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The progressive farmer. [volume] (Winston, N.C.) 1886-1904, February 17, 1886, Image 1

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Vol. 1.
WE'VE ALWAYS BEEN PRO
VIDED FOR.
"Good wife, what are you sighing for? You
know we've lost the hay,
And what we'll do with horse and kyeis more
than I can say ;
While like as not, with storm and rain, we'll
lose both corn and wheat." ;
She looked up with a pleasant face, ar i ans
wered low and sweet :
" There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we feel, hut
cannot see;
We've always been provided for, and v shall
always be."
He turned around with a sudden gloom. She
said : " Ijovc, be at rest, !
You cut the grass, worked soon and lafe, you
did your very best, !
That was your work ; you've naught at all to
do with wind and rain, '
And do not doubt but you will reap rich fields
of golden grain ;
For there's a Heart, and there's a Hand, we
feel, but cannot see ;
We've always been provided for, and ve shall
always Ik?."
"That's like a woman's reasoning we must,
because we must."
She softly said: "I reason not; I only work
and trust ;
The harvest may redeem the day keep heart
what e'er betide ;
When one door shuts, I've always seen another
open wide.
There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we feel, but
cannot see;
We've always been provided for, and we shall
always be."
He kissed the calm and trustful face ; gone was
his restlesR pain. 5
She heard him with a cheerful step go whist
ling down the lane,
And went about her household tasks foil of a
glad content,
Singing to time her busy hands as to ami fro
she went :
" There is a Heart, there is a Hand, we fee!, but
...nmnot sec ; , ,. .... ( ..-..-
We've always been provided for, and we shall
always be."
Days come and go 'twas Christmas tide, and
the great fire burned clear.
The farmer said : " Dear wife, it's been a good
and happy year ;
The fruit was gain, the surplus corn has
bought the hay you know."
She lifted then a smiling face, and said: "I
told you so !
For there's a Heart, and there's a Hand, we
feel, but cannot see;
We've always been provided for, and we hhall
always be."
Agricultural.
TOBACCO.
How to Manage It.
FROM THE PLjCnT-BED TO THE WARE
HOUSE. As promised in our issue of lat
week. The Progressive Farmer in
tends to collect and give to its
readers the very best information on
the cultivation of tobacco, from the
most reliable sources. We find
in the Union Republican,. " Extracts
from information compiled for the
"Winston and Salem Chamber of
Commerce,'' from which we take
the following, relating to the seed
and plant-bed. These suggestion
are practical and pointed and ev
idently emanate from a source enti
tled to respect:
The. question of seed for the crop
is one of prime importance and.
should receive special care. That
variety should be selected which is
known to yield on suitable soil
the smoothest leaf with rich waxy
body and best flavor and color, to
insure highest prices; and conse
quently the greatest profit. When
this is done the next important
" 'i i 1 ' . m
step is to properly; prepare the
plant bed in a -suitable place. In
the selection of soil for beds, it is de
sirable to ehoosej ; new clayey
ground, with dark, rich soil or near
the base of a hill' sloping to the
South or East; Lands with maple
growth are thought to be preferable.
Dig up the bed Jin January to the
depth of three or) four inches, and,
then burn over it j sufficient wood or
brush to kill all grass or other seed
or bugs that may' ber in the ground,
then cover withhold stable or hog
manure well rotted and free from
seeds, one to two inches, and dig it
J7 INDUSTRIAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS
in well with a mattock or hoe. Let
the bed remain till seed time, say
about the 15th of February, then
thoroughly rake and pulverize the
soil, removing every clod, root or
stone.
SOWING SEED.
Mix dry seed with dry leached
ashes and sow evenly, and not too
thick, on a still day and rake lightly.
Pat the bed with a wide shovel or
tramp with a board. The most
convenient width both for drawing
the plants without stepping upon
the beds and also for securely
covering with canvass is about 5
feet. Large beds can easily be di
vided in this way with 16 to 18
inch walks. It is now a well settled
fact that no farmer can afford to
neglect the use of canvass as a pro
tection both against bugs or fleas
and frost, and also to hasten and
promote the growth of plants, for,
by its use, with proper care in pre
paring the bed and sowing good
seed, failure is next to impossibe.
USING CANVASS.
