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SIVE J FARMER, EdEMBEft '8, 1886:
4 IE PROGRESSIVE FARMfR. a ; Jii L POLK. - - - EDITO P. F. DUFFY, ASSOCIATE " WIITSTOIT, IT. C. UBS OB IP TI O N : $2.00 FOR ONE YEAR. $1.00 FOR 6 MONTHS POST-PAID, Invariably in Advance Subscribers will be notified two weeks before their time expires and if they do not renewjthe -paper will be stopped promptly. Liberal inducements to clubs. Active agents wanted in every county, jcity town and village in the State. Write for terms. Money at our risk, if sent by registered letter or money order. j Advertising Rates quoted on application. Oa all matters relating to the paper, I Address I THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER Winston, Sf. C, o To Correspondents. "Write all communications, designed for lication. on one side of the paper. Reiected communications will be num and tiled, and the author will be notifle not anDlied for in 30 days they will stroyed. To secure their return postage must be sent with the applicatiou. Answers to) en quiries will be made through our " Correspon dents Column " when it can be done with pro priety. We want inteligent correspondents in every county in the State. We want facts ol value, results accomplished of value, experi ences of value, plainly and briefly told. (Jne solid, demonstrated fact is worth a thousand theories. Address all communications to The Progressive Farmer, Winston, N. Wirton, Jf. C, t. 8, l8ftft. This paper entered as second class matter at the. Post QJice in Winston, JV. C THE CROSS MARK. The cross mark on your paper in dicates that the time for which you subscribed has or is about to expire. It is to give notice so your subscrip tion may be renewed. If the sub scription be not renewed the name wilt: be dropped from the list, but we want every one to renew and bring a friend along too. Read our advertisements. And you will do us a great favor when you speak or write of them, to men tion The Progressive Farmer. Congress met in short session Mon day. , It has not yet fairly got to work. President Cleveland was confined a few days last week to his room with rheumatism. It is stated that within the past three months sixty-five railroad compa nies have been organized in the South. More heavy earthquake shocks were felt in Charleston on 1st instant, severe enough to shake plastering from ceilings. The jail at Greensboro caught fire Saturday, night, but after hard work was extinguished. There were 38 prisoners, mostly negroes, confined in it. The U. S. Treasury paid out nearly $14,000,000 for pensions in the month of November. The reduction in the public debt was a little over a million. .Justices Wood, Field, Miller and Bradley, of the U. S. Supreme Court, are all over seventy and can retire if they desire. Chief Justice Waite is seventy. . . The loss caused by the late strike of men employed in pork packing estab lishments of Chicago is estimated At $1,000,000, to strikers, emplovees nd others. It is said that Mark Twain has made a million and a half dollars by his town writings and publishing books of oth He made . a big pile of money out o Grant's book. The Life-Saving Service has saved 2,699 lives, and' yet there is no depart ment of the Government service in which those employed receive poorer pay than this. The specie ' held by the national banks in 1866 was $19,000,000; in Octo ber, 1875, it was only $8,000,000, while in July, 1885, it was $117,000,000, and is now $156,000,000. There is a negro in Louisiana, now 74 years old, who swore before the fed eral court that he was the father of 165 children. Some of his boys were killed in the war and he was applying for a pension. In the communication signed Farm er, on 2nd page, the writer gives his views in unequivocal language, and sounds a clarion note for the convention. He is one of the prominentagriculturists of the central portion pfMhe State, noted for his public spiritnb zal in any move ment calculated to'promoteNlhe interests of the farmer, his progression ess, and his ierseverance and determnaation in carrying out movements starte in the interest of his brother farmers. He is as honest in purpose as he is plain and candid in speech. 7 bub- bfered 4 H bd de- A GROWING SENTIMENT. There is :a growing sentiment," among others as well as farmers, in this State that the $7,500 annual interest on the $125,000 land scrip fund donated by the Congress of the United States for the support of an Agricultural and Mechanical College, should no longer be used by the University but should be applied to the object for winch it wasHvtended. This sentiment apes not grow out of any hostility to the University, for among those who. entertain it are some of the bestWishers of that institution, but they insist that it should, so to spek,tand upon its own feet and upon its own merits. They do not Relieve tmat it has any right in law .nor in morals to appro priate and use what does not belong to it. It js not an agricultural nor mechanical college, nor has it any agricultural, or mechanical college connected with it to justify such appropriation. The pretense that there is an agricultural college there because of an occasional lecture on some subject bearing directly or indirectly upon agriculture will not