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The progressive farmer. [volume] (Winston, N.C.) 1886-1904, November 24, 1886, Image 1

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I 5BlE ftlOGRESSITE 'fiblER.
77 INDUSTRIAL AND EDUCATIONAL INTERESTS OF OUR PEOPLE PARAMOUNT TO ALL OTHER CONSIDERATIONS OF STATE POLICY.
Vol. 1.
WINSTON, N. O., NOVEMBER 24, 1886.
No. 42.
OUR FARMERS CLUBS.
What our Farmers are Doing and How
the Work of Organizing is Progressing.
TRINITY CLUB.
Discussion : Hotc to Make Money on
the Farm.
Dr. Parker. Mr. Sumner, a mem
ber of our club, asks the question,
How can we make money on our
farms? and it is certain that we are
all deeply concerned in the solution
of this problem, standing as we now
do at the end of a very unfavorable
season for paying crops. With
irregular and uncertain labor, with
short crops' and low prices, with
taxes to be paid in this month and
other outstanding debts to be pro
vided for, with all these things press
ing upon the farmer, the outlook,
we must admit, is rather gloomy.
But notwithstanding all the bitter
experiences of 1886 on the farmers
I am fully satisfied that there is not
I only a good living to be made on
our ordinary iarms; out tnat there
is a handsome profit besides to be
made alone by farming. To do this
however, the soil must be rich, deep
clean and well drained, the seeding
and planting must be done in good
time and the tillage skillfully per
formed. A well started crop is usu
ally profitable and one put in late or
under unfavorable conditions is sel
dom satisfactory. Be ready, and
be in time if you would succeed in
any calling and especially is this
true with the farmer. As farming
is the real basis of all other business
it must thrive and flourish or com
merce and all trade will languish.
Whether we make money or not
depends upon our skill and our busi
ness habits. We must manage well
and work well and grow such crops
as we know will pay. I will men
tion a few. Wheat raising if well
done will pay, so with corn, as you
all know who have tried the proper
cultivation of these, to ug,ind ispensa
blc crops. Sweet potatoes, every far
mer should grow largely of this im
portant crop for home use and to
sell. They are easily raised and will
pay. I am selling off my entire
crop readily at forty cents per
bushel. Tobacco and cotton are
both doubtful crops for us to tamper
with. Unless we make a first class
article of the former and two bales
to the acre of the latter, we had bet
ter leave them out of our rotation of
crops altogether. Raise horses,
mules and cattle. Good beef brings
the easn" at any time in our home
markets here. There is never any
trouble in selling a good mule or
horse for the cash. Raising sheep
and hogs pays. We must raise our
own meat and meal. The clover
and grass crop is very valuable,
directly as a money crop, besides it
adds immensely to the fertility of
our lands. Clover is the farmer's
stepping stone to fortune. Raise
Irish potatoes, beets and turnips in1
ample abundance. There is pay in
each and all of them. Increase the
production per acre of whatever
crop you grow and work fewer
acres.
A. Parker. Of course management
has a great deal to do with the mon
eyed products of the farm, but you
must have good, rich, clean land to
draw from if you expect to make
money off of the farm. Any farmer
with a large family to support and
educate, living on poor land need
not look for much money until he
brings his land to a high state of
fertility. Although the process of
reclaiming and enriching poor land
is a slow and tedious one yet it may
be done and a paying yield obtained.
A man who economizes and foregoes
many of the comforts of farm life
and still labors on to enrich poor
lands deserves the commendation of
all.
W. O. Harris. It is utter folly for
any man to attempt to make money
by farming unless he saves up closely.
While such wastes prevail on the
majority of our farms, how can we
hope to make money? We must
save if we expect to have. When I
was a boy, even the well-to-do farm
ers in my section made the most
they wore and ate; if they did not
they did without. We buy at the
store more than we should. Most
any man on the land we have
around here can live and make
money alone by farming, if he will
onIy try. Notwithstanding the low
price of flour there is money to be
made in raising wheat, but we must
quit the indiscriminate buying of so
much phosphate. I believe in the
use of phosphate but we must not
go in debt for it. The large per
cent on time buyers eats up the
profits. Mr. John Dorsett is making
nice money on cattle. He has just
sold a milch cow to a neighbor for
$50. ;
There is big money on clover as
an improver of land. The hay and
seed make also a handsome income.
