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Newspaper Page Text
Tuesday, November 1, 190.
PROGRESSIVE PARMER AND COTTON PLANT. Live Stock and Dairy CONDUCTED BY CHARLES WM. BURKETT, ProfeiBor of Agriculture, N. C. A. A M. College, and Agrl- eulturlst North Carolina Experiment Station, fjlnqulrlei of Progressive Farmer readers cheerfully answered. THE BEST BREED OF HOGS ESSEX, BERK SHIRE, OR POLAND CHINA? Messrs. Editors: Please state in next issue of The Progressive Farmer and Cotton Plant the best points of each of the following breed . of hogs: Berkshire, Essex and Polland China. Which has the most good points, or in other words, which is the best all-roundxhog for the or dinary farmer? G. GODWIN. Starlight, N. C. In reply to our correspondent, the writer feels that no one has a right to make strong compari sons between leading breeds . of farm animals. There are ten thousand farmers who prefer the Berkshire to any other breed of hogs ;in like man ner there is an equally large number who prefer the Poland China to am other breed of hogs. These men are all honest and sincere in their belief. I may be permitted, however, to say the follow ing as to leading characteristics of the three breeds in question: RELATIVE SIZE. As now bred, the Berkshire is probably larger than the Poland China, but this question is open to doubt. The Essex is a smaller breed and not to be classed with Berkshire or Poland Chinas. ADAPTABILITY. For the Middle West and great corn-growing sections, the Poland China is probably first; oth erwise the Berkshire. The Essex is generally IIked by those who have small holdings and where a small hog is desired. It is not so good as a money-maker as either the Berkshire or the Poland China. MATURING QUALITIES. Not much difference between the three breeds, "-ue Poland China is somewhat inclined to fatten rather early for best growth. GRAZING AND FEEDING QUALITIES Berkshires are probably the best on thin pas tures. The Poland China needs good pastures for best results. The Essex are very contented in disposition and may be either grazed or soiled with green food. QUALITY OF MEAT. The Essex has juicy, tender and well-flavored meat, especially adapted for family use or a se lect trade. The Berkshire produces excellent pork or ba con since the fat and lean are fairly well mixed. In the Poland China the fat is too much in ex cess, still they kill well and the meat is fine in grain and tender. BREEDING QUALITIES. At the best, we can only say that the breeds here discussed are fair as a whole. Too much attention has been given to- tTe and too little to prolificacy. Where brood sows are selected for prolificacy in either breed, as satisfactory results have been obtained &a with any breed. The point of importance in selecting any breed is to suit your own taste. Get the breed you like best and then stick to it. It is more important to know that John Jones or Sam Smith breeds the hogs than it is to know they are Berkshires or Poland Chinas. The breed is simply a name, but the man makes them meat factories and money producers. C. W. BURKETT. . If weere to keep a record -of all the good things the Lord gives us we should be as busy as the recording angel. Raising Beef Profitably In the South. Messrs. Editors : The beef trust and the price of meat emphasize the importance of raising beef cattle. When one passes over the State and sees thou sand of acres of low-lands producing nothing, and tens of thousands of acres of hillsides washed and cut into gullies, he is impressed with the thought that all these lands should be utilized. How can it be done so as to render them profitable ? Com mercial fertilizers and cotton will never do it. Crying aloud for immigrants will not make the barren places fruitful and restore fertility to the hills and impoverished uplands. Mr. W. R. Walker, of Union, S. C. is solving the problem in a manner that is going to be most satisfatcory. His farm is in lower Cherokee County, and lie3 on Pacolet and Broad Rivers, a short distance above their junction. It is about twenty miles from a market and the roads none of the best. As agent of one of the large pub lishing houses, he has had the opportunity of studying conditions in several States. He came to the conclusion that the raising of beef cattle would be the most profitable business he could en gage in. He has land enough to produce one hundred head of beef cattle each year, and a large acreage left over for cotton. As the land is im proved, he may double the annual output of cattle. Mr. Walker started out with Shorthorns, which he considers the very best breed to cross with the common or scrub cows of the country, but they are too heavy and wanting in agility. They can not get about over hilly and rough land and get a good living from short or scanty grass. They 'make poor foragers. He then bought a herd of Angus cattle from Texas, about 97 per cent pure blood, and some throughbred cows and bulls. They went through the summer without any loss. He will bring all his herd up to the Angus type. They are smaller than the Shorthorn, more active and can bear rougher treatment and scanty pas turage. But cattle have to be fed all the time. They should never be allowed to get in poor condition. Mr. Walker meets this requirement with pea vine hay, sorghum and corn stover. It requires hundreds of tons. Cottonseed meal and hulls will be fed to, those that are prepared for market. As summer pasturage, he has Johnson grass on the river and