do. It might as well be asserted that they have also a naval school if, perhaps, they have lectures some times on the tides, ocean currents, navigation, &c. This matter is get ting to be pretty well understood among the people and the better it is understood the more imperative becomes the demand that this money shall cease to be diverted from the use for which it was intended, and that it be applied honestly to the use for which it was intended, and that if it cannot be so applied now that it be saved and funded that it may be so applied when practicable. This is all they ask, no more. It is right, it is reasonable. They seek to take nothing from the University that belongs to it, they simply ask it to surrender what does not belong to it. This money has been expended year after year until it has reached the sum of ever $82,000, by far - the greater portion of which has been paid by the farmers of the State in the way of taxes to make good the loss of a fund originally theirs, but lost to them bv the criminal or bad management of others, and there is neither reason nor justice in requiring thein to continue; to pay this annual interest tax, ostensibly levied fbrtljeir : benefit, if it is to continue "to ?go I fori the llenefit of others, and not for them. They are getting, tired of it, and, more than that they are becoming indignant that they should have been imposed upon so long, because they, did not exactly understand how the matter stood and supposed it was all right. But the men who dig their living out of the ground are becoming bet ter posted, and they, and others who are not farmers but who believe in fair play and honest dealing, believe and demand that the legislature should cry a halt in this matter arid that the farmers' money should go honest lvi-tW-foiMaiera, and not to thoSttue University n&mto any er State institution. AN IMPORTANT MEASURE. 1 ... . , . In thefirst session of the Forty ninth CongreJIon. W W. Hatch of Missouri, mirodrtced in the House of RepretfenWtives a bill to establish experjmemtations in the several Statesand territories which have agricultural colleaes established under the 'provisions of the land grant act of 1862. The objects of ine oni are set ionn in section two as follows: Sec. 2 That it shall be the object and duty of said experiment stations to conduct original researches or verify experiments on the physiol ogy of plants or animals; the diseases to which they are severally subject, with'the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of useful plants at their different stages of growth; the comparative advantages of rota ive cropping as pursued under' a varying series of crops; the capacity of new plants or trees for acclima tion within the isothermal limits represented by the climate of the sev? eral stations and their vicinity ;! the analysis of soils and water; the chemical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experi ments designed to test their compar ative effects on crops of different kinds ; the adaptation ' and value of grasses and forage plants; the com position and dfgestibility of the dif ferent kinds o? food for domestic animals ; the scientific and economic questions involved in the production of butter and cheese; and such other researches or experiments bearing I V irectly on the agricultural indus- ot the United States as may in eavh case be deemed advisable, nav- ingViue regard to the varying con ditions and needs of the. respective states and territories. Seetion three provides that such experiment stations shall be under control of the governing bodies of sucn colleges, who snail have .the power to appoint A director and such assistants asmay be neces sary. Section four defects that to secure uniformity, of AvWk ' the U. S. commissioner? f Agriculture shall co-operate with suchVtations, furn ish forms as Jar as practicable for the tabulation Jbf reports Vnd furnish such advice and assistance as will best contribute to the promotion of the objects in view, but the commis sioner sjiall have no control over such stations. This section further directs that an annual report shall be made on or before the 1st day. of February of each year to the Gov ernor of the State or Territory in which such station may exist, of its operations, receipts and expendi tures of money, one copy of which shall be sent to the Commissioner of agriculture and another to the Secretary of the treasury. Section five directs, to make the work of such stations imme diately useful, that a bulletin be issued at least quarterly, a copy mailed to every paper published in the State or territory, and to every farmer requesting a copy, as far as the means of the station will per mit, such bulletins to be transmitted through the mails of the U. S. free of charge for postage. Section six provides that to defray the expenses of such stations and pay the necessary salaries, the sum of $15,000 be annually appropriated to each state or territory where such stations may have been or may be established, but when two sta tions are in operation it is provided in section one that the, appropria tion shall be equally divided between them unless the legislature shall otherwise direct. Section six further provides that out of the first annual appropriation a sum not