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PROGRESSIVE FARMER AND COTTON PLANT.
Tuesday, February 14, 1905. Crops, Soils and Fertilizers (INCLUDINO HORTICULTURE AND TRUCKING.) CONDUCTED BY B. W. KILGORE, tta CbemUt North Carolina Department of Agriculture ana JJirecvor Agricujurmi jucpenmeai dwuub. Inquiries of ProgreMive Farmer reader cheerfully an- ereo. WHAT LEVEL TERRACING WILL DO. , The tenth part that could be said in favor"" of ? Fcrtiliiers icr Wtton. ; , the level terracing system has not been said. , As Messrs. Editors: I don't think it will be hard to I said in a former article, there are three things I organize the farmers of Sampson "to hold cotton that will make your farm rich : : I and to reduce : acreage one-third. I hope we (1) The level terracing. r-'-;-;- :; ; r I haven't a farmer in our county that will kick (2) Deep plowing. ' . . " ' I against the action of the New. Orleans Conven es) Abundance of humus in the soil, : I tion; and through your paper I hope they may be Do these three things successfully on1 your able to learn of this. I think that if the farmers whole farm, or one field at least, and in three I WOuld get in their minds the idea of raising stock 'Dr. Freeman Assert that Crop Yields Could be In ; creased 50 Per Cent. - r ' n 1 . t 1 . - ' J L A. .aiessr3. manors: x nave jusv mauo m mi.' . through sections of three counties, and I have never before seen so much destruction of farm ing lands. This is my excuse for saying a few " words m6re to your readers about saving , their .land. I saw the wave of prosperity in a place here and there, and at other places all was going backwards and lower down in prosperity and hap piness. - - In every case the true condition was shown by the looks of things about the home. Where pros perity showed itself most, I noticed the land was in the best condition and not a gully to be seen anywhere; and on the other hand, where no signs of prosperity could be seen, the land was in an awful condition., Gullies and galled and whito places were seen all over the farm. All these run-down farms had no terraces, but some of them had ditches. No ditched farm, however well ditched, seemed to look well, and but little prosperity, or signs of it, could be seen. "Every , of thrift, prosperity and happiness. These observations were made in hilly sections and where terracing will do the work. It was sickening to see some of these farms; nearly all the soil washed down into the fence corners and the crops which grew there did not pay for the work done. x - Why will men at this day go on farming in such a fool way? Most of this fool farming comes of ignorance and the tenant system. Many men who live on their own farms and cultivate them are ignorant -because they do not take and study a good agricultural paner. Others (and there are a. great many of them) are ignorant because they think they are wise and there, is nothing more for them to learn. These men are always sorry farmers. If you speak to them about saving their lands from washing, they smile and act as if they knew everything and say they have tried everything and found it a failure. These men will always fail and be drones in the farming .world. It is the. man who seeks to know and puts into practice the best suggestions of his neigh? bors and all the good ideas he can get from his farm paper, that will, and is, succeeding. I saw. men who worked their own farms, in some instances were plowing their crops up and down the hills. 'They had a few ditches here and iL" T 1 ' x T T 1 -il f 1 mure, u lunt; wujrs upun, across which iney iiau plowed all the year. These farms all looked bad and were failures. 1 . 1 saw no farm which, looked - like an intelligent man, or a white man, had. cul tivated it, except those that were terraced. JN o man can save his land by giving his rows or his water terrace one particle .of fall. If every farmer could realize this now and plow down his ditches and all other water terraces which have any fall at all, and terrace their lands on a per fect level arid run all the rows on the same per fect level, the crops in this State would increase 50 per cent in three years. If any man doesn't believe this, just let-him try one field and make this field a test field for the next three years, and the results will nrove what I have said to be true. ' Now don't you begin in your mind to argue with me in order to satisfy your lazy conscience, but just take my word for it this time and you will bexonvinced. . , " The tenant system is big enough and important enough for another paper. " years it will more than double the yield. . - - H. F. FREEMAN. . Wilson Co., N. C. " - . : ' r T- TALKS Off OTSECT PESTS. XX. 1. The Cotton Boll-Weevil; 2. Cut-Worms; - 3. Lime-Sulphur-Salt Wash. Messrs. Editors. : Jus t at this time some farm ers say that they are not concerned about the cotton boll weevil say that it might just as well spread all over the South as not, as cotton is so low." Well, if .we want less cotton, all right, but the farmer who plants fertilizers and cultivates a crop, whether it -be cotton or anything else, does not want to see it ruined by insects. There fore, it is just as important now for pur people to learn about the boll weevil as it has ever been. We have just issued a special circular which care fully describes the insect, its life-history, - habits, methods of spread, etc. This circular will be sent to any farmer in this State for the asking. It should -be carefully read by those who re ceive it. - - - . The boll weevil is not established in this State, so iar as is known. Every, report of its appear ance has proven, on investigation, to be erroneous. It is liable to be bronght in, however, in shipments of cottonseed or other materials from parts of Texas 'and Louisiana where the-insect is abund ant. If is to be brought in such shipments it may and forage, they would improve their farms quicker.