Newspaper Page Text
RUINATION OF THE REPUBLICAN PA
RTY,SEPT. native Inhabitants of the terrt- ceded to the United States UJ - " 3 " thereafter, on Dec. 21, the fol- ion was given to the command- es In the Philippines: ary commander of the United . . . i . - U. the Philippine Islands that, in o the sovereignty of Spain, In former political relations of the the authority of the United be exerted for the securing of and property of the people of and for the confirmation of all e rights and relations. It will of the commander Df the forces . ) nMMitni in ubllc manner that we come not or conquerors, but as friends, to natives in their homes, in their ts and in their personal and re- Sent II Commission. to facilitate the most humane, effective extension of authority these Islands, and to secure, with possible delay, the benefits of a generous protection of life and o the Inhabitants. I appointed In . - - . I . nf id Sehurman of New York. Ad-. rge Dewey, D. S. N.; Charles Indiana, Professor Dean C. Wor Mlcbigan, and Major General El tls U. S. A. Their Instruction me ionow iufc performance of this duty the com s are enjoined to meet at the it.,. i iim Hrr of Manila. nnounce by public proclamation . k n n-ticeln Intrusted to .. r .r U Mi-it while the government already proclaimed is intalned and continued so long as may require, efforts will be made te the burden of taxation, to estab- istrlnl and commercial prosperity. rovlde for the safety of persons and rty by such means as may be found veil Carefnl Instructions. commissioners will endeavor, wltb--.-na niih the militarv anthori- tbe United States now in control "i llpplues. to ascertain what aincliora the condition of the Inhabitants and l.. n,.l.lt nrilar m-l V hp III U TMoeu in i uu.. - ... , , i'w.v will ttentlvely the existing social and po tate of the various populations, par- y as regards the forms of local gov t. the administration of justice, the on of customs and other taxes, the of transportation, and the need of improvements. They will report K f thpir nhQArvAl ions and Ions, and will recommend such execu . , - 1 l. , V,..,.W.-l COmnilfiSlouers uic ui-iruj .. nt In the Islands from wnom tuey hhu memseives auie iu urn- iiuwm- r BUKHOllviia ' " " of their commission, or whom they ,1.1. -.. Avoided Harsh Measures. I. , rfaelpa ilmi In nil thpir relations the inhabitants of the Islands the com- AiiAPa emrikfi nop rPRTlPCt for nil the Customs BUG institutions UI lue inoe compose the population, emphasizing all occasions the just and beneficent In- UI Lilt: nnHllHHH Ul lut l. ttiicu U also my wish and expectation that commissioners may be received In a npr flop to thp honored and author zed commissioned on account of their pdirp. ski unit tntpirntv as rtenrers or rood will, the protection ana tne nonesi the 6th of February. 1890. the treaty ratified by the Senate of the United ,.. aoo Ann rjvi -.. I . .. ...... toe United States and Spain on the lltb April, 1899. early as April, 1899, the Philippine ripnt pnrienTnrpri to hrlnff nhont npnop the Islands by repented conferences with iiiriH i h i rMitrMKf in uiir i up h -c i i i m which f ho v a-nnlil n npont Pleaded the Natives. "Maj fi, tAYX Sehurman, Manila: Youra bat. under the military Dowor of the rresl- ent. nendlu? notion of ronirreas. envevn- resiuem, canine, appointed oy ine govern- by the people, the qualifications of elect- niiHi hum m p-nvprnnr rpn urn i r r nnra a ft. pendent, principal judges appointed by the President The cabinet and judges to be chosen from natives or Americans, or both having regard to fitness. "The President earnestly desires the cessa tlon of bloodshed and that the people of the Philippine Islands at an early date shall have the largest measure of local self-government consistent with peace and good erder. Siena of Treachery. In the latter part of May another gronp of representatives came from the Insurgent leader. The whole matter was fully dis cussed with them nnd promise of acceptance seemed near at hand. They assured our commissioners they would return after con sulting with their leader, but they never did. As a result of the views expressed by the first Tagalog representative favorable to the plaa of the commission. It appears that he was, by military order of the Insurgent leader, stripped of his shoulder straps, dis missed from the army and sentenced to twelve years'. Imprisonment. The views of the commission are best set forth in their own words: "Deplorable as war Is. the one In which we m how engaged was unavoidable by us. .Wt were attacked by a bold, adventurous and enthusiastic army. No alternative was left to us except Ignominious retreat. Had to Remain. "It Is not to be conceived of that any American wonld have sanctioned the sur render of Manila to the Insurgents. Our ob ligations