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The progressive farmer. [volume] (Winston, N.C.) 1886-1904, December 15, 1886, Image 2

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Some Brief but Pointed Reasons Why
it Should be Held.
Editor Progressive Farmer:
Col. Burgwyn's idea of holding a
Farmers' Convention is a good one
and will commend itself to all who
desire to learn, hut those who know
it all and eannoNe taught kny thing
will not see 'any good in the Conven
tion. All other professions have de
monstrated that organizations and
associations have Jelpeat hem, illus-
heads are betted than one,f one is a
sheep's head Farmers have been
taught that each was independent
or ought to be. That might have
answered fifty years ago. Steam and
electricity have completely changed
our environments. Organizations and
corporations are governments now :
Laws are passed at their dictation
Taxes are levied in the name of
"American labor," that they may
collect millions of dollars for them
selves. The farmers (each) indepen
dent. Who taught them that Some
intellectual lions. To those who are
satisfied with their independence, I
commend the following fable, writ
ten more than 2500 years ago:
"Three bulls for a long time pas
tured together. A lion lay in am
bush in hope of making them his
prey, but was afraid to attack them
whilst they kept together. Having
at last, by guileful speeches, succeed
ed in separating them, he attacked
them without fear, as they fed alone,
and feasted on them, one by one, at
his leisure." If there was no other
reason than the one hinted at above,
it would be well for the farmers to
meet in Convention. But much can
be learned from the discussion of
purely agricultural subjects. Our
people learn more by "the friction
of mind upon mind " than from all
the schools and colleges. Township
clubs, county clubs and State Con
ventions will do' more to develop
our agriculture, to elevate our man
hood, to protect our interest, and
command that respect from other
professions to which we are entitled,
than all the speeches of the intellec
tual lions, budding and blooming
once every two years, only to be
killed by the frost of the power of
organizations or corporations.
Notes from Enderly.
A Word for the Progressive Farmer
Wheat Sowing, Broom Making and
Clover Seed.
Dec. 3, 1886. j
Editor Progressive Farmer: I
am one of your subscribers, I met
you on the fair grounds in Hickory
and there subscribed for your valu
able paper. I like it very much. I
read several of our State papers, and
part of the time the paper is so thin
and the print so bad that it can
scarcely be read. (This makes a
man mad.) Your print and paper
are both excellent.
I think most of the farmers
finished wheat sowing this week. I
am a farmer and a broom maker,
have regular broom machinery, and
turn my own broom handles. I use
the untapered handle, though I pre
fer the tapered, I think it propor
tions a broom better. I retail all my
brooms at 25 cents each, can com
plete about 20 brooms per day when
everything is ready to my hand. I
had expected to raise a large quan
tity of the straw this summer on my
bottom land, but the wet season set
in and I did not get much planted.
I buy all the straw I can get have
never paid higher than 5 cents per
pound. I bought 1,300 pounds from
one man at that price. If any of
your readers have long and bright
brushed broom-corn seed, I would
be glad to receive a quantity. I
have bought seed several times from
Northern seedsmen and got cheated
every time. The brush would come
out crooked and very short.
Our farmers are sowing about the
usual amount of wheat and sowing
. gtt falling off in the use of guano
thisfall. A man can't use it when
cotton only brings 8 J cents and
wheat 80 cents a bushel. The Sigman
& Heavner threshing company
threshed 650 bushels ' clover seed
in v. Lincoln and Catawba counties
this fall. Several other companies
threshed, but I have not ascertained
the quantities. Would be glad to
see an article on broom-corn culture
at any time in your paper.
Wishing you much success, I am
yours. J. C. Warlick.
or many years the practice of
breeding mares on the seventh or
1. WW .
ninth day after toaling has become
such m abuse that I am prompted
by ajhumane feeling to offer a pro
test Tn their behalf. Every intelli
gen man well knows that this is
contrary to all laws, and must nec
essarily destroy the functions of re
production, besides detrimental to
wards life, vigor and health of the
fetus, in Utero. This constant con
dition of conception and carrying
not only destroys the power of the
uterus and its contents, but acts
directly upon the health of the
mother. I know full well that some
gentlemen are willing to cite instan
ces where mares have thrown one,
two or even more colts in succession
of first class calibre, yet hundreds
stare you in the face to the contrary.