The manner of using the canvass
will suggest itself to all who have
not used it, but it may be mentioned
in this conuection that a very satis
factory and effective, mode has been
found by placing along the sides
and ends of the bed boards 8 to 10
inches wide, and the stretching of
the canvass sufficiently tight to
prevent sagging, not neglecting
however to arrange it so it can be
readily removed when the time
comes for airing the plants. The
canvass may be looped to poles of
sufficient weight to hold it m place
and can then be easiry removed
when desired. The covering should
be put on immediately after sowing
as a protection against severe weath
er and for the retention of heat and
moisture. If the winter is severe
sowing may be delayed till March
with good results, ami plants will
be ready for transplanting by 1st to
10th of May. To harden the plants
the canvass should be removed 10
days to two wetks before it is in
tended they shall be drawn, from 9
in the morning to 4 in the afternoon.
To preven breaking the roots when
plants are drawn, the beds should
be moist. An ounce of seed will sow
about 300 square feet and produce
from 20,000 to 22,000 good plants,
sufficient to plant 4 to 5 aores. The
same bed may be used the following
year or longer after being treated in
like manner as the first, but care
must be taken to pull up all the
plants and weeds and cover the bed
with old leaves and brush. Some
growers maintain however that the
best results are obtainable upon new
beds. After the plants are up their
growth if need.be may be hastened
by applying liquid manure with a
brush or sprinkler with a fine nozzle,
or fresh horse mauure dried and
pulverized and sifted over the bed as
often as may be needed ; care should
however be taken that the growth
is not too rapid, as over feeding is
injurious. It is well to make two or
three sowings at different times to
provide against possible accident
an,d insure plants sufficient for. re
planting, &c. Every grower will of
course, in selecting his plant bed
keep in view the three essentials,
viz : light, heat and moisture. Some
farmers prefer to sprout the seed
before sowing and this is believed to
be a good plan when the Spring is
late. Sprouting may be successfully
done in various ways, by moistening
the seed in a sack and burying in
earth kept warm and moist, or
placing the seed in a small sack
made of heavy woollen cloth and
dipping the sack in water at blood
heat and hanging in a warm place
where the temperature can be kept
nearly even. The sack should be
dipped 3 to 4 times the first two
days, after which twice a day will
be sufficient, till sprouted. The seed
should remain in the water each
dipping, long enough to get well
wet.i When the hull bursts and
shows a small white spot the seed
should be sown, if delayed the
OF OUii PEOPLE PARAMOUNT TO
WINSTON, N. C, FEBRUARY
sprouts will get too long and be
broken off in handling and make
unthrifty plants. Ashes should not
be used in sowing sprouted seed,
corn meal or coarse flour is good,
gent'y rolling the seed in it' until
the moisture is taken up when it
separates them like shot.
DR. BENBOW'S EXPERIENCE
WITH ENSILAGE.
Some Sensible Suggestions to our Far
ers and their Boys.
For the Progkessivk Farmer.
I have been using ensilage for four
years with great satisfaction and
economy, and have each year in
creased my capacity and each year
failed to have a supply.
Last season I put up 550 tons ;
when Spring comes I will be out.
So that you see it does not keep well
for me.
Our farmers are hard to induce
to adopt other plans than those of
their forefathers after reading for
years of ensilage they fear it will
spoil, knowing that no vegetable will
sooner spoil than cabbage and cab
bage cut up, packed into an air
tight barrel and the krout will keep
so long as the pressure is kept on
and air excluded
Still, because their mothers did
not keep green corn for their cow's
"Winter supply the' fear to try the
experiment.
Three suggestions :
1st. There is not a cow-feeder in
the State that does not admit green
corn to be the best milk producing
food he can give.
2nd. There is not one that does
not know that corn fodder green is
worth very much more than after it
has been dried.
3rd. It is further admitted that
more pounds of corn fodder can be
produced per acre upon our North
Carolina soil than any other crop.
Now, if I am correct in t hese three
propositions and that it can be pre
served in its green state without
any risk of failure- and at a cost any
farmer who feeds his stock can well
afford ; I ask, in all seriousness, why
do our farmers fail to adopt the sys
tem. Save labor furnish better rel
ished provender, economise barn
space, make more butter, increase
the home-made manure pile, raise
larger, crops, feed more cattle and
make home a place where the last
boy will not long to arrive at the
age of 21, when he too can leave his
father's old dilapidated homestead
for the prosperous West, where he
has to do a year's work in six
months and go in doors and try to
keep warm the balance of the year ;
whereas, in this State, there is never
a "Winter long enough to prevent his
doing part of his indoor work at a
time when he could just as well be
out of doors.
