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THE PROGRESSIVE FARMER
. Tuesday, September 20, 1904.
Crops, Soils and Fertilizers
CONDUCTED BY B W. KILGORE,
8 late Chemist North Carolina Department of Agriculture
ana uixecvor Agncaiiur&i .experiment oiiauu.
Inquiries of Progressive Farmer readers cheerfully an
FUNGICIDES AlTD SPRAYING.
in. Ammoniacal Solution of Copper Carbonate.
Editors ProgresslTe Farmer:
This solution contains no sediment of any
kind, and upon drying, leaves no marks upon the
,ruit. It may, therefore, be used upon fruits
in the latter stages of their, ripening .when the
spotting that the bordeaux mixture causes would
preclude the use of that fungicide.
The mixture consists of , a solution made by
dissolving copper "carbonate in ammonia water
in the following proportions:
..Copper carbonate 6 ounces.
Ammonia, about 3 pints.
Water , 50 gallons.
In preparing this solution, weigh out the proper
amount of copper carbonate, set a very small, por
- tion of this aside, and dissolve the remainder of it
in ammonia, using only enough ammonia to dis
solve it, and then add the portion of copper car
bonate which was reserved. This will insure that
you use no more ammonia than is necessary.
It is better to have a little too much of the
carbonate in the solution than to have too much
of the ammonia. A strong solution made in this
way can now be diluted with the proper amount
of water. The copper carbonate may be pur
chased directly from a drug store, or it may be
prepared on the farm.
To make copper carbonate, proceed as fol
lows: Dissolve ten pounds of copper sulpnate
(blue stone or blue vitriol) in ten gallons of wa
ter. Also dissolve twelve pounds of carbonate
soda in the same amount of water. Allow these
two solutions to cool, and then mix them slowly to
gether, stirring in the meantime. Allow tht
mixture to stand about twelve hours to settle;
then pour off the liquid andadd water in amount
equal to the liquid poured off. Stir thoroughly
and allow it to stand as before. Repeat this op
eration again and then drain off all the liquid
possible, and dry the blue powder which remains.
This powder is the copper carbonate.
THE COPPER SULPHATE SOLUTION.
A solution consisting of merely copper sulphate
and water may be used before the leaves appear to
kill the spores on the trunks and branches of
Copper sulphate 1 pound.
Water 15 gallons.
Dissolve the copper sulphate as you do in pre
paring the bordeaux mixture. Dilute it to the
required strength, and spray upon the trees. The
addition of a little lime here, say half a pound to
fifty gallons of mixture, enables the operator to
see exactly what portions of the tree have been
This mixture must not be used after the leaves
POTASSIUM SULPHIDE SOLUTION.
Potassium sulphide or liver of suL
phur 1 ounce.
Water 2 to 4 gallons.
v This solution should be freshly prepared. It
is used as a substitute for the bordeaux mixture
in the same way as the ammoniacal solution of
copper carbonate is used when the fruit has be
come so large that the bordeaux mixture must
be discontinued to avoid spotting. Potassium
sulphide is especially efficient as a protection
against the powdery mildews.
Formalin is a very powerful germicide which,
recently came into wide use. Its interest to the
.farmer lies chiefly in its .value in preventing the
potato scab, the onion smiit, and j the various
smuts of cereals. Full directions for using thi
are found in. other bulletins of -this Station.
Two forms of this substance appear on the
market. One under the name of formalin and
the other under the name of 40 per cent formalde
hyde. These substances are absolutely identical,
and as the 40 per cent formaldehyde, is cheaper,
owing to the fact that the word formalin is pro
tected by a patent, the farmer of course will do
well to use the 40 per cent formaldehyde.
F. X. STEVENS,
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station,
Specialization in Fanning.
Editors Progressive Farmer:
Something I think that our farmers try to do
too many .'things. There is no other business in
which success requires such skill, experience and
knowledge as farming, when the several branches
are carried along together as is commonly done
by our country people. What I mean by branches
is such as sheep -raising, the raising of swine
the growing of tobacco, etc. Of course, it would
be impracticable to take only one branch, and
it is just as unreasonable to try to succeed by
taking them all.
. Let each farmer carry along the crons and raise
the stock that is necessary to sustain the farm
and then make a specialty of some crop that he
thinks most profitable to him. In making your
choice, you should be very, careful and use your
best judgment. You should not Only think con
siderably over the subject, but consult statistics
and experienced men, for on this crop depends
your profits and losses.
Now suppose, for example, you have had con
siderable experience with onions. All ritrht. we
will consider that croD. First. dops it. suit, vnur
land? Uet your .Bulletin on Truck Farming, if
you. haven't learned by experience, and see. You
hnd the crop grows best on a mellow loam per
taining to sand. ,lhat suits your farm. You
have averaered errowiner one hundred and thirtv-
six bushels to the acre, or you have seen from the
twelfth census that the State averaged one hun
dred and thirtv-nine bushels and vour oountv
averaged one hundred and fortv. One hundred
and thirty-six bushels, at seventy-five cents per
bushel, equals one hundred and one dollars per
acre (seventv-nve cents beincr the value of onions
in this State according to the twelfth census).
