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Tuesday, October 18, 4 1SXH.
1 - Live Stock and Dairy CONDUCTED BY CHARLES WM. BURKETT, Professor of Agriculture, N. O. A. A M. College, and Agri culturist North Carolina Experiment Station. Inquiries of Progressive Farmer readers cheerfully an swered. SHALL WE FEED SOME CATTLE THIS WINTER ? Have you ever tried feeding a few cattle during the winter season! Either cows or steers or young calves; just a few to consume the cotton seed or their equivalent in meal and the roughage feed on the farm. I don't like to see all the seed or meal, at least so much of it, go out of our State. It simply means so much soil fertility. And since we have no soil fertility to spare, ought we not to preserve what we have to the best advan tage? To my mind, the best way to dispose of this or ganized plant food is to sell it to cows or steers. Even our scrub cattle will pay you more for cot ton seed than the cotton oil mills. Of course well-bred cattle will pay handsomely for all they buy, still we all haven't got them, so we must do simply the best we can and make friends with the thin' loin and thin-back cow or steer and hope for the best, knowing that good treatment and well balanced rations will do wonders even if the best form is not present. I am confident you will agree with me if you will take a look at the cotton patches next year where the stable manure will be scattered. Our cotton and corn lands need stable manure hu ' mus more than anything else. Give them a fair show and next spring tickle these lands with good deep tillage so as to awaken the plant food from its slumbers and the stable manure will help do it, and then the good results wil be seen. It won't take much trouble to feed five or ten cattle, and that number will surely make a lot of manure if they are well bedded with leaves, or pine straw or such other vegetable matter as can be secured. Then do the feeding in a small lot, or stable, so that all the excrement and bedding can be saved. Most of us can purchase, fairly good .formed cattle for two or two a half cents live weight. In five months they can be made to lay on 150 to 200 pounds and usually can be sold then for four cents live weight. We have been doing this for the past three years and these figures represent our results. Cows purchased primarily for milk, put on 75 to 125 pounds in five months and brought on an average four cents per pound. This means a good profit in feeding, and then think of all the manure that is made to go on the land! Farming is a good business, especially so when cattle and manure enter prominently m its operations. C. W. BUBKETT. A MODEL COW SHED. A Moit Cheap, Convenient and Cleanly Stall Which Any Fanner Can Build. irOQM -Prlitnrs. Most of the letters and lec ia snhiect of dairying are addresed to - - the professional dairyman and very often the farmer with one or two cows gets dui nine P. For instance; I attended the Farmers' Conven- Raleieh (which, by the way, HUil fcuas J"11" was the best I ever attended, and I am sure every there received double value for his time and expense and carried home ideas and plans which will be of untold value in xne iuiu,, and heard a most excellent lecture on "butter making" by Prof. Kendall of the A. & M. CoUege. r i a u ntA. hut when I began to tninK, was mniyij vicAe," - . I found it applied to the professional dairyman and not to the general farmer. He spoke at length on the value of the cream-separator and proved its value by showing its work: yet, when asked if it could be used profitably by an owner of one or two cows, he said no, owing to the cost of the machine. Now. I have no separator to offer I wish I did have one which was a success and within the reach of all but I have a cow-shed which has proven a success to me, and is within the reach of every farmer. No one knows how unpleasant it is to go into s a sloppy, miry, filthy cow-lot or stable, on a cold, rainy winter's day to milk, so PLAN OF COW LOT. I I I o I z ,u u. COW LOT. ' FEED ROOM. 1 Lc. i 1 P I si i xi STALL. o: V o . : uj : 1 0 Ul I J . i , f r Ul : OPEN J 5 9 : . SHED. 1 in ' 1 z : 1 uj : I o- : , o A Viflv window: B. shuck window; C, feed win dow; D, feed box; E, F, G, H, doors; I, drop trough. well as he who tries it; and such is the experi ence of a large per cent of the farmers. I prom ised to never keep another cow until these condi tions could be overcome. I now have a nice cow in quarters as comfortable as any dairyman, and with but little cost. The shed, a drawing of which I enclose, is - a lean-to on the southside of the barn and is seven feet wide, the roof extending the whole length of the barn. The first eight feet from the rear end is cut off for a feed room with a window (A) in the back in which to throw hay, and one in the side of -he barn (B) in which to throw the shucks from the corn. The next five to seven feet (according to the length of the cow) is for the staill, with