to other nations and to the friendly Filipinos aud to ourselves and our flag de manded that force should be met with force. Whatever the future of the Philippines may be, there ts no course open to us now except the prosecution of the war until the insur gents are reduced to submission. "The commission Is of the opinion that there has been no time since the destruction of the Spanish squadron by Admiral Dewey when It was possible to withdraw our forces from the Islands either with honor to our selves or with safety to the inhabitants." After the most thorough study of the peo ples of the archipelago the commission re ported, among other things: "Their lack of education and political ex perience, combined with their racial and linguistic diversities, disqualify them, In spite of their mental gifts and domestic vir tues, to undertake the task of governing the archipelago at the present time. The most that can be expected of tbem is to co-operate with the Americans in the adminlstra tlon of general affairs, from Manila as a center, and to undertake, subject to Amer ican control or guidance (as may be found necessary) the administration of provincial and municipal affairs. Would Invite Anarchy. "Should our power by any fatality be withdrawn, the commission believes that the government of the Philippines would speed ily lapse Into anarchy, which would excuse. If It did not necessitate, the Intervention of other powers, and the eventual division of the islands among thetn. Only through American occupation, therefore. Is the Idea of a free, self-governing and united Philip pine commonwealth at all conceivable. "Thus the welfare of the Filipinos coin cides with the dictates of national honor In forbidding our abandonment of the archi pelago. We cannot from any point of view escape the respouslbililles of government which our sovereignty entails, and the com mission Is strongly persuaded that the per formance of our national duty will prove the greatest blpssing to the people of the Philippine Islands." Satisfied that nothing further conld be ac complished In pursuance of their mission until the rebellion was suppressed, and de siring to place before the Congress the re sult of their observations, I requested the commission to return to the United States. Their most Intelligent and comprehensive report, was submitted to Congress. Duties of the Commission. In March. 1900, believing that the lnsnr rectloo was practically ended and earnestly desiring to promote the establishment of a stable government in the archipelago, I ap pointed tbe following civil commission: William H. Taft of Ohio, Professor Dean C. Worcester of Michigan. Luke I. Wright of Tennessee, Henry C. Ide of Vermont, and Bernard Moses of California. My Instruc tions to them contalued the following: "You (the Secretary of War) will instruct the commission . to devote their at tentlon In the first Instance to the establish ment of municipal governments. In which the natives of the Islands, both in the cities and in tbe rural communities, shall be af forded the opportunity to manage their own local affairs to the fullest extent of which they are capable and subject to the least de gree of supervision aud control which a care ful study of their capacities and observation of tbe workings of native control show to be consistent with the maintenance of law, or der and loyalty. Awaits the Report. "Whenever tbe commission is of the opin ion that the condition of affairs In the isl ands Is such that tbe central administration may safely be transferred from military to civil control they will report that conclu sion to you (the Secretary of War), with their personal recommendations as to the form of central government to be estab lished for the purpose of taking over the control. "Beginning with the 1st day of Septem ber, laoo, the authority to exercise, subject to my approval through the Secretary of War, that part of the power of government In the Philippine Islands which Is of a leg islative nature is to be transferred from the military governor of the islands to this com mission, to be thereafter exercised by tbem In the place and stead of the military gov ernor, under such rules and regulations as you (the Secretary of War) shall prescribe, until the establishment of the civil central government tor the islands contemplated In the last foregoing paragraph or until Con gress shall otherwise provide. Legislative Author ty. "Exercise of this legislative authority will Include the making of rules and orders hav ing the effect of law for the raising of reve nue by taxes, customs duties and Imposts; the appropriation and expenditure of the public funds of the islands; the establish ment of an educational system throughout the Islands; the establishment of a system to secure an efficient