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The progressive farmer. [volume] (Winston, N.C.) 1886-1904, November 17, 1886, Image 2

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THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER, NOVEMBER IT, 1886.
2
SUNSHINE FOR FOWL.
The fact is very suggestive that
the egg supply falls off most rapidly
while the. days are shortening, and
smallest always during the months
when the hours of sunshine are the
fewest. No preparation for getting
eggs in winter is complete which
does not provide, besides warmth
and good feeding, a plentiful supply
of sunshine.
SUPPLIES OF FUEL.
A good farmer or householder
will keep an adequate supply of
fuel ready for use at all times. This
can be done when men and teams
are not otherwise busy, while if only
enough is got for present needs the
supply is sure to give out at the
most inopportune time. Where wood
is used a supply should be cut a year
in advance in order to have it thor
oughly seasoned.
FALL BLOOMING OF FRUIT.
It is rare that fruit trees bloom in
even the warmest and latest falls
unless the foliage has been injured
earlier in the season. As growth
cannot proceed naturally in the ex
tension of the present year's shoots,
the sap starts into activity buds in
tended for next 3Tear's fruiting.
Tnis, of course, destroys the crop
for next year, and usually seriously
injures the vitality of the tree.
RATS AND MICE IN CORNCRIBS.
The eornerib should be thor
oughly cleaned of all rubbish, as
well as of old corn, before new is
put in. The object of this is to de
stroy rats and mice, which harbor
under such protection, and getting
in a well-filled crib would increase
enormously before spring, with no
chance for destroying them. If we
have not rat or mice-proof dribs, it
is at least an advantage to begin
the year with cribs free imm this
kind of vermin.
LATE SEEDING WITH TIMOTHY.
If the surface is in fine tilth tim
othy seed may be sojvvn almost
until time for freezing? up of the
ground J It will be covered sufti-
ciently bv freezing aiuU thawing of
the soil in winter and without injury
to the seed. It is much more hardy
than clover or any kind of grain.
But this late-sown timothy will not
be forward enough to cut next sea
son. With a winter grain crop this
is an advantage, as in too large a
growth of grass the grain is often
i.ijured.
EXTRA FEED FOR COWS.
As cold weather approaches, it
will require tne best extorts ol iar
mers to prevent serious shrinkage
of milk. Some loss is unavoidable,
but if the yield falls off greatly it
shows that the cow gets insufficient
food, and this will make her poor
and decrease her value for another
year. If the cow is with calf it is
not. best to give her food for stim
ulating milk flow for three or four
months before her time for calving.
Trying to get all the profit there is
in a cow in one season spoils her
usefulness for one or two years
after.
DRAINING SINK-HOLES.
Just before winter farm help may
be hired more cheaply than during
the busier season. It is probably
the best time to do odd jobs that
have been neglected from year to
year. Wet places in fields that can
not be got at while covered with
crops may be drained, and if the
field has been cultivated during the
summer much of the work may be
done with teams and plow. When
the drain is lowered as much as
possible by these means twelve to
eighteen inches additional may be
sunk by hand, and stone or tile laid
for a water-course. The filling-in
may be done almost with the plow.
KEEPING WINTER PEARS.
Pears require greater care in
handling and management to make
them keep well than any other
fruit. M any are lost in summer
from being left to ripen on the tree,
when, expecting the Bartlett, most
of them wiil decav at the centre be
fore being soft outside. Winter
pears are scarcely ever appreciated
in the fall. Hard and worthless as
they seem, they will ripen up if kept
in a dar.c, cool place, bringing a few
into greater warmth to hasten ripen
ing until all are gone.
: EARLY-CUT HAY.
If hy were cut earlier horses
could be kept on it with less grain.
It has at this time the sweet, rich
juices which as grass ripens harden
into woody fibre and become nearly
worthless. It is a mistake to sup
pose 1 that early-cut hay is more lia
ble to injury in curing. Though
wet with rains and badly colored it
is much better than it looks. Over
ripe hay, on the contrary, is nearly
ruined by exposure to rains. When
dried out and wet its soluble parts
are easily wasted and grain has to
be fed to make good the loss. Mr.
Terry of Ohio has for five years kept
his horses without grain, and they
have been fat while at hard work
all the time. With ordinary late
cut hay this could not be done. The
crop of early hay will not be less
per acre, but with clover, two and
even more cuttings may be made in
a season.
SMUT IN CORN.
