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THE MOOT LAHQELY CII2CULA TED rARM WEEKLY PUBLISHED BETWEEN WAGHtNQTON AND NEW ORLEANG.
Vol. XIX. No. 32. RALEIQH, N. C, TUESDAY, SEPTEMBER 20, 1904. $1 a Year. m t . ' l t. h in Fehruarv or. Miarch, on the I R- FREEMAN'S TALKS. lne rrogressive rarmer. CLARENCE H. POB, B. W. KILOORB, 1 C W. BURKBTT.J Editor and Manager. Agricultural Editors OATS, RYE AND RAPE. Notes About Crops That May Partially Replace Corn, and Should be Seeded at Once. Editors Progressive Farmer: Fall-sown oats at Auburn have yielded about , 50 .per" cent more than those sown after Christ- mas, and tne lormer can De iea severux wccm fore the. latter are ready. It usually pays to sow oats in the fall, and to risk the danger of winter killing rather than to postpone sowing red rust proof until after Christmas. The danger of win ter killing can be redbced by (1) sowing in Oc tober; (2) selecting a location protected on the north by woodland, or on a southern slope; (3) drilling the seed on well-drained land in snovei furrows only half filled in covering the tfats; or (4) by leaving the ground r ouch or ridged. The farmer cannot afford for smut to destroy "10 to 25 per cent of his oat crop as usual. We prevent oat smut at Auburn by wetting seed ior two, hours in water containing 1 ounce of f or- malin for every three gallons of water, then sowing or drying the seed; or by soaking seed oats ten minutes in waiter between 130 and 135 degrees F then cooling and either drying or sow ing the oats. TWf nr trrazinfr oats are somewhat hardier towards cold than red rust proof or Texas red oats, but less hardy than wheat. Turf oats re quire earlier sowing and richer land, are several weeks behind red rust proof oats in maturing, and are more liable to rust and for the heads to be incompletely filled. Oats cut in the milk stage make excellent hay, and the straw is more completely eaten than if the plants are . allowed to ripen. Beardless wheat is hardier and sooner ready ' for use than any of the above. It should be largely sown this year for either hay or grain for feeding purposes. If rust tnreaxeu - n early If cut in the early milk stage the entire riant is eaten with relish. Any good beardless variety grown south of the Ohio River (or even somewhat further north) will answer. Among the well-tested varieties of this class Purple Straw or Blue Stem, Fultz, Red May, and Currell. Rye makes good pasturage or green feed, to be cut and carried to stock. Sown in September, ;t la the first plant ready for or eariy wwm - , , , cutting and for feeding green, on good land reaching a sufficient height about February. It can be cut at least twice. It makes very poor hay. It never winter-kills. Sow one to one and one-half bushel per acre. - iKe small grains intended for cutting early for feeding purposes should be sown tluekly on ich rrtell-f ertUized land. Those thai .are , to be cut by hand and fed green should be .own in naLw drills, All Wire liberal f.rtahzenng ton seed, or cotton-seed meai. at hartA n-rmlv in Fehruarv or. March, on the - , f - - mirfnrft ierbtv nmmds ner acre of nitrate of soda. Phosphate in addition to any of these fer tilizers will, on some soils, increase the yield of grain. Farmers having for sale seed of rye, oats, or beardless wheat, should be. able to sell these to advantage by promptly advertising tnem. Dwarf Essex rape has been repeatedly grown at Auburn for winter pasturage for hogs, which relish it, making good growth on rape pasture from December 15th to April 15tn, wnen supplied with a half ration of corn. Land must be as rich and as highly fertilized as for turnips, and preparation, sowing and cultivation are the same as with that crop, except that rape is not tnmned. Sow three to five pounds of seed per acre in nar row drills between September 20th and October 20th. Seed are cheap, ten to twelve cents per pound, and they are sold by all seedmen. We have also sowed rape in March, getting hog pas turage in May and June. J. F. DUGGAR, Agriculturist, Alabama Experiment Station, Au burn, Ala. Cotton Farmers' Meeting Fair Week. There will be a Cotton Farmers' Convention held at the State Capitol Wednesday night of Fair week, October 