civil service; the or ganization and establishment of courts; the organization and establishment of municipal and departmental governments, and nil other matters of a civil nature of which the military governor Is now competent to pro ride by rules or orders of a legislative char acter. The commission will also have power during the same period to appoint to office such officers under the judicial, edu cational and civil service systems and in the municipal and departmental governments as shall be provided." Kule for the Interim. Until Congress shall take action I directed that: "Upon every division and branch of the government of the Philippines must be Im posed these Inviolable rules: That no per son shall be deprived of life, liberty or prop erty without due process of law; tbat pri vate property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation; that In all criminal prosecutions tbe accused shall en joy the right to a speedy and public trial, to be Informed of tbe nature and cause of the accusation, to be confronted with the wit nesses against him, to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses In his favor, and to have tbe assistance of counsel for his defense; that excessive ball shall not be re quired, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted: that no person shall be put twice In jeopardy for the same offense, or be compelled In any crimi nal case to be a witness against himself; that the right to be secure against unreason able searchers and seizures shall not be vio lated: that neither slavery nor Involuntary servitude shall exist except as a punishment for crime: that no bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed: that no law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech or of tbe press, or the rights of tbe people to peaceably assemble and petition the govern ment for a redress of grievances; that no law shall be made respecting the establish ment of religion or prohibiting the free ex ercise thereof, and that the free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession aud worship without discrimination or prefer ence shall forever be ullowed. " Extending Education. "It will be the dnty of the commission to promote and extend, and, as they find occa sion, to Improve, the system of education already inaugurated by the military authori ties. In doing this they should regard as of first Importance the extension of a system of primary education, which shall be free to all, and which shall tend to HI the people for the duties of citizenship, nnd for the or dinary avocations of 'a eivilixed community. Kspecial attention should be at once given to affording full opportunity to all the people of the islands to acquire the use of the English language. "Upon all officers and employes of the United States, both civil and military, should be impressed a sense of the duty to observe not merely the material but the per sonal and social rights of the people of the islands, nnd to treat them with the same courtesy and respect for their personal dig nity which the people of the United States are accustomed to require from each other. All Pledges Kept. "The articles of capitulation of the City of Manila on the 13th of August. 1898, con cluded with these words: "This city. Its In habitants. Its churches, and religious wor ship. Its educational establishments and Its private property of all descriptions, are placed under the special safeguard of the faith and honor of the American army.' "I believe tbat this pledge has ben faith fully kept. As high and sacred an obligation rests upon tbe government of the United States to give protection for property nnd life, civil and religions freedom, and wise, firm and unselfish guidance in the paths of peace and prosperity to all the people of the Philippine Islands.' I charge this commis sion to labor for the full performance of this obligation, which concerns the honor aud conscience of their country. In the firm hope that through their labors all the Inhabitants of the Philippine Islands may come to look back with gratitude to tbe day wbTn God gave victory to American arms nt Manila and set their land under the sovereignty and the protection of the people of the United States." Amnesty Proclaimed. That all might share In the regeneration of the Islands and participate In their gov ernment, I directed Gen. MacArthur, the military governor of tbe Philippines, to Is sue a proclamation of amnesty, which con tained among other statements the follow ing: "Manila, P. I.. June 21. 