It is easy to raise fifteen tons of
corn ensilage to the acre at a cost of
six dollars, then for about as much
more it can be cut and put into the
silo, and with sixty pounds of this
ensilage mixed with as much meal
as is usually given on dry cut ham
per day, will make more milk, for
less money, with half the trouble in
feeding, and be better relished by
the cow, being more conducive of
health. Figure on this last and test
the statements- One acre will pro
duce all the forage one cow can pos
sibly eat in a whole year. It can be
stored in a space of 365 cubit feet
(less space than her own stall occu
pies.) Then where is any expensive
structure ? As you suggest I will
again tell you the cost of silo and
give plan of building it cheaply.
Respectfully,
D. W. C. BENBOW.
Greensboro, N. C.
MA J. GARRETT AGAIN ON ENSI
LAGE. From a letter to Col. Ott, Richmond, Va.
I have been putting up ensilage
and feeding it for over five years,
and my experience causes me to
value it more and more highly as I
learn how to take care, of it more
ALL OTHER CONSIDERATIONS OF
17, 1886.
cheaply. When I built my first
silos, in the summer of 1880, the
idea was that only those built of
cement or brick, in the ground,
would answer the purpose, and
costing at least $5 per ton to build.
Now they are built on top of the
ground, entirely of wood and earth,
and at a tost of from 75c. to $1 per
ton. These keep the ensilage as
; well as those constructed of cement
j or brick, are much more convenient
j and involve less labor to feed from,
I I have two wood silos, built in 1881.
I above ground, and holding 180 tons,
both costing not more than $125,
I the repairs since, not exceeding 625,
which are now in good order and
full of ensilage, and have been
filled every year since they were
built. The contents without excep
tion have been fed in jrood condition.
The silos I built in 4880 (of cement
below ground), held 125 tons, and
cost me about $3 per ton. These
also have been filled every year
since (sometimes twice a year), and
the ensilage was not any better pre
served than in those built of wood.
Since I began to make ensilage, in
the fall of 1880, I have fed my
horses, mules, and cows almost ex
clusively on it, and have yet to see
any bad results from it; on the con
trary, I have. been able to keep them
in much better condition than be
fore I commenced its use. In the
year 1879 I had nine mules and
horses, and about as many cattle,
and besides the long forage I could
conveniently make on my farm, I
paid out over $700 for hay, bought
by the carload in Richmond. I am
now feeding fifteen head of horses
and mules, and thirty cattle, and
pav out nothing for hay, and my
farm is no larger now than it was
then. The extra manure I now
produce pays me fully, I am per
suaded, for the cost of the ensilage
I use corn and cow-pea vines exclu
sively for ensilage the former, as
I use it, is cheaper; the latter makes
the best ensilage.
For the past three years I have
used corn constantly for this pur
pose, after it was sufficiently ma
tured to sustain no injury, when the
blades were ripe enough for fodder.
I pull the corn, then cut the stalks
down to the ground (blade on), haul
and cut them in three-quarter inch
lengths, and pack in the silo; then
weigh as usual. This makes a very
desirable food ; the stock all like it,
and I have never seen any bad
effects from it; During the three
years named I have put up 100
tons per year from this source. My
experience is that land producing
five barrels of corn to the acre will
will make five tons of ensilage, or a
ton to the barrel, I regard the
ensilage as more valuable than corn,
and the cost of putting it into the
silo is less than seventy-cents, per
ton. I grow no corn exclusively
for ensilage ; most of it made in the
United States is from corn grown
expressly for the purpose. I am of
opinion that at the times I cut it, it
is as valuable for ensilage as at any
period of its growth hence a great
saving in making both a crop of
corn and ensilage. I see that oth
ers are adopting this plan to advan
tage.