Compare this with some other crops.
Again you notice there were about 12.000.000
bushels raised in the United States in 1899; and
5,200,000 bushels, or nearly half of the total crop,
was raised m twenty-hve counties. These figures
show a great concentration of the crop to a
limited area that makes a specialty of growing
this crop for the sreneral market. This nroves
that some one is making a profit by specializing
u: j.z i '
wax una particular crop.
These twenty-five counties are found mostly
north the "Mason and Di
Mississippi, thus not interfering with our trade
yery raucn, as is shown by th$ difference in value
in the different States. Tn Vprmnnt th
fifty-six cents per bushel, while in Georgia and
rio"aa ney are one doflar per bushel.
These twentv-five pniintiAa alert otto -ro etc. 5?fifl
bushelsdouble the number of bushels per acre
ox au xne otner counties of : the United States.
Does this suggest tfiat by proper preparation and
v,tUnvanun yi me sou that you can double your
crup per acres should think -so. Then we have
two hundred and seventy-five bushels at seventy
five cents equals two hundred and two dollars.
iw recompare your crops and decide which
is the most profitable. For instance, if you com
pare with tobacco. tnVo
?!':Sr tJme of arvet, consider if it inter-
ZZ harvesting of the corn, as tobacco
does, etc., effects on tV. B:i j x ' ... i t
j . - , ovxx, auvauiac ana ais-
advantasre of the rn; 1 .
jQn r n -vxx ui me umerent crops,
danger m failure of crop, marketing, income,
The above is simply a method f a;
any crop. I believ if if : i':,. "J
that our crow wold T L:rrrea closely
would snecialirrrcrf variea our farmers
along their several Hnes. nave 'reate access
J. MOTT LINDSAY.
PIEHTY OF FORAGE.
Any Farmer Can Fill His Barns With Oat Hay and
Grasses A Word About Silos and Ensilage.
Editors Progressive Farmer:
Christmas week a field was seeded with rust
proof oats. Very good preparation was: given this
field and a liberal dose of manure spread evenly
and harrowed in kept the oats growing fast. Two
bushels of seed per acre was dawn.
The second week in June thisoat crop was five
feet tall, very even growth and a pretty sight.
When grain was in the "dough' the crop was cut
for hay, cured in cocks, and put in the horse
v I lift my hat right now to oat hay, and if my
work stock could express their appreciation in a
polite way, each animal would make a Chester
fiieldian bow. Their fine condition, quick step,
sleek coats all testified to the value of this oat
The digestible contents of oat hay is given as
follows: Organic matter, .849 ner cent; protein,
.047 per cent; carbohydrates, .469 per cent; fat,
.015 per cent. That is a pretty good showing.
July 1st this oat stubble showed green with
rag weed eight or ten inches high. The mowing
machine clipped this close to the ground, the cut
ting was cured and hauled to cow barn where
it was fed to the cows, causing an increase in
The third crop this year from this field was
cut September 8th, being a magnificent growth of
native grasses four feet tall and as thick as
I ever saw. Two good mules had all they couM
do to keep the machine going.
The object of this writing is to show farmers
how simple is the way to provide plenty of hay.
Land well prepared, liberal manuring, careful
curing of the crops that is all.
Thursday I drove eight miles to visit my son
to see if he will have any cow feed next winter
foy his cows; from what I saw I think he will
be ready to feed a few cows. "His corn for silage
is an immense growth. One field of twenty acres
is extra fine: the rows are four feet wide, plants
in drill about eight to ten inches, corn ten feet
tall, and for silage use is well eared. He is just
finishing a silo. It is round, twenty feet in di
ameter, twenty-six feet deep, and calculated to
hold 150 tons of silage. The silo is being- erected
eight feet from end of the cow barn. The
foundation is a , nine-inch brick wall, two feet
high. On the wall 2x4 twenty-four feet studs
were placed sixteen inches apart. On the inside
the first course of ceiling was 7s and 616-feet
boards nailed to every stud; next a cheap quality
of tarred paper was tack to the wall ; then anoth
er course of ceiling plank was put on, making
a substantial and tight building. I predict per
fect keeping of silage in this tub. The cost will
not exceed $125. The corn will be cut with Mc-
Cormick harvester, then run through a No. 13
Ohio cutter with blower. The machine will be set
to cut one-half inch. This fine cutting causes closer
packing and more silage may be put into a tub
than if cut longer.
Mecklenburg Co., N. C.
C. C. MOORE.
Money in Wheat.
"How is the cotton milling business V was asked
Mr. A. W. Haywood, of Haw River, the other
"Slow, slow," said Mr. Haywood, "but there
is money in farming more money than in mak
ing cloth you can't sell."
"Whv from one hundred and fifty acres of land
near Linwood, in Davidson County, I cut 3,772
bushels of wheat this year, which was sold at
$1.03 per bushel."
Anv one who cares to figure may easily calcu
late the profits on wheat that-is grown in the
ground. News and Observer.