- And taking their cotton seed and exchanging them for meal, and feeding , stock with it, and keeping manure sheltered, . they would find that their se,ed would pay better that way than to put them out raw. I have sold my seed for two years and think I made money by doing so. But, Mr. Farmer; I change my land every year. Where I put cotton I drill all of my stable manure under hay cotton every year. Then I take 200 pounds of meal or guano arid put to acres for corn, and gives the corn a quick start. I don't think that I could sell seed at the present prices. But as they sold in 1902 and ,1903, we got 30 cents per bushel, and I canont get that out of them. If there is any reader of this paper that had ex perience of exchanging, his cotton seed, I would like to hear from him through your paper. - .' . : - i:: :r A. A. JACKSON. Sampson Co., N. C. Hew Disease of the Peanut. According to a" communication of Mr. 'A. Ka- rosek to the journal Gartenflora, a new disease of the peanut plant has shown , itself in German East' Africa. The peanut belongs -to the .most important cultivated plants there, and has been so far especially recommended on account of its relative freedom from disease. It mainly suffers from a fungus which causes reddish-brown spots appear at any time, but 11 it is to reach us by j upon the plants, which atterwards change to its natural spread alone, we do not expect it to I black. The disease occurs wherever peanuts grow, get to this State until 1910 or later. We. might I but does not kill the plant elsewhere. The new discuss this matter further in these columns, but I disease observed by Mr. Karosek in the vicinity of will leave it for those interested to write for the I Tanga, and which is also said to-exist at Lmdi, circular mentioned, which discusses all .these I .results in a rapid dying out of the plant. It points in some detail. I shows itself in a retarded growth of the leaves, ' flowers, and fruit; and the leaves, in addition, Cut worms are worse on land just from sod. show irregular white spots, which ultimately Therefore if you are going to put garden or change to brown and black. The cause is yet un- truck crops, m sod land, it will be best to-plow it known. The fungus which may be responsible has now, so that the freezing and thawing will kill not yet been found, neither on the roots nor on- t.ho out. wnrmsa xpfiinTi nrflnnw in tli anil. TTitt I x i i n " T, ? i . . - ww-. 1 Liie uiseaseu it; uvea or nowers. xi is uossiuie xnat pass the winter in a half-grown condition, feeding the disease,' like the mosaic disease of the tobac on the foots and green stems of grasses in mild co plant, which it resembles, is duo to bacteria. weather, and . lying dormant when it is cold. By The peanut plant has still "another enemy in a root plowing the sod land at this, time (or preferably louse.' concerning which no close research has vfit earlier than this) their food is destroyed and they bee madeRichard Guenther, - Consul-General, are also exposed to the weather., Uardens, cab- Frankfort. GemnTiv in nnnanl 1? 1?oW 7 y 'W w A --rx S A. Vy UL. VUA U bage and tobacco fields which are to be put . in land now in sod should be plowed at once. : ... " Orchards that are infested with the San Jose scale should be sprayed, with the lime-sulphur- salt wash between now and .the time the buds burst. We have just issued a circular on this wash which will be, sent to any one who asks it. ary 6, 1905. The Garden Hoe. The wheel-hoe is the most important garden tool invented within a century ; at least, one' gar dener thinks so a busy housekeeper, who has un dertaken the entire , care of the garden as a We are recommending that the wash be applied mf-ns health and pleasure, - says : a writer in late this winter to aU iruit trees, whether infest- ne araen JMagazme. What can it do? , Al ed with scale or not then when the blooms have most everything that hands, hoes and rakes can shed, the apple and pear trees should be sprayed accomplish an(i does h tier and faster. My with the bordeaux mixture and Paris green, and w attachments raxes, scrapers, cultivators and plow. Think .of the difference between that and taking a stroll between your rows of vegetables. pushing that light-built,' easy-running gem of a tool the wheel-hoe 1 The onlv timp mi a this treatment should be repeated again two weeks later. " ' . . ' ' We must spray, that's all there is to it. Tho longer we put it off the harder it will be to get our apple and pear trees m proper shape. With 1 . . -f - I wv IIUVU - - , tironer carft hv whmh I ttipo fertilizatioripumnsand been really ha.1 to work was when I tried to plow reason we should not grow just as good apples as to eep, or run it up-hill or turn tough soil; 'al- we ever did. And until we do adopt the practice, though this work was hard to' do, it would have, we will have to put up with our little, knottv. been imriossihlfi witli n-nv Woii wormy, dwarfed, inferior fruit, and we will con- - : tinue to see our own local markets suDolied with .Tiido-e. "Whv HiMn't m,i o. ai c sprayed apples from the West and Norths the defendant Ka fieri, v - V f ; . xxx shaman, JC, Jfoliccman. "Shure, an' Oi didn't know which Entomologist, Department , of Agriculture, Ra- av thim wus goin' t6 be th' defendant, yer honor ' leigh, N. C. . ChWo News. . . - ' - . -'. .. .