My great plant for ensilage is the
ordinary field or cow-pea. Of this
I put up about 200 tons yearly, and
it is greatly preferred by my stock
to that made of corn. This pea
crop I grow chiefly after wheat and
oats. I break the land as soon as
the wheat is taken off, then plant
in drills three feet apart, eight to
twelve peas in a hill, using the
Eureka corn planter, dropping
every twenty-one inches; side them
up once or twice, if need be and
grass is troublesome ; plant from the
25th of June, to the 10th- of July,
-which gives ample timefor the ma
turity of the plant for ensilage, pro
ducing from five to ten tons per
acre, at a cost not exceeding $1.50
per ton, and worth 25 per cent more
in feed value that corn at any stage
of its growth. With this plant
properly utilized with the system of
STATE POLICY.
No. 2.
ensilage, the South can feed and
raise sheep, cattle, mules and horses
as cheaply as any portion of the
United States except the very far
West. This fact will be demon
strated . some day. I give to mf
mules and cows about fifty pounds
of ensilage each per day. I have
often seen published a statement
that cornstalks or any other suitable
material made good ensilage with
out chopping up fine with cutter.
For fear of loss I have been .afraid
to try it. A neighbor" who built a
silo three years ago had " his silo,
machinery, and cutter burned up
last winter. ..The silo was rebuilt
last summer and filled with corn
stalks and pea vines, uncut. This
ensilage is as good as any I have
ever seen sweeter than mine, which
was cut fine, and is a little more
troulle to take from the silo than
that cut fine. I shall put up a large
portio.n of mine next year without
cutting.
HOW SCREWS ARE MANUFAC
TURED. The art of making screws is an art per
fected by the genius of mechanical in
vention. The best screws are made of
"charcoal-iron" wire. The wire goes
first, in a coil, to the "headers." By the
heading machine the wire is bitten off to
the desired length at the rate, of from
one to two and one-half per second, that
is, of the length of a screw the size of
which is to be made, and upset" to the
shape of the head. The machine, known
as the "header" is very solid. The wire
fed into it is cut, or bitten, and simulta
neously a head is "put on" it by a blow,
which, to speak humanly, must have
been unexpected, inasmuch as it is sec
ondary and sudden. Now the bit of
wire comes out of the header in the
length of the size of screw it is to be, and
with the head on, but no thread. It
goes next to the cylinder, where it is
rattled in sawdust to brighten and clean
it. After being cleaned the screw bits,
as they still are, are placed in the store
room till wanted, when thev are brought
to the shaving machines, where the head
is shaved and the slot cut. They are
then washed in hot soaa water to clean
them and sent to the threading machine,
where the thread is cut. "A duck drink
ing water" is what an enthusiastic gen
tleman likened the screw-threading ma
chine to, and well he might, for any
thing more like nature in its operation
it is impossible to find in the whole range
of automatic machinery. The blank
screws, as they left the header, were
emptied into a pan supported by a re
volving standard at the side of the
threader. Over the pan dip two iron
fingers, which scoop from the pan all
they can hold of the blank screws. These
fingers, when full, are automatically tip
ped backwards, feeding down the blanks
to the body of the machines. Now, one
by one, as they drop into place, two iron
fingers pick them up and put them in
position to be treated. In a moment it
is done. To be exact, at the rate of
twenty per minute the screws went
through the "shaver" and at the rate of
ten per minute the threader turns them
out. Between each of the three steps of
the process of manufacture heading,
shaving and threading a careful assort
ting of them is done,- and all imper
fect ones rejected. Finally in the packing-room,
the last sorting is given, to
make sure none but perfect ones are put
up in boxes for the market. The screws
are put into paper boxes holding each
one gross, and these boxes are bundled
into ten-gross packages, the largest size
being put up in five-gross packages as well
as in ten. The packer who wraps the box
es into the ten-gross bundles does it $t
the rate of three bundles in two min
utes, and works as neatly and automati
cally as the machines in the mill. '
Cattle prefer jell, ? properly
cured ensilage to diy food. Any
plant good for eattfewhen fresh
can be ensiloed. Silos tniy be filled
slowly or rapidly. Fourjtf rues as much
weight. of ensilage can ' Ibo stored in
the same space than if stored in
the shape of dry fodder. A, mod
erate feediner of ensilage should he
iriven rather than ; entire substfc
tUtion. ?; -V, ., iA"i''ti-
In determining to sell fertilizers
for money, only; and "no longer to
take pay in cotton, the merchants:
of Shelby have taken.tne nrst step
in the reform of the business meth
ods of this section. JVeic Era. ; -?

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