The black mould found on corn is
not a disease of the grain, but a fun
dus growth on its surface, the same
as rust on wheat. In wet weather
it absorbs the juices of the ear, dry
ing up finally and leaving millions
of spores, which find a lodgement
and are ready next season to repro
duce themselves. If care is taken
not to carry any smutty cars to the
corncrib or the barnyard, the fungus
may be exterminated. It should
not be fed to stock, as it will get
into the manure and bo carried on
the corn ground in the spring. If
corn is grown after corn the disease
becomes very prevalent, showing
that the spores live in winter on the
ground, or more probably on or un
der pieces of corn stubble.
ASSORTING PIGS.
In a large litter of pigs there are
always one or two runts or under
lings, and as they grow older the
disparity is apt to increase rapidly
by the stronger crowding the
weaker away from the teat while
sucklinr, and later from the feeding
troughs. Before they are old
enough to wean the tendency of a
few to get ahead of the remainder
will require some watching to pre
vent the weaker from being stunted.
Nothing is quite so good for young
pigs as their mother's milk. When
old enough to wean take off the best
and put them in a separate pen with
abundance of good food. Keep the
the remainder with the sow one or
two weeks longer, or until it has
evened up somewhat with the others.
It will be impossible even with the
best care to make the poorer pigs
equal to those that first took the
lead. The effect of high feeding,
however, will make them fatten ra
ther than grow. If this is found to
be the case kill them for pig pork
Lbefore severe cold weather comes.
There is more profit in such pigs by
uilling them early than by trying to
keep over winter.
KEEPING SEED-CORN.
The keeping of the corn is as im
portant as the gathering of it. It is
true that good keeping will not
make good seed of poor corn, corn
improperly selected, but on the other
hand, poor keeping will destroy the
best seed. The secret of good keep
ing lies in getting and keeping the
corn dry. A very low temperature
will not injure the germ if it is not
surrounded by moisture, whereas a
temperature no lower than the
freezing point will destroy enough
germs to make the corn unfit for
planting if it is damp at the time.
The corn must be well cured after it
is gathered, and for curing there is
no better place that some out build
ing where there is a free circulation
of the air. The corn should be
spread out not more than one ear
deep on boards some distance from
the ground, if near the ground it
will be very slow to cure, as it will
absorb moisture from the earth.
Often it requires corn longer to cure
out than a person supposes. Some
few years ago. a very careful farmer
gathered a fine lot of seed-corn
in the fall, and, as he thought,
cured it out thoroughly before he
put it away for the winter. One
day in the winter he went to look at
it, and when he uncovered it was
g eatly astonished to find it covered
with frost, it had not absorbed the
moisture after being put away ; the
moisture had always been in it
After corn is completely cured out
it matters little how or where it is
kept, so that it does not absorb
moisture and vermin do not infest
it. Of course very low temperatures
are to be avoided, yet cold will have
little effect upon it if it is perfectly
free from moisture. It is the com
bination of cold and moisture that
proves fatal to the germ. The
Maryland Farmer.
INJURIOUS MILK ODORS-HOW
TO PREVENT OR' GET RID
OF THEM.
At the ninth annual meeting of
the New York Darymen's Associa
tion the subject of disagreeable and
injurious odors in milk was brought
up by B. I). Gilbert, who stated that
a friend had a dairy which pro
duced the richest of milk, and, al
though the milk was rich, it smelled
very strongly of the stable, yet
everything about the stable was
perfectly clean. Why should the
milk smell so strong of the stable,
and be so disagreeable to drink?
Prof. Arnold remarked in reply
as follows: "You may lay it down
as a certainty that the stable is not
properly ventilated. An animal
will take in an odor into any of its
liquid secretions at once, and most
readily through its breath. A cow
barely smelling of onions will have
onion taste in her milk immediately.
I saw last summer a cow tethered to
the leeward of a lot of onions, and
in a little while her milk tasted so
strongly of onions that it was unfit
to use."
"A cow going into a stable filled
with air permeated with the odor
from solid and liquid excrements,
will inhale that effluvia and carry it
into her milk in fifteen minutes af
ter the exposure: You cannot only
smell the odor, but you can taste it.
Winter milking demands proper
ventilation of the stables."
"Stables should be so ventilated
that the air designed for ventilation
should come into the tie-up in front
of the cows, and go out upwards be
hind them. Most people ventilate
at the rear of the cows, thus driving
the effluvia of the offal past their
heads into the middle of the cow
barn, going up and passing off in
that way. Others shut the cows up
so tight
that the odor cannot get
away. nen tne air becomes Joaded
with it, and it is carried into the se
cretions as effectually as though you
had taken some of the offal and
thrown it into the pail, or the cow
had put her foot into the pail.'.'
"I went into a very expensively
built stable a few years ago, where
no outlay had been spared in the
arrangements for getting rid of the
manure and for keeping the cattle
warm. The most convenient arran
gement was made for feeding ensi
lage, but the windows were kept
behind the cows, and ventilation,
passed off in front of them. I suit
gested to the owner that this was
the reason why there was a stable
taste in his milk, butter and cheese.
