Newspaper Page Text
Tuesday, August 1, 1905J
PROGRESSIVE FARMER AND COTTON PLANT. EXTERMINATION OF THE CATTLE TICK.7 An Important Bulletin by the Tennessee Experiment Station , is Commended by the United States Department of Agriculture A Practicable Method of Combating Ticks on Small Farms. - Washington, D. C, July 26, 1905. Editor Progressive Farmer, Raleigh, X. C. Dear Sir: The South is again to i,.-. -mcrratulated on a piece of Ex periment Station work which is hardlv second in importance to any piece of work done anywhere in the eoiintrv. I refer to the recent bulle tin on "The Texas Fever Cattle Tick," by Prof. H. A. Morgan, formerly of the Louisiana Experi ment Station at Baton Rouge, and now Director of the Tennessee Ex periment Station at Knoxville. This bulletin has been issued bv both of the Experiment Stations named, and can doubtless be had by addressing either Prof. Morgan, at Knoxville, Tenn., or Prof. W. R. Dodson, Di rector of the Experiment Station at Baton Rouge, La. Texas fever has been the bane of the cattle industry in the South, and has done more to prevent the devel opment of beef production and dairy ing ;.n that section than all other causes combined. Prof. Morgan, Ty a careful and patient study of the habits and life history of the tick which conveys this disease from one animal to another, has been able to work out an entirely practicable method of ridding a farm of these ticks. The method is exceedingly simple and inexpensive, and can be rracticed on practically any farm in the South. It is hoped that farm ers throughout the South will take advantage of the knowledge Prof. Morgan has given them. W. J. SPILLMAN, Agriculturist, TJ. S. Department of Agriculture. The foregoing note from Prof. Spillman explains itself. A copy of the bulletin referred to reached The Progressive Farmer and Cotton Plant several days ago, and. we had copied for use in our paper the sum mary of conclusions given herewith. In no Southern State is the cam paign against the cattle tick being more wisely or successfully carried on than it is in North Carolina un der the direction of Dr. Tait Butler. But the experiments made bv Prof. Morgan cannot fail to be of value everywhere, and we urge our readers to send for copies of his bulletin. Summing up his first series of ex periments, Prof. Morgan announces the followin"- five points: Facts About Infestation and Inoculation. Experiments conducted in this and other States suggest the following conclusions upon the fever side of the cattle tick situation: 1. The cattle tick (Boophilus an nulatus) is the only species in the United States capable of conveying the Texas fever germ from one ani mal to another (cattle). 2. The degree of virulence of the fever germ transmitted by individu al ticks depends to a very great ex tent upon the susceptibility of the animals upon which the immediate ttrop-enitors of these ticks were de veloped. Hence an animal recently unmunized by blood inoculation will suffer less from tick fever if pas tured with a number of native cattle than if permitted to collect seed ticks, the immediate offspring of those developed upon this inoculated ammal. The offspring of cattle ticks developed a few generations n horses and mules, in the blood of which the germ becomes innocuous, arc' non-transmitters of fever. These conditions, together with incorrect identifications, account for the belief of some stock owners that ticks do not transmit Texas fever. 3. ' It is possible to give a marked 'degree of immunity by hypodermic injections of fresh or defibrinated blood (1-5 c. c) from a non-susceptible tick-infested animal, or by gradu al and limited artificial application of young ticks (seed ticks), the prod uct of old ticks developed on animals which have had Texas fever either from inoculation or from tick in festation. 4. Young animals suffer less dur ing immunization than older ones, unless changes in dentition disquali fy them for the range, in which case judicious feeding must be resorted to. In fact, during the fever period (sixty days) animals should be placed upon a nutritious, well balanced ration. 5. With higher-priced animals it is better to inoculate the calves at from six to nine months old than to permit promiscuous tick infesta tion, and consequent serious check in development when a week or more old, as it the case with calves drop ped upon infested pastures. Practicable Plans for Destroying: the Ticks. The second part of Prof. Morgan's bulletin deals with practical plans for farm destruction of ticks, and the conclusions are these:. 1. The North American cattle tick has been bred upon cattle, horses and mules. Horses and mules are not continuously infested when upon ticky pastures as are cattle. 2. Sheep and goats run upon pas tures, scatter hunches of seed ticks and reduce possible infestation of cattle upon the same pastures. 3. The excessive tax of gross in festation of ticks is not only shown by the great loss of flesh of animals attacked, but in the slower develop ment of ticks on animals intensely infested. 4. In connection with the two pas ture methods suggested for the eradi cation of the fever tick, the periods of greatest importance in the life of this tick are: (1) The combined em laying and incubation, which takes place upon the ground of the pas ture, and (2) the development of the tick upon cattle (from the time the seed ticks are collected from the pas ture and attach, through the two molting periods, to the engorgement and. dropping of the females). Eggs hatch readily in from twenty to thirty days from May until early Oc tober. Those deposited in the lat ter half of November, in December, January, February, and early March, hatch in April and May; earlier in exceptionally open winters. Ticks develop upon, cattle in from about nineteen to thirty days in summer, and the longest winter development upon cattle was found to be forty days- , j 5. More eggs as a rule are deposit ed in summer than in winter. Many females succumb to the cold before depositing half as many esrsrs as fe males of the same size would deposit in summer. 6. Seed ticks possess remarkable vitality, having been found to be able to exist without food as long as two months in summer and over six m late fall, winter and early spring. 