One of my neighbors, C. P. Keerans,
sold off two acres of clover twenty
one dollars worth of hay and kept
six one-horse loads for his own use,
and realized twenty-eight dollars for
seed of the second crop, making a
total of $62, besides leaving the land
in the very best condition for a
wheat crop. Herein lies the great
value of clover, you reap a paying
crop and at the same time enrich
your land. Wheat drills, reapers,
mowTers, horse rakes and improved
farm implements generally make us
farm better, and enable us to do
more of it ourselves and thereby be
independent of uncertain labor.
D. M. Payne. To make a surplus
and place it where it is secured
without detriment to the capital in
vested is the key to success in any
enterprise. Banking institutions
are not always safe. Some of them
fail. A person having a surplus and
a safe depository for it is financially
sound and happy so far as this
world's goods can make him. To
claim such a depository would seem
absurd, but such is in reach of every
young farmer and that too without
the expense of a paid set of officers
at large salaries, such as presidents,
cashiers, tellers and directors. Banks
fail when officials act perfunctory.
To sail clear of such breakers the
farmer should have one of his own
offered by himself. Such a one
was established when this planet
was hurled into motion, which gave
us the seasons, and branches
have been chartered . at the ex
ecution of every deed of con
veyance since. The landlord who
has a paid up stock in such is the
happy possessor of one of his own;
so secure that moth nor rust cannot
corrupt, nor thieves break through
and steal. None so needy as to steal
dirt. Now to operate such an insti
tution successfully is plain and com
paratively easy. It only requires
honest, manly, healthy labor, which
none should evade. Manage to keep
the farm at or above par by an in
crease of fertility. To do this all
cumberers should be destroyed at a
stage that precludes the possibility
of seeding either at the root or
bloom. Never suffer your stock to
depreciate on your hands. Never
draw from it only for family supplies
and on no account let them exceed
your deposits. Draws for fertilizers
of whatever kind and prudently
made must be placed in the credit
column, which will strengthen the
stock in trade. Prudent purchases
of fertilizers are good investments
and always pay a handsome divi
dend. In this way you may make
safe deposits for all surpluses. This
is the farmer's bank. With the
management indicated I have never
known one to suspend. One mistake
often made is purchasing more land
than you can pay for, and thus bur
den yourself with accumulating
interest, goes in the debt column.
This cripples energy and fertility,
and has a depreciating tendency,
mildly called in financial circles em
barrassment. The limit of yield has
never been reached. It is a mathe
matical problem to be solved by an
increasing geometrical progression.
When one limit is found another is
in store by the same ratio. The
amount of energy thus enkindled
is not to be measured by human
desire. The blessings to the human
race that might be made grow out
of such a course can be computed
only by the same rule and for want
of a limit would never cease.
NATURALIZED AMERICAN
SWINE.
In addition to the articles on dis
tinctively American breeds of swine
in which the Poland-China, Chester
White, Duroc-Jersey, and the Victo
rias of New York and of the West,
were treated of, we give some of
the characteristics of our naturalized
English breeds.
The Berkshires were originally
more or less sandy,,, as introduced
into the United States about fifty
years ago, but have since been great
ly improved. They are black, with
white on the feet, face, tip of tail
and an occasional spiash on the arm
or some part of the body. The face
is short, fine, dished; ears ill most
erect, but inclining forward: back
straight, body round, tail fine, legs
short and set well apart, length
medium, bone fine. They mature
very early. Their flesh is well mar
bled and skin thin, and they have a
large proportion of lean flesh to fat.
Any white on the hog should be
avoided.
The Small Yorkshire is a white
breed. Their faces are very dishing
giving a rather snubbed off expres
sion; ears nearly erect, inclining for
ward. In general form they possess
much genuine value, are very popu
lar in England for their early matur
ity and are becoming more and more
sp year by year. The Suffolks are
small white hogs, with very thin
hair and fine pink skin. They are
popular with amateurs and villagers.