exceeding one fifth may be expended in pro viding a building or buildings nec essary for carrying on the work of such station, and thereafter a sum not exceeding five per cent of such annual appropriation may be so ex pended. Section seven provides that when there may be any surplus, such surplus shall be deducted from the next' annual appropriation, so that no station shall annually receive more than is necessary to maintain and support it. lhis bill was read several tunes, referred to committees, ordered to be printed and reprinted with amendments. It was before the Senate, where it was discussed short ly before the adjournment, and laid over for further consideration until t Vi o nivf cociuinn T. l fi II it is simpiy ioiiowms: up anu ea rying out more fullyhe purpose c in view in establishing the agricultural colleges under the act of 1862. An ricultural college without an ex periment station or farm is practi eallV of little account, and while it is no contemplated in this act that the station with its farm of at least twenty -$ve acres, ibr which it: pro vides, shVll be for the use of the stu dents, thev would still derive great benefit from it because there the ex periments Would be conducted in a thoroughly scientific way. It is needless to say that such stations would pro re of vast benefit to the cause of ag iculture throughout the country and supported by an annual appropriation sufficient to meet their wants, would grow more useful every year. Acting in conjunction with the agricultural department at Wash ington, with the co-operation of a live, progressive man like Commis sioner 0olman,; therq would be sys tem ajd method in them, resulting in a Vast amount of practical results andiiseful information to the farm erof all sections of the country. Although North Carolina could not rat once avail herself of the appropri ation oecause as yet she has not an agricultural college; we trust; that the time is not far distant when we may have one; but whether or not we would like to see this measure passed because it would benefit the farmers of the land in whose interest it is proposed. It is due to them and it should pass , before the present session ends! Cutso Hito, the Mikado of Japan, wears a moustache and parts his hair in the middle. . . JOTTINGS BY THE WAYSIUE. How the gay and the sad, hap piness and misery, comfort and pov erty, are mixed up in this world! And nowhere, to an observant eye, can more of it be seen than on our great railroads. Seated in the car is a lady clad in the deepest mourn ing and bowed in grief--in the express car is a corpse. She, is fol lowing it to its last, resting place in the old family burying giuui.u Tn o H(Hit, near her and reading the Century is a man, evidently of cul: ture and wealth, whose costume shows him to be a sportsman, and in the same express car is his pointer dog for which he would not take a thousand dollars, cash. - n Prof. Mclver, once our State Superintendent of Public instruction, and who represented Mecklenburg in the legislature, and who is one of our best educators, has several farms and is therefore greatly interested in all that pertains to the advance ment of the farmers of the State. He said "I am strongly in favor of a farmers, convention and I hope to be able to attend it. I want to see if the convention can't devise some means to lead our people out from the meshes of the mortgage lien sys tem. I want the farmers to take some action also in regard to com mercial fertilizers. The excessive uso of them is ruining our people. I shall endeavor at once to organize a club and see that it is represented in the convention. y "The farmers of Georgia have two conventions each year, on in February and one in July. All the counties are represented and gener ally there are about 800 delegates present, the most enjoyable occasion of the whole year. They cannot do without it and you would be aston ished to see the. interest, they . take in it, the good it is doing in our State.". So said an intelligent Geor gian to me. Durham, plucky little Durham, is rising from her ashes and is rap idly rebuilding the burnt district. Her people are confident of the road from Lynchburg and talk hopefully of the Williamston & Tarboro being, extended to that place. Pipe is b ing laid from a water supply six miles distant and soon this firb scourged town will have plenty pf water. We doff our hat to Durhain in honor of her indomitable plufk and push, of which she possesses more than, any town in .the Sh to except, of course., our own thrivi lg and enterprising ,Twiu City. What are we to do for buildi lg lumber after awhile? The C. F. & Y. V. 