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PKOGBESPTVE FATWEK AM' (Oil uin rhnn . .
uesaay, yi:ly ' - . , ' 11 I PREPARE NOW FOR ALFflLFfl THIS FALL It Gives Rich Returns for Heavy Fertilizing and Careful Preparation - Begin Now to Make Your Land Ready. Messrs. Editors wish to say an other word to your readers about al falfa, as now is the time to begin for next fall or next spring's planting. My friend, you cannot take a poor piece of, land and make it rich in a few hours just before planting time. Many of you know this. Neither can you make alfalfa on poor land. Now if you have been a close reader of The Progressive Farmer for the last few months, you want an acre in alfalfa very badly. - Now Is the Time to Begin. Now is the time to begin for this most wonderful crop. The best way to get into this crop at once is to move your garden next spring to a new place and plant the old garden in alfalfa. But if you do not wish to move your garden, the next quickest way is to select an acre, the richest you have near the lot now, and sow it down in peas, manuring the peas highly. Put two bushels of peas to the acre. Now during this summer make the largest and best compost heap you ever made and have it ready to put on broadcast at sowing time.' When the peas are cut, you should plow under the sedge and be ready to spread on the manure and plow under in September if the sea sons come right for sowing seed. Should the seasons not come, you have not lost anything by these two plowings and manuring, but done a good work towards fixing your land for the spring sowing Pat the Crop on Rich Land. If you sow in the spring (about the last of March in this section), be sure during the winter months to throw out all the lot manure you can on this land. You cannot put out too much; don't be afraid, but you will be glad after you have tried it. Remember, it takes rich land down here on our sandy loams to make alfalfa. Don't put it out on any other land but rich land, and you will be more than pleased. It will pay you better than any other crop you can grow. Pour years ago I planted this clover and began to cut it that same spring and have been at it ever since, and it is far better this spring than ever before. I have it three feet high now and by the time I get over cutting it, it will be ready to start over again. Yes, the more you cut the faster- it grows. Drilling Beats Broadcasting: In the East. I planted in rows 20 inches apa'rt, and worked it a little in the middles for two years and also early in each spring to loosen up the ground. I thought I would sow another row be tween these rows the next year and did so, but it was crowded out and did nothing. It is a perfect mass of green now and nothing can grow under it. With this experience I ad vise planting in rows 10 inches apart on rich well-prepared land. Now on my say-so, you try this plan and you will make more than you will broadcasting the seed. Oth erwise weeds and crab grass will surely destroy this clover in its in fancy down in this section during the first two years. I think in the west ern part of the State it might do as well sowed broadcast. But planted in rows 10 inches apart you will get as much or more than if sown broad cast. I tried three times before I got a stand or succeeded. IsGt Everybody Give the Crop a Trial. My friends, I have written this for you at this time so you can have time to get your acre in good fix. I forgot to say that early this spring, after taking chickens off my alfalfa, I covered the land in rich stable ma nure and then chopped in the middles a thousand pounds of guano per acre. This made it a wonder. Yes, this is' the way to manure it after you once get a stand. t Take my advice for once, and you will be the most delighted man that ever took the advice of another. H. F. FREgMAN. . Wilson Co., N. C. Selection of Seed of Irish and Sweet . Potatoes. Every crop is susceptible to im provement by proper seed selection. This topic is neglected, by practical farmers more than any other. Much has appeared in our agricultural pa pers recently, however, about the ad visability, and detailing the proper mode, of selecting seed of cotton and corn. Both Irish and sweet potatoes are susceptible of improvement. The following paragraphs concerning the selection - of the Irish potato are taken from Bulletin No. 30 of the North Dakota Experiment Station which may probably be secured by request from Fargo, N. D. The statements which are made here con cerning the Irish potato are with out doubt, to a large extent, equally true of . the sweet potato. Following are the Dakota conclusions after three years' experiments: General Summary from the Observations of the Three Years. 1. Upon going into a field of po tatoes presumably of one variety and of a number of years' growth from the same stock, it will be found thar the product in different hills shows a wide ra o of variation from what may be termed the standard tvpe of the variety. This is what is usually known as "degeneration," or "run ning out." It is simply variation of the crop into certain strains. These strains, as, for example, of smallness, many tubers per hill, or of peculiari ties of form, tend to persist from year to year. The final crop thus eventually becomes of poor quality because of a lack of proper selection of the seed tubers. 2. Selection of large size tubers from the general crop as stored in the bin will not, with any desired cer tainty, make the crop a better one; for some hills which naturally yield many tubers of off form and small size, may furnish a large number of the . tubers used for the next crop. That is, in such selection of tubers, a few hills may furnish much the greater number of the pieces for the small potato test. Such tubers can only be expected to raise small ones again, and the test will naturally be against the small potatoes. If, by chance, an eaual or greater number of the large tubers selected should come from such hills, then the test will be less favorable to the large tubers. All other comparative tests which neglect this consideration of strain or stock variation may be ex pected to be of doubtful result. 3. The tendency to resemble the general varietal character seems to be the strongest feature of heredity in the potato; but within every long standing variety, such as Early Ohio and Early Rose, there have arisen mapy sub-strains or stock variations which show themselves to be trans mittable. This is especially true as regards the features of form, size and number. 4. The features of form, size and number of tubers produced are all greatly influenced by the growing conditions, especially by poor me chanical conditions ot the son ana by injuries of the vines. Of these three features, that of form is nost persistently reproduced. 