These swine are really modified
Yorkshires. They mature early,
and make fine, delicate pork if killed
at eight to ten months old.
The Essex, a blue-black hog, have
many points of excellence, some
what resembling the Yorkshire ex
cept in color. They are popular in
the Eastern States, and of late years
have grown in favor in the West,
for all those who admire a medium
sized black hog. Farm, Field and
Stockman.
OUR POOR BUTTER.
The poor quality of butter which
comes to market is a standing
reproach to American dairymen and
farmers. The consumers of butter
have in many cases given their sym
pathy to the makers of artificial
butter on the grounds that this pro
duct is actually more eatable than
that of the farm. This is an unim
peachable fact, and should bring
shame to many who have so loudly
complained of the disastrous compe
tition of the artificial product. No
producer of any kind of food need
fear competition so long as the qual
ity of his products is satisfactory,
and to make them so should be the
study of every butter and cheese
maker. It is not impossible nor
even difficult to make good butter.
There are a few guiding rules which
have been mentioned so often that
they are well known; the only
trouble is that dairymen are too
careless to practice them. Oleomar
garine is a legalized product, and
butter makers have a fair chance
and a clear course before them to
keep ahead of it. If they are beaten
it will bo their own fault. New
York Times.
Mr. J. L. Honneycutt of Cham
bersburg township, one i day last
week killed a pig which was nine
months old and of the old scrub
stock which weighed 222 Ibs net
A citizen of this place who is
from 60 to 65 years old, bought the
other day, the first ready-made
article of wearing apparel he ever
bought in his life. It was a pair of
pantaloons and J. Harvey Stevenson,
Esq., was the purchaser. Statesville
Landmark.
W. J. Caton has two very large
hogs. They are just 14 months old
and judges say they will weigh 400
pounds net.
The geological survey party
broke up camp here last week, and
drove their 13 horses to Morganton.
Their equipment has been ware
housed in Lenoir until next spring,
when work will be resumed here.
Lenoir Topic.
The cotton seed oil mill began
work this week on 200 tons of seed.
The season has opened lively and
the prospects are that the mill will
suceed in buying enough seed to
keep it running all the year. Eliza
beth City Economist.
There are thousands upon thous
ands of acres of our most fertile lands
that will lie idle next year if the
stock law is repealed, for the people
will not be able to do the fencing, in
fact our fences had about rotted down
before the present law went into ef
fect. : Warrenton Gazette.
Friend Will Bonner has placed
on our table a parsnip which grew
in the Captain's garden. It weighs
six pounds and a quarter, and is a
curiosity worth seeing. W. H.
Moreslander, of Blount's creek, on
Saturday night, week ago, killed a
300 pound bear on his farm. He
was a big fellow for a fact. We
were shown one of his paws on
which measured 2 inches. Wash
ington Gazette.
Capt. E. J. Parrish, one of the
livest men in the State will rebuild
at once and be ready to sell the far
mer's tobacco in a few weeks.
The smoke from over 1,000,000
pounds of tobacco now ascends from
the smouldering embers. Truly
Durham is to-day a great smoking
tobacco town. Capt. C. A. W.
Barham has some silver sugar tongs
made in 1782. They have been in
continuous use for one hundred and
four years. Durham Recorder.
There is a great scarcity of good
seed wheat and oats, but our farm
ers are managing to get in a good
crop, especially of wheat. Nor are
they done sowing, but are pushing
the work forward vigorously.
The corn crop of the county and of
the state has turned out well the
best that has been gathered for
years. Some say they have made
more this year than for the two
past seasons. The wheat and oat
crops with us were a failure but
taking it all in all it is perhaps the
best we have had since 1880.
Chatham Home.
The cars of the Cape Fear &
Yadkin Valley railroad are at Be
lew's Creek, seven miles from Wal
nut Cove. We learn that Messrs.