7. From a study of the life and habits of the fever tick, two plans have been developed for its eradica tion: (1) A pasture rotation system, utilizing June, July, August, Sep tember, and October to starve out the tick from pastures by excluding cattle, horses, and mules ; (2) the adoption of the feed-lot method with in a sorghum, corn millet or other forage field conveniently located for water and shade. 8. Animals south of the ouarantine line may, anv time , during the year, be absolutely cleaned of ticks in forty days or less by the feed-lot method. 9. Seed ticks hatched in late Sep tember and 'October, living as they can as long as six months, may in fest cattle during any warm spell from late September until April. 10. While a number .of substances are of great value in reducing tick infestation of animals, they are at tended with some loss, considerable expense and much worry, and can not be relied upon for complete eradication except when associated with the pasture rotation remedy. Many substances used to lessen tick infestation irritate the skins of ani mals and lengthen the period of de velopment of ticks which survive the effect of the application. PRACTICAL POULTRY TALKS. A Batch of Suggestions Appropriate to the Season. Messrs. Editors: The hatching season is now over, and the poultry man has little to do but care for the young and old stock, culling out and sending to market all poor speci mens and those not desirablet for breeders for next season. The sea son has been an unusually good one, the hatching and rearing young bet ter with most for the past several years, yet the prices realized for eggs and fryers has been kept up to a paying basis. Plump broilers are bringing fourteen cents per pound, while eggs are retailing for twenty cents per dozen. Poultry Market Never Over-Supplied. The supply will never again meet the demand, if every poultryman or woman doubled their capacity. What bright prosnects ahead for the live up-to-date poultry raisers! By that I do not mean the fancier, for he "cuts little ice" compared to the market poultrvman for he is the man who feeds the hungry (chicken hungry) multitude. It is therefore to the interest of the market man to raise nothing but the best. It really costs no more to raise a good broiler than a roor one, and the dif ference in price received will con vince any one that it pays to keep good stock to breed from. Good Breeds for Market Purposes. One need not become a "crank" be cause he has pure-bred poultry. There are thousands of people rais ing poultry for profit (and get it) who never exhibit and never saw a copy of the Standard of Perfection, and don't know a good exhibition bird when they see it, yet do know that for nice salable fryers at all seasons, the Rocks or Wyandottes are the best: while if eggs are wanted Leghorns or Minorcas can not be surpassed. We of the present generation are not onlv after the '"dollar of our daddies." but- our grand-daddies as well, but to get this we must have the best in the market. If you have watched the market auotations you have found this so. It reads some thing like this: "Chickens, fat, plump, hens, 14 to 15 per pound, good demand; poor hens. 10 to 11 cents per pound, slow sale." "Take the case, gentlemen." Guarding Against Bats. If it were not for the many ene mies to poultry, which the poultry man has to contend with, his voca tion would be a ' comparatively easy one. No community seems to be free from the ravages of some sort of vermin which prey upon the chickens and become a constant terror from the time the chicks are hatched till they mature. It is easy enough with good stock and proper care to avoid seriosu ravages of disease, but it is hard to guard against the night at tacks of rats and cats. Brooder and coop doors should be shut every night and a god dog kept close to the chicken houses. One good sized rat will kill more chickens in one night than could be hatched by hens in a month. Of course if we could raise all the chickens hatched they would be a drug on the market, but if pos sible, take care of yours and let the other fellow sustain the losses. It's a case of every man for himself, and His Satanic Majesty take the hindmost. Notes for Early August. One of the most common mistakes made by poultrymen is the over crowding of both old and young stock. Confinement in overcrowded quarters will ruin the healthiest and strongest birds, and the smaller and weaker ones in the flock give up early in the flight. Have regular times for feeding. Regularity is a great virtue in car ing for fowls. They soon learn when meal times come, and if the food is not forthcoming they A ret more or less, and the egg basket shows a loss. You cannot intelligently breed standard bred fowls without a copy of the Standard of Perfection or the knowledge that it contains. Therefore get a copy and study it. If you want to have a hard luck story to tell, wait till winter comes before preparing for it. Filthy drinking vessels are the cause of many serious ailments of fowls. Continued drinking of im pure water will produce what is commonly termed cholera, and the flock is soon wiped out. There is no one breed which is ab solutely better than all the rest. All breeds and varieties have their staunch supporters who are ready to claim the earth for them. They mean well, but are unconsciously prejudiced. ' It is always an easy matter to over-feed fowls, and the poultryman should bear this in mind. They will often fly around their keeper and have the appearance of starving for food when they do not need it at all. "As an author, he was noted, And his wise remarks were quoted In the leading poultry papers Every season by the score; His advice he sold for money, But although it seems so funny, When he wanted eggs he bought them At the corner grocery store." "UNCLE JO." South Carolina State Farmers' Institute The presiding officer of the South Carolina State Farmers' Institute, Prof. J. N. Harper, of Clemson Col lege, who is also director of the Ex periment Station, has issued a bul letin to the farmers of the State call ing a State Farmers' Institute for August 8th, 9th, 10th and 11th, to be held at Clemson College. The open ing address will be delivered by Sen ator Tillman, Profs. Spillman and Everett and Dr. Summers are among the speakers. Mr. M. V. Richards, industrial agent of the Southern Railway, has been invited to address the body on the subject of immigra tion. Ample provision has been made by the authorities for accommoda tion of the farmers at the college and the board and lodging have been re duced to a nominal price.