I informed him that the air should
come in at the cows' heads, and go
out loaded with foul matter where
it would not reach the nostrils of
the animals. It is a health-producing
cause to have fresh air come in
front of individuals or animals."
"Cows exposed to this impure air
may be turned out and milked in
the open air and it will still have the
objectionable flavor. You may take
such milk in a bottle as drawn from
the cow and carry it out of the
stable, it will still have the bad
flavor. I have taken it in my mouth
from the cow and it had the objec
tionable taste."
Major Alvord disagreed with Prof.
Arnold, believing the milk far more
susceptible to taint from the air
than through the animal. He be
lieved it comparatively easy to de
odorize and disinfect the milk after
coming from the animal. He be
lieved that although an animal may
have become tainted, the milk
would be free from odor and taint if
the animal were milked in the open
air where there was a good stiff
breeze. Tainted milk, if from odors,
may be purified by thorough oxida
tion, through milking in the open
air, or, if that be not practicable, by
airing and cooling the milk. Faults
of feeding or ventilation may render
milk through a tainted atmosphere
extremely disagreeable, and spoil it,
yet it may be perfectly good in case
it is drawn in fresh air under proper
conditions. The Maryland Farmer.
WINTER POTATO HOUSE.
Some one of your subscribers
wants a plan for a potato house. If
he is really in earnest I propose to
give him the best and cheapest plan
for a potato house he could ever get,
and not only to him but to all potato-growers
throughout the South. I
have used it for several . years and
find the plan perfectly safe from
rot or damage. I got it from an old
farmer of forty years experience,
who says he never lost forty bush
els during the whole forty years.
I have given it to farmers in Ala
bama who have tried the plan with
perfect success and satisfactory re
sults. With several years , experi
ence T find - no plan to equal it,
although it is so incredible to
inexperienced farmers that few will
try it. Nevertheless, I will give
it, and if farmers lose their fine
crop of potatoes now on hand they
alone will be to blame if they fail
to adopt it.
Bank up in the old fashioned way
using pine straw and leaves next to
the potatoes, and then cover over
with corn stalks so as to turn
water. Cover the whole with earth
six inches deep, running the hill up
to a sharp point, having no ventila
tion at the top or elsewhere. Do
this as soon as dug out of the
ground, or the same day; cover
with nothing in the way of a shed
covering not even a plank on the
top. Let them take the weather as
it comes, and if you dont have pota
toes as long as they will last, well
preserved and sound until used up
you will have a different experience
from mine and many others who
have tried the experiment. The na
ture of sweet potatoes is to live ex
cluded from the atmosphere, or else
they would have grown upon the
earth instead of in the earth. Going
through a sweat is necessary to
sweetness and does not damage the
potatoes. I have written thus plain
ly that I may be understood by far
mers who have fine crops of pota
toes. S. 67. Robertson in Southern
Cultivator.
SELECTING SEED CORN.
The losses that occur every year
from the employment of defective
or inferior seed corn ought to im
press every farmer with the neces
sity of a careful selection of seed at
time of harvesting the crop. While
the corn is yet standing in the fields
this selection can readily and judi
ciously made, but the corn once in
the bins the farmer labors under se
rious disadvantages. In selecting
seed four points should be taken
into consideration first, ear
liness of maturity; second, number
of ears uponastalk; third, size of
stalks; and fourth, perfection of the
ears. Like produces like with seed
as with animals. One cannot ex
pect to produce a large crop of corn
when, for instance, five stalks have
grown in a hill and but one has
borne an ear. Every farmer knows
that such corn is useless for seed.
The best ear for seed corn is the
one that is uniform in size through
i i. ...uk .v. A
uut in uiuiiu luiiiitii, wiiii snail' ii if
rows ana well-formed grains the
entire length. I
Seed corn must be gathered bj
fore freezing weather and place jl
where it will begin immediately tp
dry. In the northern belt of Statej
this drying question is an important
one, for if the corn especially the
larger varieties be not subjected tb
favorable conditions for drying, so
that the seed corn will become thor
oughly cured, cob included, it will
result in failure through lack of ger
minating powers, while if properly
cured it will sprout and grow under,
any condition.
Many farmers after having sun
dried their seed corn store it in the
lofts of their smoke houses in order
that it may become permeated with
the creosote from the smoke there,
and thus gain a protection, when
planted, against the depredations of
field mice, worms and squirrels.
N. Y. World.
r i
TO KEEP SWEET POTATOES.