McRae & Cb. are going right ahead
mining for silver a short distance
from Danbury. It is said that sev
eral samples of the ore have been
assayed, and so well are the parties
satisfied that it will pe a paying en
terprise that they are having houses
put up preparatory for permanent
work. It is said that the ore is very
rich and the outcrops are visablefor
several miles along the side of the
mountain. Danbury Reporter.
Daniel Bray has a small hound
with which he caught more than
100 rabbits last winter, and accord
ing to his start he will make an im
provement on his record during this
winter. Milk cattle are in lively
demand. We heard no less than a
half dozen parties enquire for cows
during the last week but we did not
know where to send them. There
were several good hogs killed in
this neighborhood last week. Mahlon
Charles killed one that weighed 360
pounds; Pleasant Bodenhamer one,
386 pounds; Henry Stewart and
David Wilson also killed Rome good
ones. William Cook, of Waughtown
killed a pig six months old that
weighed 224 pounds. Salem Press.
The cotton factory shipped last
week 29,524 yards of chambrays and
27,747 yards of bag cloth, worth
$3,239.09. Durham shipped last
week 52,754 pounds of smoking
tobacco worth $20,239.58; 1,300
pounds of snuff ; 4,742,000 cigarettes
worth $15,484.50. At the warehouses
last week 58,972 pounds of leaf to
bacco were sold for $3,415.21.
Capt. E. J. Parrish is the largest to
bacco buyer and wholesale leaf
tobacco dealer in the State. He had
the largest warehouse in the State
and last year sold over 80,000,000
pounds of leaf tobacco upon his floor
over 2,000,000 pounds of which he
bought himself. Durham Plant.
EFFECT OF MANURE ON SOILS.
The effect of manure on soils is
various. LQng manure on sandy
soils tends to make the land still
more dry, and hence should only be
applied to this kind of soil in a thor
oughly rotted, condition or better as
compost. What sandy soils lack, as
a rule, is humus, and compost or
thoroughly rotted manure is just the
condition to kindly perform this
office.
Many persons, perhaps a majority,
suppose that manures leach down
through the soils and are lost. If
the soil is nearly a clear sand this
effect will take place if some crop is
not growing thereon. But crops on
sandy soils, in the presence of
manure, eat out the manure very
fast, and hence this apparent dis
appearance of manure is accounted
for. It goes quickly into the crop
if in a soluble state.
Loams and clays, on the contrary
take up and hold the manure indef
initely if not accepted by crops. If
occupied by crops, it is given up, 5
but all the constituents of plant
growth being present, the eating
out of the manure is not so quickly
seen.
The reason why manure is more
quickly eaten out of sandy soils is
that they are more porous than clay
soils and hence more amenable to
the action of the oxygen of the air,
and this action of oxygen upon any
material liable to decay is what re
duces such material to a state by
which it may be taken up by the
plants,
Hence, if the soil is clayey, long
undigested manure will be indicated.
It tends to render such soils more
light and porous. On sandy soils
every means possible should be used
to render the soil as compact as pos
sible, while the naturally firm clays
should be used to render them the
most productive. Yet there should
always be a due relation to com
pactness in any soil to reach the
best results.- Farm, Field and Stock
man. PACK THE LUNGS WITH AIR.
Deep breathing and holding of
the breath is an item of importance.
Persons of weak vitality find an un
interrupted succession of deep and
rapid respiration so distressing that
they are discouraged from persever
ing in the exercise. Let such per
sons take into the lungs as much
air as they can at a breath, and
hold it as long as they can, and
they will find a grateful sense of re
lief in the whole abdominal region.
Practice will increase ability to
hold the breath and the capacity
of the lungs. After a time the art
may be learned of packing the
lungs. This is done by taking and
holding the long breath, and then
forcing more air down the tracha
by swallows of air. The operation
may be described by that of a fish's
mouth in water. To those who have
never learned it, it will be surprising
to what extent the lungs may be
packed. Caution at first is needful
but later practice will warrant large
use of the treatment. The whole
thoracic and abdominal cavities .will
receive immediate benefit, and tem
perance in eating, good airand right
exercise will bring welcome improve
ment. Herald of Health..
. i"
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