yellow clover on the hills. He is put ting out many acres in Bermuda .grass. He also plants land near his pasture fence in sorghum cane so that when grass is short the sorghum may be thrown over to the cattle. He plants it thick in the drill and does not. thin it. Winter pasturage is a serious problem, but he will try oats, rye, wheat and vetch mixed. He will also sow crimson clover. This pasturage is intended for cows with young calves, sick cows and calves. Greatest care has been used to pre vent the cow tick from getting a start. By change of pastures, ticks may be perished out. Dr. Tait Butler, of North Carolina, thinks that ticks will die in six months if they have nothing to feed on. Mr. Walker thinks it best to keep all cattle out of an infested pasture for one year, and then burn the dry grass in the winter. Keeping the pasture free from bushes is quite a task. None of the grasses for summer pasture will flourish in the shade. The cattle are herded in lots or in fields in summer and housed in win ter. The manure will thus enrich the land very rapidly and save fertilizer bills. Everything raised for sale, except cotton, will be able to walk to market and thus save a great expense. Mr. Walker's plan will be watched carefully. He has started out right, because his only idea is to raise beef cattle. He is not working for a dairy, fine hogs, chickens, sheep, Angoria goats, pheasants or anything of the sort. He simply wishes to raise bet beef cattle and improve his land so that it will produce four times as much as heretofore. CHARLES PETTY. Spartanburg Co., S. C. Profit in Guineas. One branch of the poultry business has been very much neglected, and that is guinea raising. A flock of guineas are about the most profitable that can be kept if they can have the range of the farm. The common guinea is just as good as the albino or white variety, but when cooked the flesh is not so white. In the morning when let out of the poultry house they often stop no longer than to pick up a little of the grain given to the flock before they wander to the fields in search of weed seeds and bugs which they like better than any thing that can be given them. They never be come tame like hens. They will lay in the nests with the hens during the forepart of the season, but when ready to sit they they will steal off and hide their nests and hatch their eggs unless watched. Do not let them hatch their own eggs, as they are most careless mothers and a guniea hen that will raise two chicks out of twenty hatched will be doing pretty well. Hatch them under h& and let the hens raise them. They will develop a great affection for their foster mother, refusing to be "weaned during the whole season and following her faithfully whenever she , is out of the poultry house. When first hatched guineas are exceedingly wild and unless confined will wander off and perish, leaving the nest very f requentlv and within two or three hours after hatching. Guinea eggs do not sell well on the market because of the small size, but for house use they are as rood as any and are produced in such abundance and at such little cost that any one can afford to keep a flock for the eggs. Be sides being a cheerful bird, they are as good as a watch dog to tell when strangers are around.. They detect a stranger as soon as he comes near and set up their shrill cries. They also serve to frighten off hawks as they are sure to raise a clamor if one comes in sight. Mrs. Henry Kos ter before Dubuque County (Iowa) Farmers' Institute. The Cotswold Sheep. .-TT.. Cotswold sheep have been bred pure for at least three centuries. The Cotswold of to-day is in many ways at variance with the old type and it is seldom now that we see a flock of pure-bred Cotswold that cannot lay claim to the ideal type of a combined wool and mutton sheep. True, " they are as large a breed as we have," but did you ever know of a market on which a prime Cotswold lamb would not bring the top figure ? Some very careful experiments have been made . in recent years to test the different breeds for . profitable feeding. The Cotswold always is right at the top. The now desirable export trade de mands the heavy weights that Cotswolds make at two and three years. Cotswold rams have been used by the largest sheep company in the West chiefly for the last fifteen years. New stud breeding-flocks are being founded 'all over the country to supply the demand for Cotswold rams that is increasing with each succeeding year. . . As sheep of beauty and high character in their whole general armearance, it can be said that no other breed equals them, and for real sterling . qualities as a wool and mutton producer, they are more than holding their own in this country. Geo. Harding, Waukesha, Wis. The Missouri Experiment Station has been making some feeding tests of cottonseed meal and linseed meal for dairy cows. In the report of the tests in the annual report, the station says a ton of cottonseed meal has $2 to $3 more value than a half ton of linseed meal. They say further: "When cottonseed meal can be bought, delivered to your railway station at from $18 to $20 per ton in car-lots, as it usually can in the fall, the dairymen of each community ought to club together and buy at least a car to protect themselves against a rise in the price of bran and oats, which usually occurs about the middle of the winter of each year. Cottonseed meal at this price is far cheaper than bran at $15 per ton or oats at 25 cents per bushel." ? r'-3'