19th. This will be an important meeting, as the dele gates to the t. Louis Convention will then re port the action taken at that meeting in regard to the storage and marketing of the cotton crop. - Every one interested in improving the condi tion of the farmers of the South,and the advance ment and protection of their chief money crop, is invited to attend this convention. T. B. PARKER, Secretary State Farmers' Alliance. Raleigh, N. C, Sept. 16, 1904. Controlling the Cotton Crop. Edlton Progressive Farmer : I am a cotton raiser oA a small scale and have been reading with interest the recent articles on controlling the marketing of cotton. I am anxi ous indeed that someway may be found to market . . . . mi our cotton so as to control it better. nere is one very favorable quality in cotton that will make it easier than for any other crop: it is non perishable. Keep fire and water from it, and it will keep indefinitely. - I . do not wish to be understood as saying tnat the marketing of cotton cannot be so controlled v,o ih tto( mav not be kept at a profitable LIOC v-.w .f v point for the producer, but do say that it is going to be a hard thing to do. There are too many people engaged in the raising and selling of cot ton to make it easy to control them. A few peo ple can be managed; but it is hard to control millions. In my opinion, it will take millions of money to do it and then there is a chance that the producer may be fleeced. ; I E. S. MILLS APS. i Iredell Co:, N. C. XVI Information Wanted, Sow Some Wheat. Editors Progressive Farmer: , . There are ,more apples in this section than have been for some years. We want to put up some for the winter. Will some of your readers tell us when they gathered, and how they put, up apples, when they made a success of it? Where should they be put? Who has succeeded in keeping apples in this section of the State? Who has hal experience with corn shredders? Tell us what you did when you made a success and what you did when you failed. Some f arm ors bnvft succeeded and some have failed. How will these farmers who have had experience along this line tell us all about this matter? Several of my neighbors have, prepared some corn to have shredded and they need informa tion about it. j The cotton crop here- will be only a half crop, and the corn is very short of what we once thought. Only a few men put in tobacco, but the price is much better than last year. But I think the prices of cotton and tobacco will bring in more money this year than we had last year. Yes, our farmers are better on nnanciaiiy tms year than last. Now friends, save every dollar of this money you can, as it looks now like prices of edibles are .going to be-high next year. - Wheat crop in the West is very short; and it is said that it may go to $2 per bushel before the spring. If our down-east farmers can get a few sacks of Peruvion guano it will be a good idea to put in a few acres of wheat. This guano nearly always makes a crop. Don't rush your tobacco and cotton to market ; prices fere going to be higher JTJEEMAN. Wilson Co., K C. North Carolina Farmers Institutes Yet to be Held. Jefferson. Tuesday, September 20th. Valle Crucis. Thursday, September 22nd. Burnsville. Monday, September th. . Mar's Hill (not Marshall). Wednesday, bep- tember 28th. . Asheville.- Thursday, September 29th. Waynesville. Friday, September 30th. - Webster. Saturday, October 1st. ' Franklin. Monday, October 3rd. Bryson City. Tuesday, October 4th. , Robbinsville. Wednesday, October 5th. Murphy. Thursday, October 6th. Hayesville. Friday, October 7th. INDEX TO THIS NUMBER. A Business Talk m" Vi'VrVi i Controlling the Cotton Crop, E. S. Millsaps. . 1 Crop Conditions, W. H. Todd. - 5 Current Events: Editorial Review. . Dr. Freeman's Talks U'V'ol"""- o Fungicides and Spraying, Dr. F. L. Stevens. . 2 Gigantic Business Combination of larmers, F. D. Koonce ... r v Hand Separator: Its Value... Oats, Rye and Rape, J. F. Duggar i Peanut Industry Plenty of Forage, C. C. Moore. . .. . J Specialization in Farming, J. M. Lindsay.... 2 "The JJragons xeem. v , Departments on usual pages : Home Circle, b. Social Chat, 7; State News, 12; GeneraLNews, 13, Sunshine, 14; Markets, 16. V i A' X