Sweet potateos can be kept by
placing them in bulk in a bin or box
(the more the better) without dry
ing, and maintaining for them a uni
form temperature of 45 to 50
Putti ng something between, among
or around them may serve to keep
them at the proper temperature, but
it is of no value whatever aside from
this; and if it should retain damu-
ness, it will be a positive injury.
After the sweat takes place, say in
three or four weeks, scatter over
them a light covering of dry loam
or sand. In this way it is easy to
keep sweet potatoes for table use
or for seed, as well as the " inferior
and less nourishing Irish potato."
Another way is to pack in barrels,
and pour in kiln-dried sand until the
intervals are full or boxes of uniform j
size, piled up on the side of a room
where the temperature never falls
to the freezing point, which is a
condition of first importance. This
wall of boxes may be papered over
and left undisturbed till spring'
when the potatoes will command
the highest prices. The Maryland
Farmer.
DON'T WASTE LIQUID Ma
w -"iMUKE
s'-- -
The value of liquid manure ur.n
lawn, grass, young grain, cabbalo?
turnips, spinach and strawberrio
applied in autumn, and to ni.u 1
more crops in spring, is perln?'
theoretically understood bv nvi !
people, but very seldom expert n"?
ally demonstrated in actual Us
Like a great many other thin,
involves a little trouble at the oUt
set. At the east we had a wet se
son up to the first part of AuUsl"
at least. A small amount of watei!
carrying a very little manure-water
produces a marked effect : in fac.t
water alone is a great tiling aiHi
with a proper cart very easyto ap
ply. Manure-water is easily ,na'iL.
A sunken hogshead in the barnyan
covered with a lot of white oak sani
lings four or five inches thron'r ,
will till up with the tirst rain and'
strong enough to make the croiK
-e
laugh over an acre or more of land
if mixed with plenty of water. The
application should not be stronger
than one-fourth manure-water to
three parts water. Nitrate of soda
may be very effectively applied in
this way, say one pound to ten gal
lons of water, or three pounds to
the barrel. American Agriculturist.
TO KEEP ONIONS.
Gather in fall and remove the
tops; then spread upon a barn floor
or in any open shed, and allow them
to remain there until thoroughly
dry. Put into barrels or small bins
or boxes, and place in a cool place,
and at the approach of cold weather
cover with straw or chaff, if there is
danger of severe freezing.
Onions are often injured in the
winter by keeping them in too
warm a place. They will seldom be
injured by frost if kept in the dark,
and in tight barrel or boxes, where
not subjected to frequent changes of
temperature. It is the alternate
freezing and thawings that destroy
them, and if placed in a position
where they will remain frozen all
winter, and then thawed out slowly
and in a dark place, no considerable
injury would result from this appa
rently harsh treatment. Onions
should always be stored in the cool
est part of the cellar, or put in chaff
and set in the barn or some out
house. The Maryland Farmer. j
yS FARMERS' GATHERINGS.
No class of our citizens can make
a success of their calling without
sociable gatherings, consultations.
! Vi r ie v i.i :
discussions am
i (r
mutual good.
We see this iiwll the trade unions
the Knights at Lahor, the various
organizations of manufacturers, the
dealers inpecial corumodities, and
even in the political parties.
The same holds goocf with the
Farmers. They must get together,
consult, discuss and plan. They
must go even further than this ; they
must make plans and carry them
out.
Organized effort will accomplish
vastly more than any known method
of proceeding; and there are many
I and great objects which the farmers
siiouiu enueavor 10 unng auoui.
The first step, however, is for
them to .institute gatherings, clubs,
small societies, meetings of every
description, and may the coming
winter find such in every neighbor
hood. New Farm.
PEANUTS.
We see that the peanut crop of
of 1886 is estimated at about 3,500,
000 bushels worth about $3,000,
OOOt Of this important crop, Vir
ginia raises 2,500,000 bushels, and
the culture of this nobby nut is con
fined to about a half a dozen coun
ties in the south eastern corner of
the State. Of the 2,500,000 bushels
raised in' Virginia, it is quite sale i
say that this city (Norfolk) will
handle nearly 2,000,000 bushels.
The crop is annually growing in i"1
portanee as new uses are found for
the nut and also for the vines. The
nut brings a fair profit, equal to
corn.. The vine is nearly or q"lte
as valuable as clover hay and after
the nuts are dug enough still remain
in the ground to offer sufficient in
ducement to the hogs to root the
ground over thoroughly and to hit
ten at the same time. It is lr
Virginia- an important crop, ana
brings annually, large sums of nione)
into "the State from abroad.-"
folk Cornucopia.
There are in the employment of
the government 550 Smiths, rfW
Browns, 320 Johnsons and 'u
Joneses. .

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