say, as Kosseth said of the bayoueta of Eastern Europe, our iudustry must think. The reading of agricultural books aud paper? bring us the latest and beat iniprov'inuts brought to sight by thoughts aud ex perience. ' It must bo no longer said of us, as in the old tiute, "if you want to keep a secret from a negro put it into a book or a newspaper." Every colored me chanic and farmer should take and read one or mere of the papers of the day. If you cannot read yourself let your son or daughter read lo you. Depend upou it an hour spent thus, every day, will bean hour of prolt and not of loss. Muscle is mighty but mind is mightier and thre is bo better held for its exercise thn the field from which you expect to jet yoar d lily bread. NATUAAL ENEMIES TO THE I shall not stop kere to enquire into theoiiginof evil in the world, or fli the blame upon th-5 brow of its autkor. I do not know whether it was Adam Eve or the Serpent, and for that matte 1 I do not care. It is enough to kaon that we have it and have It in abun dane?. Tke business of lifo is to make war upon it and do tho best wo caa to get rid of it. The farmer's life, though peaceful, is nevertheless a lifo of war. He has to contend with tho vary ele ments, and take advantage of them and ward off their destructive power. Ho has to light au ever-recruiting army of weeds, briars aud thorns, besides an army of bugs, worms and inseota, of all sons and sizes. No matter what the crop may be, there is an enemy, crawling on the earth, or iying in tho air, ready to destroy it, and tho hug baa din an must tight or die kill or be killed. Iu dealing with thestt eneeaiet I have to say that not au hour ekould be lost. They must be attacked without delay. A single day may decide tho fate of your crop. The price of liberty ia eternal viilaccn, aud the same is true of success ia any trarie or ealliag and especially is it true of suoceaaful tillics; the soil. We should make war upon our eaomiea while they are in their efcgs No labor should be spared, no means negleoted in this fight. The warrior on tho battle ield uses the tele scope to discover the movements of tke enemy. The farmer should use the microscope to discover the manners and movements of his. With a little expe rience in the use of this instrument, be can in many cases anticipate hi foe and strike beforo ho is struck. He akould go further than the microaoope can carry him, and not only raake war upon the eggs of tke iaseets, but upon tho conditions uuder which they are hatched into life. Like moat of tho ills that flesh is heir to, the farmeiV enemies are overturned ana' fostered CONTINUED ON FOURTH PAGE.