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Tuesday, September 20, 1:m.-
2 PROGRESSIVE FARMER AND COTTON PLANT. VALUE OF COTTONSEED. A -Subject of Much Interest in the Ginning Season Discussed by President Harvie Jordan and Capt. Charles Petty. The price for cotton seed is fixed largely by the current price of the oil, so far as the oil mills are con 'cerned. The mill people regard the oil in the seed as the main product. 'because the price of the oil crushed from a ton of seed is nearly twice as great as the price paid for the meal, and nearly four times the value of the hulls, and seven times as valuable as the amount of lint se cured. Hence we find that the price of the seed as fixed by the mills is - regulated by the price of oil. Manorial Value of Seed. Let us look for a moment at the value of the actual plant food in sixty-six bushels, or one ton, of cot ton seed, and see if the farmer can afford, from a fertilizing standpoint, to part with his seed at even $12 per ton. We find that a ton of cotton seed contains 62 pounds of nitrogen, 26 pounds of phosphoric acid and 24 pounds of potash. These fertilizing ingredients are worth, at the lowest estimate, $12.60. That is what they would cost at wholesale spot cash prices in commercial fertilizers. In named, cotton seed contains a large amount of organic vegetable matter, which, when it rots, will make humus and materially add to the natural fertility of soil. All soil is made from decaying vegetable or animal matter, and it is. for that reason that commercial fertilizers will not enrich the soil. Now suppose we add $2.50 additional to the ton to cover the value of the organic matter in the ton and $1.00 more for hauling and delivering to the mill we find very clearly that we cannot afford to sell a ton of cotton seed for less than $16 per ton without sustaining an actual loss, and will then receive no profit. And yet we have not taken into account the value of the oil to the mill, which should be considered. No farmer, then, can afford to part with a ton of seed for less than $16 per ton, because its manurial value at home is fully worth $16. Then if the mills are not willing to pay at .least $16 per ton or twenty-five cents per bushel, then keep the seed at home. Exchanging: Seed for Meal. The most economical and profit able method of handling seed with the mills is on a basis of exchange. That is, exchange the seed for so much meal. Give a ton of seed for not less than 1,600 to 1.800 pounds of good, clean meal. Don't take dark meal, showing a heavy filler of hulls ground in with the meal, but make the mill owners agree in writ ing to furnish you clean, bright meal. With the meal you can then prepare to make your guano at home. If you have too much meal, a part of it can be easily sold and the money received invested in acid phosphate and potash to make up your home mixture. My earnest desire now is to call your attention to the value of your cotton seed as sl fertilizer, and to the further fact that if the seed are held back from the market they will command higher prices and will enable the farmers to make better and more satisfactory exchanges for meal. I want to also impress upon your minds as fully as I can that the solution of high-priced low grade guanos, in which hundreds of pounds of artificial fillers are used that are worthless, lies in the proper handling of the cotton seed. Ex change the seed for meal, and buy J the right quantities of acid phos-1 iV..j. I j i I yuj "u. puiasn, ana maKe your own guano at home. Without go ing into the value of a ton of seed to the mills at this time, suffice it to say that $16 per ton is the lowest figure a farmer can afford to take for his seed, and if he wants a profit then not less than $18 to $20 per ton. When the mills open the market at bids from $10 to $12 per ton, sim ply refuse to accept- the offer and hold for better prices. If the mills refuse to pay more, then let the mills close down and let the seed go back to enrich the land where nature in tended for them to go. It is time the farmers were waking up on the sale of their products and having a voice in the price at which they are sold in the markets of the country. Harvie Jordan, Monticello, Qa. THOUGHTS FOR FARMERS. Cottonseed and Meal. The cotton seed problem is now before the cotton growers. Shall they sell to the oil mills for cash, or exchange for meal, or keep on the farm? They will do one or the other. What is best? Consider -- i MV.w sfttrcuiea wiui seed and their products. Hie fol lowing figures are anroximately cor rect: A ton of seed, 66 2-3 bushers, will yield 740 pounds of meal 300 pounds of oil 900 pounds of hulls. 40 pounds of linters. 20 pounds of waste. The cash value of these products at the mill, where the meal shows seven per cent of nitrogen, is about $22.00. When the mill pays seventy-five cents a hundred pounds for seed it has a $12.00 margin to work on. Suppose the farmer should ex change his ton of seed for meal. How much should he receive? The usual price of meal at this season is about $22.00 a ton cash equal to the value of the products of one ton of seed. At that rate he would receive 1,360 pounds of meal for his ton of seed. Is that a profitable trade, or not? The hauling both ways is worth $2.00. A ton of cqtton seed contains 76 pounds of ammonia. 25.4 pounds of phosphoric acid. 23.4 pounds of potash. The commercial value of that at a port is $13.25. The experience of many good far mers is that seed used as a fertilizer are more satisfactory than the meal, or commercial fertilizer. The com mercial value of the plant food in one bushel of cotton seed is twenty one cents. Should the farmer sell at that price he will lose his haul ing and trouble. He will lose if he sells his seed for less than twenty five cents a bushel. In exchanging for meal he should get at least 1,500 pounds for one ton of seed. No far mer can afford to sell his seed for cash with the expectation of buying commercial fertilizer on time in the spring. Chemists will tell you that the seed are worth as much as food for cat tle as the meal. The mistake that most farmers make, is that they give too much seed. By feeding the seed to cattle and saving all the manure, the greatest benefit is derived. Let farmers test the value of seed and meal for wheat. Use