Newspaper Page Text
Tuesday, January 10, 1905
PROGRESSIVE FARMER AND COTTON -PLANT 3 needed. Our hill-sides and gradually sloping fields have heen ditched with the hope that washing would be prevented. This method has done much for the protection of our fields; but during the past few years our ditches have not been large enough to hold the hard rains: and every farmer knows the result when a ditch breaks. Our deepest plowing and hill-side ditching have not been a success. During the last two years, some have begun ter racing : usually giving a fall of one to two inches per rod. Now, if Dr. Freeman is right, this work is wrong, and will not be a success. If level ter racing is the true way, the sure way and the only way to prevent washing and waste, and to con serve moisture, it is good that the Doctor knows it, and is making it known. I don't believe that level terracing can be successfully applied to all farms; and I believe there are but few farms in my county where level terracing can be so applied to all the fields. I know of but one farmer who is trying the level system, but so far, he is well pleased. The apparent objection I seo in the level terrace, is the great number of terraces to be made to hold all the rainfall. But Dr. Freeman says a fall of three feet between terraces, with deep plowing, will save our land and prevent washing. Now, if this be true and applicable to all fields, the Doctor surely is entitled to every farmer's thanka. A sure rule being found every farmer can go to work by that rule feeling sure of suc cess. The land in Wilson County where the Doc tor lives is not so hilly as the land further west. But I believe the hilly land can be managed as he directs, more easily and more successfully than the land that is almost level. On most of farms there are fields, sloping so gradually, that to get three feet of fall, the terraces would be 150 or 200 yards apart, and the water, not absorbed by the soil, will overflow the terrace and the end sought will not be accomplished. I may be mistaken in this view, but so it seems to me. I think a safer plan i3 not to confine our selves to any certain fall between terraces, but make them so we can feel sure our land is safe from the destruction caused by the hardest show ers or long continued rains. The greatest trouble with the falling or slop ing terrace, is the difficulty in getting outlets for the water. Common sense and our best judgment must be used, and I feel sure the best plan will be reached after while. We thank the Doctor, and hope he will tell us more about this very impor tait subject; how he makes his terraces and whether he cultivates with the terrace or across it. The last Bulletin, October, 1904, is valuable on this subject. CATAWBA Growing and Feeding Sweet Potatoes. Messrs. Editors: I see you ask persons that have anything of importance to say to write to The Progressive Farmer and Cotton Plant. I will give my experience in raising and feeding sweet potatoes. I have rows three and a half feet wide, set draws twenty inches in row. I manure with coarse farm yard manure in drill with 50 to 100 pounds muriate potash, 50 to 100 pounds cotton seed meal, and 100 to 200 pounds 10 per cent acid phosphate per acre. I vary the fertilizer accord ing to the character of the soil. Very sandy land needs a large per cent of potash, and poor land needs more ammonia. Few of us have understood the feeding value of the sweet potatoes. With sweet potato patch in each field so as that hogs can eat peas or potatoes they do better than on peas alone. I am trying feeding my mules half feed potatoes; give one third more in measure than you do corn in ear. With peavine or soja bean hay you may feed sweet potatoes entirely, if not at very hard work. With the low price of cotton let us all resolve to raise more potatoes, corn, and hay, and more pork and beef, and less cotton and tobacco, so as to make our farms self-sustaining, thereby being prosperous and happy. H. M. JOHNSON. Johnston Co., N. C. Live Stock and Dairy CONDUCTED BY CHARLES VM. B0RKETT, Professor of Agriculture, N. C. A. & M. College, and Agri culturist North Carolina Experiment Station. Inquiries of Progressive Farmer readers cheerfully an swered. BUY AW INCUBATOR. The Time Has Come When No Poultryman Can Af ford to be Without One. Messrs. Editors: Artificial incubation is no new thing. Eggs have been hatched with artificial heat for thousands of years by both the Chinese and' the Egyptians. - In fact, the historian has been unable to find a date for the beginning of the system. The practical machine called an "incubator," however, is a modern invention made necessary by modern requirements for methods of hatching in harmony with the industrial and commercial demands of time. Broody hens are not abundant enough early in the season to hatch out chicks in sufficient num bers to supply the demand for early broilers. Just so long as there is a market for early broilers, just so long will the incubator be necessary to pro duce them in quantities. But the use of incubators is not limited to the production of early broilers. The market poul trymen needs the incubator in order to get out large numbers of early pullets that will mature in season to give him market eggs in November, December and January, when they bring the best prices. About half of those early hatched chicles will be males that will be sold for broilers at a time when there is a good profit in them. It is true that some poultrymen begin hatching early in the season with hens, but it is hard work and the broodies, as a rule, come along so slowly that the eggs are set in small lots from time to time with the result that the season's chicks are an uneven lot of many different ages that cannot be cared