'road an(l the Raleigh & Augusta Air Line are shipping njil tions of it away. "I can buy luhi ber now to build a house good lum ber at five dollars and fifty cents per thousand feet" said a Raleigh fie hb-alrf'a well-to-do farmer, plainly but neatly clad, clean shaved and the faultless whiteness of his linen told of a care ful housekeeper he had left at home. Interested (inx)ur y5onversation, he took a seat nearby and said: "Well, you don't alloynthe women to join your clubs (p you?" "Yes, they are received as honorary members if the club desires o have them." " Well how in the world can you get up subjects to interest them, I can't understand. Will you tell me?" "Why my dear sir," we said "there are a thousand questions that not only could but should be, discussed in these clubs, in which the farmers' wives and daughters are more con cerned than any one else. For instance: have you ever mado up your mind t which should do. the milking, the men or the women? Is it economy to build a shed near the cook room, supply it with plenty of dry wood so as to keep the wife or daughter out of the wintry weather? Have you a well or a spring?'; "I uve a spring as gooa water as ever flowed out of the ground," said he. "And how far is it from your house," we inquired. "About sixty yards," he replied. "How long have you lived there." "About 41 years." "How many times per day through out the year does the water have to be brought?" After a moment's reflection he said: "I should say eight or ten times a day on an aver age." "Well suppose we figure a little" we said as weproduceda pen cil, "and we will put it at six; instead of eight or ten times a day. ; Sixty yards at six times a day is 720 yards in one year it amounts to 148 miles and during , the 41 years that you have been living there it amounts to G,0G8 miles do,,- think we could get up s0111e tion tnai wouia interest th fa wives and daughters? Renum! that half the distance is unhii 00 the water." "Well," h U h nervously cnangeu th i economy in then- uv;.: tions." and the old man evini disposition to change the subject Map Jonathan Avails, once very efficient member of our Stat . Board of Agriculture, says that V knows farms in Cumberland vhic! ordinarily, produce l,5oo to 2,000 K bushels oi corn that this year will hot produce fifteen bushels. beople are in a deplorable conditio,.0 financially, and do not know wheiv to look for relief. He says. -1 ;lm decidedly in favor of the" Farmers' Uonvention, out care should be taken not to let it become a political ma ue. Raleigh has received a splendid .donation of 125 acres of land from lone of its liberal citizens to be con verted into a pleasure park. This is vvell enough, but as 1 sit and look oer the picture of houses that stretches away toward the hills all wrapped in snow, and reflec t that tnere are hundreds of women and children who are simply consumers nd who necessarily live hard, hut o could and would make their way and add to the general wealth of the place, I can't help thinking what a happy thing it would be for them and for the city, if some enter prising moneyed men would build up tobacco factories, cotton and vyoolen mills, &c, and thus give them employment by a profitable investment of money. A chorus of shrill whistles from a dozen or more factories, swelling out on the morn ing air, would add wonderfully to the life and activity of this beautiful city, and incalculably to the happi ness of a,.largMitis of its people, us wellas to its wealt )( OUR COUNTRY RODS. We publish this week an interest- I ing letter from a prominent farmer of Mecklenburg count', one whom j Mecklenburg has more than once ! honored and again honyfs by send ing to represent liepin the State ' Senate, on the subject of country roads. The deplorable condition of our wagon highways is conceded. That they should be put in and kept in a better condition is also conceded. But how is this to be done? That is the question. The methods in vogue so far are practically failures, so much ; time and money thrown away. . The Progressive Farmer has sug gested one way in which we can have better roads, with the least possible outlay of money, and that is to stop hiring out the penitentiary convicts to railroads and others, and put them to work and keep them at work upon our country roads. Let the State undertake the work as a part of the system of internal im provements. There are now twelve hundred convicts on the penitentiary rolls. - There is no reason to suppose that for some years to come the number will be less. It will probably be greater. With these twelve hun dred hands properly managed what a large amount of work they could do in one year upon our country roads. We do not expect to accom plish .everything in one or two years, but in a few years with such labor continuously and systematic ally employed we could have roads that the State might be proud of. This is the use to which these con victs should be put, a use from which the people of the State, the farmers of the State especially who pay most of the expenses of the courts and the prosecution and care of the convicts before they are sentenced and afterwards, would derive some in lUirt at least, some of the money so expend ed. The railroads can get along without the convicts. Railroads are built.. by syndicates these days, syn dicates which have money, and build railroads where they will pay whether they have convict labor or not and do not build them where they will not pav whether convict labor can be hacl or not. Put the convicts on the public roads, ana then we may have in a short time good roads at the minimum cost. ! --John K. Patterson killed yester day two 10 months pigs- ine heaviest one weighed 324 pounds. WOSltW.M ( T didn t think that you would dis such questions as that." -Yes T8 the business of these clubs i . .ls the whole field of farm ..! i Ur hold " " 11 I M I (Jon cord Register.