There is no doubt in my mind that if
old Ilira, Aerolite and many others
received a reasonable time after foal
ing (say two months or a year,) we
would have had more representa
tives from these illustrious dams. In
no instance can I call to mind during
fifteen years of constant practice
with human mother, where quick
conception and rapid births have
not left a diseased, broken down
and cut short life.
I trust these few lines will reach
the hearts of some breeders who will
give our grand and great mares a
chance. Dr. F. E. Cor rig an, in Live
Stock Record
We do not believe the time has
come when the small farmer can
successfully conduct his business
without performing some manual
labor, nor when the large farmer
can attain marked success without
that intimate knowledge of his
work that comes from actual partic
ipation in it. But we do most fully
believe that the day is forever passed
when the chief reliance of the suc
cessful farmer, whether his acres be
few or many, can be placed upon
manual industry, however persistent
if undirected by a mind conversant
with the progress of the times in
all that relates to his business. In
the past, when the apparently un
bounded West offered its fertile soil
free for the taking, and when Amer
ica held monopoly of the railways
and improved implements of hus
bandry there was some excuse for
the hand-to-mouth policy which has
been the chief characteristic of our
agriculture; but the day of free
homesteads is almost ended, while
the extension of the use of agricul
tural machinery throughout the old
world, the development of agricul
tural resources of the southern hem
isphere, and especially the bringing
of the half-naked farmers of India
into direct and close competition
with ourselves through the medium
of the railroad and steamship all
these are steadily and surety taking
from us the vantage ground we
have heretofore held as food produ
cers for the world. One thing is
certain, and that is if the American
farmer would retain this vantage
ground, he must bring to his work
something more than brawn some
thing more than brawn reinforced
by mechanical ingenuity. These
hav served us well in the past, but
henceforth they must take a secon
dary place, yielding the first rank
to a still higher exercise of the intel
lect than that which has given us
the steam engine and the modern
harvester. Farm, Stock and Home.
The peanut crop of the United
States is a more important one than
most people suppose. The following
figures will show the States which
grow the crop, also supplv and con
Stocks in all markets Oct. 1,
1885 985,000
Tennessee crop 800,000
Virginia crop l,8UO,000
North Carolina crop 150,000
Total supply........ .3,735,000
Less stocks on Oct. 1, J86 1,019,700
Total consumntion 1885-86 2.715.300
Total consumption 1884-85.:.... 2,905,000
In addition to the above figures and
which do not enter into account as
above, New York holds 8,000 bags,
Philadelphia, 6,000 and Boston 5,000
Dags - a '
The first Winter of a calf's life is
a hard one, but good, warm stabling
and two quarts of oatmeal daily, in
addition to their other rations, will
be well repaid in growth and earlier
maturity. With good feeding, a
heifer should drop her first calf before
she is two years old.
In localities adapted to the growth
of the cherry no fruit grows better.
It is a sure annual bearer, and the
demand for canning will long pre
vent the prices going below profit
able rates. But before planting
largely the soil must be made dry
either by natural or artificial drain
age. Cherry roots go deeply into
dry soil, and are more injured by
stagnant water.
Corn is a tropical plant and can
scarcely be hurt by heat in any
stage. ' Some are afraid to use fire
heat in drying it for seed, but so
long as the corn remains damp, a
temperature af 100 will not injure
it. The more thoroughly and quick
ly it is dried the greater chance of
having a healthy, vigorous growth
when it is planted. If it is hung
where the ears will be in the smoke
while drying, it will be some protec
tion against attack from worms
after planting.
Few except fanciers will take
the pains to keep thoroughbred
poultry, which requires a good deal
of culling out of inferior specimens,
or else the pedigree will be of no
avail. This culling should always
be done once a year, when the flock
is reduced for wintering. But after
doing this it will pay the owners of
every flock to destroy all their own
roosters, whether mongrel or other
wise, and procure thoroughbred
males from some poulterer who
makes the growing of thoroughbreds
a specialty.
Farmers who use commercial fer
tilizers have found excellent results
in dressing them with phosphate,
though potash rather than phos
phate is the mineral that they show
on analysis. The advantage of the
commercial phosphate is that it gen
erally contains an excess of sulphu
ric acid, used in making it soluble,
and this acts on the soil to liberate
its fertility and make it available
and it has further effect of destroy
ing the fungus growth, which causes
the scab. It is not, however, a pre
ventive of potato rot, which is apt
to attack the smoothest, largest and
best tubers.