5. Some strain features, 3uch as extra roughness of skin, and null formations, such as enlarged or tu berous eyes, often seen in the Early Ohio, tend, as do other features, to be carried over into the follovying crop, but they seem strongly affect ed by cultural conditons. 6. Since differences in strain char acters are reproduced in successive crops, it is evident that a small tuber from a vine which has born tubers chiefly of the desired form and size is of more worth for planting pur poses than a very large tuber from a vine that has descended from a strain of vines which habitually bore nu merous small, undesirable tubers. 7. Because of the tendency of po tatoes to vary under cultivation, and because such variations tend to run into certain strains, some valuable and others comparatively valueless, it is evident that the selection ol proper tubers for planting is the first essential to culture. This selection should be done in the field at digging time, and should be made from those hills which produce potatoes of the form and character desired. 8. As to how the selection should be undertaken in the field, the work and observations of this bulletin are not directly applicable, other than to the extent that it was observed that the characteristics of the vines were variable with the different strains. This would indicate that the vines may possibly become" a valuable index to proper selection. Furthermore, in making selection for purposes of plant improvement, it is always best to take into consideration the entire aspect of a plant rather than the single feature desired. 9. In planting equal weight pieces from small and large tubers of the same vine, there will not be a suffici ent difference in ;f avor of one or the other size of potatoes to be no ticeable under farm methods, provid ed all are normally mature. Proper Distance for Corn ; About Peach Tree Borers. -"Messrs. Editors: I have been growing Cockle's Prolific corn for several years and tried planting in hills and also thick in drill. The besi results are had by planting it four or four and one-half feet each w&y and leaving one to three stalks in each hill, according to land. The best corn I had last year in this way had six good ears to the hill, while the same number of stalks singly in the drill in equal space did not yield near so much. My experience with this corn has not continued long - enough to be positively certain as to what is the best ; yet' it would seem for best re sults it requires plenty of space for sunshine, etc., and that it may be crowded in the hill provided suffici ent distance be left between the hills. I am still experimenting with it, planting some each way along side each other, and shall carefully com pare products. I have never before had the dis pleasure of seeing so early, May 4th, such a large crop of peach tree borers. Though the trees had un teached wood ashes put around them early in the season, and the dirt care fully placed so as to keep ashes close up around trees, yet plenty of borers, well developed fellows an inch long, were found imbedded just above ashes. , Better look over your trees and that right away, too. , C. 0. GETTYS. Rutherford Co., N. 0. "Uncle To" on As Messrs. Editors: I was vervimA interested in reading Mr. A. J v Kinnon's method of growing a4 gus in last week's Progressive r' er, his way being so different fPo mine, he growing the white puL tipped spears relished hv Xorther buyers while I cater to the homo trade who prefer the tender, all gretll spears. Before planting- my bed I consulted Bulletin No. 11-2, issued v the North Carolina Experiment St, tion, entitled "Trucking in t South," and found that while Xorth ern people liked the white tips, the Southerners preferred the green' and have found this to be the case, as v,e have been able to sell all sent to mar ket. Writing of bulletins, the one mentioned above, and ''The Home Vegetable Garden and Its Pests" by Prof. W. F. Massey, are two pamphlets that should he in every rural home, as the farmers, as a rule, do not pay1 enough attention to their gardens ; in fact, most of them think they have done their duty when they plow it up in the spring ai d alle the "women folks" to do the rest. The result is, that they have a few onions and few "messes'' of cabbage, and by July the garden is abandoned and looks like a wildnerness, whereas a little time taken from the crop ami spent on the garden would, in this climate, give a. bountiful supply of vegetables the whole year, "llog and hominy" is all right, but a varied bill of fare is much better. "UNCLE JO." Dr. Freeman's Articles Have Done Good. Messrs. Editors : I am taking three papers, but The Progressive Farmer is first with me. Dr. Free man's articles on terracing have done our farmers good. Their work shows it. Almost every fanner in our sec tion is terracing his land and plowing deeper. D. M. HER LOCK EE. Union Co., N. C. Latest North Carolina Crop Bulletin. Planting corn continued during the week, especially on uplands in the west; low-lands are at present too wet to plant; corn is coming up re markly well and good stands seem assured everywhere; cultivation or young corn is proceeding; the only damage so far reported to corn by insects results from ravages by cut worms in several counties, chieth ni the west. Planting cotton made fa vorable progress early in the week, though interrupted towards the close; planting is about finished in the southern portion; the seeds arc ger minating with unusual rapidity, and good stands seem assured; choppm? is about to begin; cotton is getting a little grassy in a few counts s. an 1 warm, dry weather: would now be beneficial. The showers this week gave farmers a favorable opportun ity to transplant tobacco, and wbeie the plants were large enough, and the land prepared, a large portion of the crop was set out; this work will '1 general during the next week or two. Wheat, oats and rye continued to grow rapidly, and are beginning t form heads ; six correspondents J(" pprt damage to wheat by the 1 Ionian fly, showing the very limited injur? by this pest for the present season. Spring oats, clover and grns?e- are also in flourishing condition: ed"vl'r and pastures are ready to Truck crops and gardens have jm" proved;- the shipment of peas bus begun; Irish potatoes are genera!!, fine and are being hilled in the east. The damp weather is having a rfltl.ieir unfavorable effect on fruit. i-ivorin-' fungus growth. Strawberries ripening too rapidly, and as ih" cr is a large one, the transportation i' cilities seem inadequate.