a window (C) opening into the feed room, and the feed box (D) just under this window. The stall, as it now is, is seven feet wide, which we divide by a wall beginning at the feed room, what leaves the stall W2 feet wide on one side and a walk-way SV2 feet on the other next to the barn. On this division wall is a door (E) open ing into the stall at the exact point the milk-maid sits while she milks. There is a door (F) at the end of walk-way opening into the feed room; the other is entirely open. The front end of the stall (G) where the cow enters is all door, which closes behind the cow in winter, but is left open in summer. The floor is covered several irches deep with saw-dust or straw, and only needs changing occasionally; is always dry and clean and forms a nice-bed for the cow: just back of the cow's heels is a trough extending outside the stall (I) to catch the drop ping which can be easily cleaned out, and as the stall is too narrow for the cow to turn around in, and is about her length, the droppings always fall in it and never fouls her bedding. The lot begins at. the inside edge of the stall and extends to the end opposite the front of barn, turns off at right angle from it sixteen feet, then back the length of barn, right angle again "and joins the back end of feed room. This gives the cow suf ficient room in which to walk and a shed in front of stall to protect her from rain and sunshine in the day-time, and leaves the walk-way entirely open from feed room out. Now notice the convenience of the .'arrange-; ment : The milk-maid (whicn is my wiie, ana x believe she is jealous because I am learning to milk) on a cold, rainy day enters the walk-way, leaving the cold and wet outside, walks back into the feed room, opens the feed windows and pours the meal into feed box. The cow, hearing the noise, and already looking for her supper, walks into the stall where everything is clean and dry. The milk-maid steps back to the milking door and open it; steps in and does the work in com fort ;v steps out, closes the door, and the work is done and her feet are as clean and her temper as sweet as when she left the house. These com fortable quarters help to increase the flow of milk,v which in turn, helps to pay the cost of the im provement. I used the very commonest grade of lumber and saved expense. Of course these plans are only suggestive and can be changed to suit each in dividual's fancy. Wishing you continued success, and hoping someone may be benefited by these lines, I am, v Yours truly, K. E. PITTMAN. Grifton, N. C. Improvement by Selection. W. B. Doak, a prominent farmer of East Ten nessee, writes as follows to the Tennessee Farmer: Every farmer keeping a big flock of mongrels should pick out twelve or fifteen of his best lay ing hens, mate them in a secure yard to a well bred cockerel from a practical breeder of such a variety as the farmer may have fully made up his mind suits him best. Next year carefully select as many pullets that have already gone to laying to put with a yearling cock of same breed. By such means in a few seasons any farmer can have a large uniform lot of hens as good in production r-f orrrr ann mpnt. ns nrinst. THl TP., stocks. --!I!hsfcjrrade, oa z - cockerels must not be used. No males kept with the hens running at large or changing roosters from one breed to another must be allowed. In stead of a sensible selection and saving of the best from each year's crop for next season's breeding me general xurui yuuuy u.ua ucui w ocxj. wax uic earliest and largest. The only wonder is that farm poultry has not run dowi more rapidly in the South. Selection is one of the most power ful influences that has ever been or can be brought to bear on development of desirable qualities in live stock. It requires no capital, merely an exer cise of thought, skill and attention. It would be possible to bring about a very high degree of excellence even from an ordinary barn-yard stock, but such takes so long it is better and cheaper to buy good blood (males, at any rate). A real thrifty, well made and bred cockerel, to cost say $2.50 (a good one at this is cheaper in the long run than some at fifty cents, for he is one-half the flock, i. e., in breeding results counts as much as all the hens together) can easily increase the value of your next year's pullets twenty-five cents each, either for making eggs or meat. Suppose one hundred are kept. Here is $25 made from an outlay of one-tenth the amount. No bigger piece of foolishness could happen regularly everywhere than, this habit farmers have of using scrub males. There is but little excuse for it in larger, more expensive and less produc tive stock, much less in poultry with good cocks in reach of everybody. The Progressive Farmer and Cotton Plant from now till January 1, 1903, for only 15 cents half price. Send us a club. Every farmer in your neighborhood ought to take advantage of our 15 cent trial offer till Jan uary 1.