As cold weather approaches the
natural tendency to shrink the yield
of milk is apt to be increased by the
carelessness of the . milker. When
the cow is half dry it seems a small
matter to leave a slight portion of
the milk in the udder, though to do
so is the certain way to make the
cow go dry entirely. The first effect
is to have a little ropy milk left at
the bottom of the pail, which is the
rich milk left in the teats from the
last milking. As the yield decreases
so the richness increases, so that
getting the last drop of milk becomes
if possible, more important in winter
than in summer.
When the ground is so thorough
ly frozen and covered with snow
it is a good plan to draw manure
and spread over the snow and frozen
ground under the trees. A cover
ing of straw is better than nothing
as the object is protection from
deeper freezing of the ground. With
this covering the snow under the
trees will be kept from blowing
away or thawing until late in the
Spring. By this means the early
blooming fruit buds will be kept
back until the danger or Spring
frosts has passed, and it is also some
protection to peach trees against
Winter killing by severe cold.
The essential requirement in
keeping onions is that they be kept
in a dry place arid not too warm.
Most cellars are too damp. They
may freeze without injury 'provided
they are in a place where they will
stay frozen all winter. Iiepeated
freezing and thawing soon destroys
them. Freezing does not injure
them for planting as it is the custom
among seedsmen to plant onions
late in the fall, ridge them up and
leave them; in the ground ll Winter
. o;i Afnn freezes far below
wnen iucowii" .1 n
the onion set. It is probable that
the onion thus frozen does not thaw
out until spring and then, the frost
..a. u thawed soil
is urawu uu
around it.
It is common for farmers who
of cows to dry them
off after eight or ten or at most
twelve months of the greatest flow
of milk has passed. This good pol-
lcy ior inose inut aic ... ,
as a cow giving oniy uu-ee tu
. nnfl'rtR of milk daily is worth
more to fatten than to keep foe
what milk she win give, uui
small family, where but little milk
nnH hnttftr is reauired. asrood farrow
C4 M.M V v w w X ' - ,
cow may prove a desirable requisi-
tion. A reauy goou cow may
,;iirrwl twn vftars or even three o
with nrnnfir management, and
give nearly a constant mess during
Lliat tlllltJ. lb io uv
cow from the calf she is carrying
shortens the milk
ing period, however good the feed-
The value of straw is too little
taken into account on or off the farm
Too many farmers seem to act on
the principle that it should be fed
to cattle. This is the least impor
tant of its uses. Its value as food
is so slight that cattle fed exclusive-
lv on straw would die about as soon
as if fed on any such substance, as
dead leaves, for instance, the only
use of which is to properly distend
the stomach. The feeding use of
straw, therefore is only in connec
tion with concentrated food.
But there are other uses of the
straw of cereal plants which render
it an important integer in tarm
economy. One of these is the cov
ering of sheds. Another and its
most important use is bedding for
animals. Another use to which it
may be profitably put when cold
and winds are severe, is in forming
an impervious barrier, by filling a
space afoot wide between two rough
walls of sheds. These walls may be
made of any rough material, as slabs
or poles, but near enough together
to prevent the pulling out of straw
by the animals. Thus sheds and
stables may be rendered as warm as
much more costly structures.
The use of straw is too much ig
nored as a means of comfort used as
bedding for animals. Under sheds
it should be laid a foot thick and in
the yards not less than six inches.
In stables that are regularly cleaned
it should not be less than six inches
in thickness. Thus it will fully
soak up and hold the liquids and re
tain them while spread on the land
to be plowed under. It takes no
more material as bedding six inches
in thickness than less, for only the
soiled portions need be removed.
The added value to the animal in
conserving warmth is not generally
It not only keeps the animals
comfortable, but as manure straw is
valuable principally in proportion to
the liquid manure it has soaked up.
It will pay to use liberally in the di
rections we have mentioned, and
less so as food in Winter than is gen
erally practiced. Farm, Field and
Maine has during the last year put up
10,701,600 cans of corn, over 840,000 cans
of succotash, and over 144,000 cans of
lima beans. Three Portland firms have
done most of the business. N. Y. Sun.
Maine is naturally about the poor
est of States. It is filled with ener
getic, money-making people. They
are "smart enough "to furnish North
Carolina consumers with their corn
and beans and succotash. Here every
kind of vegetable may be grown.