thirty bushels of seed on one acre, and the same value in meal or commercial ferti lizer on another acre," and see which is better. CHARLES PETTY. Spartanburg Oo.,.S. C. HANDLING AND CURING PEAVINE HAY. Mr. Hobbs Describes the Plan by Which He Has Saved 250,000 Pounds. Messrs. Editors: I have read with much interest the different ar ticles in Progressive Farmer lately on how to cure pea-vine hay. Almost every one has a different plan, and probably most of them are a suc cess, but the plan that is surest and most economical is what we want. I have put up over 250,000 pounds in the last ten years by the methods herein outlined, and I hope your readers will give them their careful attention. Pea-vine hay is mostly raised down here after truck crops, such as beans, Irish potatoes, etc. As soon as pos sible after truck is gathered we sow the peas broadcast at the rate of a bushel per acre, and chop them in with a disc harrow. This generally levels the gTound sufficiently; if not, we take a board drag, or, tooth har row and finish the job. We have found by experience that the speckled pea is the best of them all, as the vines mature more quickly; they are almost always sure to bear peas, and they have nearly as much vine as The Unknown Pea. When to Cut. Watch the vines carefully, and when a few of the pods are ripe, others grown and some half grown, then they have about reached the stage of maturity, and if the weath er is favorable, do not delay. All that are cut before 3 or 4 o'clock should be raked into windrows the same day, for they will be cured too much to lie scattered in the dew. The dew will turn them brown and of course bright hay is the object sought for. Those that are cut af ter this time may be raked into windrows the next evening. Take a pitch-fork next morning as soon as dew is off and open windrows by throwing them slightly to right and left. It will take but a short while to open up an acre. Let them lie till about noon; then take a horse rake and pile windrows into as large piles as possible and round them up with fork. How to Carry Hay to Stack. Most people either take it or haul with a wagon. These methods are completely out of date. Move the piles of hay to stack just exactly as you have seen them slide piles of tobacco on a warehouse floor with a rope, to wit: Take a mule with plow gear, single-tree and clevis attached, and three extra trace chains. Fasten them end to end and throw them around the pile to be moved. Now fasten the ends of the chain that is around the pile to clevis. Stand on the chain back of the pile and start your mule. By this method one hand can move as much hay as four men with a wagon. Try it and be con vinced. How to Stack. Have stack poles twelve feet long and place them in the ground two and one-half feet. Begin platform by nailing on two cross pieces six feet long about eight inches above the ground. (We generally have them two and one-half inches wide.) Drive a stob at the end of each cross piece and nail to same with one eight penny wire nail. Take four pieces five or six feet long (two fence rails chopped in two will do), and place on ends of cross pieces. This makes a well ventilated platform to start with, which is necessary. Lay the hay on loosely and make the stack about six feet in diameter Nail on two cross pieces every two or two and one half feet up the stack; one twenty penny wire nail to each niece will do. Have a ladW and pack the top layer slightly and let the last fork full hang over the top of the pole. This forms a kind of umbrella. Hay stacked by this method will stand the weather a good long time without mUch injury, but it is always best to house as soon as thorough cured. When you take your "hav down you can save the cross pieces for next season. If you are careful in taking them off they will last a long time, thereby helping to reduce the cost of stacking to a minimum. Very respectfully, S. H. HOBBS. Sampson Co., N. O. Sweet Potato States. The Southern States grow the sweet potato to the exclusion of oth ers New Jersey excepted. The following are the principal sweet potato States, with their pro duction in bushels, as furnished by the last Government report: North Carolina 5,6G5,391 Georgia 5,616,317 Texas 5,505,452 Alabama 4,339,170 Mississippi 3,207,125 South Carolina 3,063,040 Virginia 2,816,041 New Jersey 2,254,344 Tennessee 1,973,035 Louisiana 1,912.080 Arkansas 1,822,960 Floriad . 1,749,679 These States, with the others of the Union, produce in round num bers 44,000,000 bushels a year. Ver mont, Rhode Island and Montana raise no sweets, while Wyoming fur nished but five bushels and New Hampshire but six; North Dakota's crop aggregates but forty bushels, and all the other States and Terri tories of the Union raise one hundred bushels at least. The canned sweet potato is finding an appreciative market in all parts of this country to an extent as to surprise many. Nansmond is the variety most used for this purpose. The yield of this" variety is satisfac tory in all of the Southern States. It is the best shipper to Northern and Western markets, because its flesh is firm and mealy. The very sugary kinds of potatoes are not rel ished by any but our Southern mar kets. Farm and Ranch. Unsuccessful Cotton Experiment in Africa. The Department of Commerce and Labor has just published a report stating that the result of an attempt to grow cotton in West Africa has been very discouraging, owing to the absence of transportation facilities and lack of laborers. In Sierra Leone the cotton asso ciation tried American seds, but the plantation didn't prove to be a success Under the most favorable conditions Sirra Leone could produce 140.000 bales, but for the next ten years not more than six. thousand bales a year may be pexpected. Northern Nigeria, with a popiila 90.000.000 fairly civil- wed people, is the best fitted for the cotton industry, but the lack ot u as portation facilities makes it mi possible to conduct it. The colonies, Lagos, Southern Nigeria, Gold Coast, Sirra leon and Gambia, could under the most favorable conditions produce o.A 000 bales, but for the next eight years not more than 100,000 bales can be expected. Have you told your neighbors, friends and relatives about our jo cent offer? Make a clean sweep now. Leave nobody out of The Progress -Farmer fold.