for so easily or pushed forward so suc cessfully as the larger and more uniform flocks that result from successful incubator hatches. As the incubator replaces the sitting hen more and more each year, the broody type of hen is gradually passing. Broodiness is an inheritable trait that can be bred out of any breed to a con siderable extent. As a general rule the type of hen that is strongly inclined toward broodiness is not a very prolific layer according to modern standards. Those that have produced 200 egg hens have noted that they are not much given to broodiness, some of them, in fact, never showing any signs of broodiness, although in many cases they belong to the so-called sitting breeds. A given number of chicks can be hatched with less labor, less room, and less trouble with an incuba tor than with hens, and the machine is always ready when the eggs are, whatever be the season. If properly designed and constructed and cor rectly operated, the incubator supplies conditions more favorable to a good hatch than the neces sary number of sitting hens usually do. There are no lice to torment the hatcher or the new born chicks when they arrive. Some claim that artificially supplied heat for hatching eggs is not in accord with the laws of nature. That is a feeble theory. As well say that grafting fruit trees is unnatural ; for nature when left to herself produces fruit from seedlings only. Milking a cow by hand power is not nature's way. Nature designed that cows should be milked by their calves. Man is continually improving on nature's way of doing things, and nature helps him to do it. The incubator is all right, and is here to stay. It is designed and operated in harmony with natural laws, or it would not hatch the eggs. Yours fraternally, JOHN M. KESTER. Cleveland Co., N. C. "String Halt" or Slipping of the Patella in Horses and Cattle. Messrs. Editors: Enclosed find one dollar for which please send me The Progressive Farmer for 1905. I would be glad if you would tell me what is wrong with a cow that has a catch in one of her hind legs. She walks something like a string halt ed horse: seems like there is a catch in her hip. J. R. W. (Answer by Dr. Tait Butler, Veterinarian North Carolina Department of Agriculture.) Your correspondent does not give sufficient data upon which a definite opinion as to the nature of the trouble affecting his cow, can be based. However, from what he states, I suspect that there is a slipping of the patella or stifle bone slightly out of place. This stifle bone, which cor responds to the "knee cap" of man, works on a grooved surface of the thigh bone. The inner prominence which forms this groove is quite high, but the outer is comparatively slight and the patella or stifle bone slips outwards, only when the leg is extended backward, as just before it is brought forward in walking, the ligaments are relaxed and it is then that the bone slips off the grooved surface above referred to. This trouble occurs frequently in colts and "growthy" young horses, but I am not aware that it is common in cattle. However, the description given, in this case, fits so closely that usually given by my cor respondents in writing about luxation of the pa tella, "stifled" in horses, I am inclined to think that this cow is suffering from the same trouble. Furthermore, nearly every non-experienced ob server will describe this trouble in horses as "string halt," just as is done in this case. If the trouble is what I suspect the toe will at first drag the ground, although great muscular effort is made to bring the leg forward, but when the bone slips into place this extra effort will bring the leg quickly forward and raise it higher than usual, resembling somewhat the action of a horse with stringhalt. If from what I have written Mr. W. is satisfied this is the trouble with this cow he should confine her to the stable and apply a blister of one (1) part of red iodide of mercury and four (4) parts each of cerate of cantharides and lard. This should be well rubbed in for ten or fifteen min utes, over the stifle joint, and for several hours after its application the cow's head should be tied so as to prevent her licking the blister off. 'The blister should not be repeated inside of ten days or two weeks, but, in the interval, the parts may be greased once a day with vaseline or lard. A Fair Hatch. It is difficult to define what should be a fair hatch from a sitting of eggs, as opinions differ. Some consider seven chicks to be a fair hatch, or over one-half of thirteen eggs, though others may be satisfied with five. No breeder can "guarantee" every egg to hatch. He knows no more about them than the buyer in that respect, but he should endeavor to send eggs from vigorous stock. A customer will be lucky if he gets a pair of first class standard exhibition birds from a sitting of thirteen eggs. . Some breeders do not get such a pair from a dozen sittings. The customer is re sponsible for the hen that sits on the eggs and for her management while on the nest. Some cus tomers do not know good birds when they see them, and often complain ignorantly. The breed er must depend on any statement sent him, with out being able to verify or deny it. Before com plaining, ask yourself at what price you will sell the chicks should you receive an order for them, and compare the value with the cost. An excellent way to settle disputes is for the breeder to make ah offer to the customer for the chicks, for if they are worthless then the customer will sell at a low price; if valuable, he will not sell at all. The breeder will then have an opportunity to see them. The breeder who values his reputation should en deavor to satisfy every customer, even if doing so sometimes requires a sacrifice. Selected.