Here the trucker can work almost
the year around. Here farming goes
on uninterruptedly during eleven
months of the year. Here the soil
in most sections isgenerous and read
ily responsive to the demands of the
planter. But the South leans on the
North for the very things it can pro
duce without limit, and goes up to
th e ice banks of rock-ribbed Maine,
where in places the soil must be
brought from the distance before
cultivation begins, to obtain its fresh
corn and bean pies, and to other
Northern sections for its supply of
tomatoes and cabbage. Was there
ever such folly? Only in seeing a
South ern farmer feeding his horses
and mules on Northern hay. The
South has a vast deal to learn. It
has not got beyond B in the alpha
bet i of self-sustai n i ng. Wilmington
Star. --; ;..., . .,,,'-..: ',.; i
It is undoubtedly true thf
timothy is produced when
grown alone, than when it is 2 ls
in a mixiure with clover. It
more rapidly alone than with eleg
it has a greater sale, at a hJV'
price. On the other hand, the ftn
cannot give up clover as a m, .ler
his rotation without serious' l
Clover has apparently the power of
using nitrogen which is not availabl!
to other plants, such as true rrasvo
cereals, etc. Its deep roots
upon the plant foods that have been
stored up in the subsoil, and cam
back to the surface large quantity
of nitrogen, potash, phosphoric atM
and food supplies. So much of this
material is stored in the surface
roots of the clover, that even after I
heavy crop of hay has been removed
there remains in the surface soils -i
large quantity of nitrogen and ash
constituents above the orirjnu
amount, thus forming a very efficient
and cheap fertilizer. It is said to
store up in this manner more than
enough nitrogen for four crops of
wheat, and more mineral foods than
will be required for the three suc
ceeding crops of corn, oats and
wheat. To retain such an efficient
and economical manure is certainly
a great object.
If the chief hay crop is timothy,
this will be impossible. Timothy fed
off from the farm impoverishes the
surface soil rapidly, and if fertility
is to be maintained, requires the use
in the rotation of large quantities of
purchased manure. But clover hay
finds poor sale, is difficult to cure,
from the danger both of mildew and
of the loss of the leaves, which dry
more rapidly than the coarse stems,
and which contain more digestible
material. By adding timothy, the
danger of the loss of a hay crop by
conditions adverse to either cron
separately, is lessened. The two
crops feed on different portions of
the soil, and require somewhat differ-
ent foods. Thus an economy in food ;
results. A greater weight of hav is :
produced than when either crop is
grown singly. The mixed hay cures
more rapidly than clover alone, and
the loss of clover leaves is Lmrelv ,
prevented. The mixed hay is in j
many respects better food than the
pure timothy, unless the latter be
supplemented by nitrogenous rye
fodders. Mixed hay is quoted at j
prices about half way between those
of pure No. 1 timothy and clover.
The increased crop makes up in part
for the difference in price, and under
most circumstances the manurial
value of the clover crop far exceeds
the remaining difference.
The most serious objection to the
practice of mixing is the difference
in the time of blossoming of the two
crops. On many clay soils this is
lost, because the clover matures less
rapidly. Timothy, however, is usu
ally allowed to reach a stage of
development beyond that at which
it is benefitted for an exclusive food.
It is altogether more digestible, and
contains absolutely more digestible
nitrogenous matter at the time of
blooming, than, the much greater
weight of a later cutting will con
tain. Therefore in practice, the
interval between the cutting ana
the blooming of the clover may, m
most instances, be diminished with
profit, especially when a large stock
of carbonaceous foods is already pro
vided in the form of corn fodder.
Weighing all the pros and cons, it
is evident that for the general farmer
the mixed hay will in all probability
be the most profitable. Prof. N
liam Frear, State Agricultural College,
Thr Phni-WtA T)pmnr.rat. one of the
most sensible papers in the State,
noticing the report that a company
of Northern lumber men 2Jjj
templating the purchase of -Juu
acres of timber land in North Caio-
lina, says: f
"Persons who sell large bodies ot
land to foreign individuals or a cor
poration will have have u'
row, it nfWnwhilfi. AVhen naue
Southern people get clear ot tnt
lands, whieh manv of them see
anxious to do, they and their
dren will soon become " hewers
wood and drawers of water torgejj
some of your land at moderate rai
to those who want to sein -and
cultivate it but not to
tors and adventurers in large
at chean nriees.
r t

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