1900. By direction of the President of Uie United Slates the undersigned announces amnesty, with com plete Immunity for the past and absolute liberty of action for tbe future, to all per sons who are now, or at any time since Feb. 4, 1899. have been In insurrection against the United States In either a mili tary or civil capacity, and who shall, within a period of ninety days from the date there of, formally renounce all connection with such insurrection and subscribe to a dec- Striking Phrases from President McKinley's Letter. It will be noted tbat the (Democratic) demand Is for the immediate restora tion of the free coinage of sliver at 16 To 1. If another issue is paramoitut, this is immediate. It will admit of no delay and will suffer no postponement. We accept tbe Issue and again Invite the sound money forces to join In win ning another and we hope a permanent triumph for an honest financial system which will continue inviolable the public fnlth. It Ir our purpose to establish In the Philippines a government suitable to the wants'and conditions of the inhabitants, and to prepare tliem for self-government, and to give them self-government whon they are ready for it, and as rapidly as thev are readv for It: There has heen no time since the destruction of tbe enemy's fleet when we conld or should have left the Philippine archipelago. After the treaty of peace was ratified no power but Congress could surreuder our sovereignty or alienate a foot of the territory thus acquired. ICvery effort ha been directed to their (I'llipiuos) peace and prosperity, their advancement aud well-being, uot for our aggrandizement or for pride of might, not for trade or commerce, oot for exploitation, but for humanity and civilization. The American question Is between dnty and desertion. The American verdict wl'l be for duty and against desertion, for the republic against both anarchy and Imperialism. HoneRt co-operation of capital Is necessary to meet new business conditions, and extend our rapidly Increasing foreign trade, but conspiracies and combina tions Intended to restrict business, create monopolies and control prices should be effectively restrained. For labor a short day Is better than a short dollar- Unless something unforeseen occurs to reduce our revenues or Inereasp our ex penditures, the Congress at its next session should reduce taxation very ma terially. We otTght to own the ships for our carrying trade with the world, and we ought to build them In American shipyards and man them with American sailors. iaratlon acknowleding and accepting the sovereignty and authority of the I. uited states In and over the Philippine Islands. "the privilege herewith published is ex tended to ail concerned without any reser vation whatever, excepting that persons who have violated the laws of war during ine period of active hostilities are not embraced withiu the scope of this amnesty. Pay offerea tor Kifleo. "In order to mitlgrate as much as possible consequences resuitiug from the various dis turbances which since 1-MM have succeeded each other so rapidly, aud to provide In some measure for destitute Filipino soldiers during the transitory period which must Inevitably succeed a general peace, the mil iary authorities of the United States will pay 80 pesos to each man who presents a rine In good condition." Under their Instructions the commission, composed of representative Americans , of different sections of the country and from different political parties, whose character and ability guarantee the most faithful In telligence and patriotic service, are now laboring to establish stable government uu der civil control, in which the inhabitants shall participate, giving tbem. opportunity to demonstrate how far they are prepared for self-government. Quotes the Commission. This commission, nnder date of Aug. 21. lWXl. makes an Interesting report, from which I quote tbe following extracts: "Hostility against Americans was orig lnally aroused by absurd falsehoods of un scrupulous leaders. The distribution of troops lu 300 posts has by coutact largely dispelled hostility, and steadily improved temper of people. This improvement is fur thered by abuses of Insurgents. Large uum bers of people long for peace aud are willing to accept government under the United States. "Insurgents not surrendering after defeat divided Into small guerrilla bands under genr eral officers or became robbers. Nearly all of the prominent generals and politicians of the Insurrection, except Aguinaldo, have since been captured or have surrendered and taken the oath of allegiance. "All northern Luzon, except two provinces, substantially free from Insurgents. People busy planting, and asking for municipal or ganization. Hallway and telegraph lines from Maulla to Dagupan, 122 miles, not mo lested for live months. Plan? Native Militia. "Tagalogs alone active In leading guerrilla warfare. In Negros, Cebu, Komblon, Mas bate, Sibuyan, Tablas, Bohol and other Phil ippine Islands little disturbance exists, and civil government eagerly awaited. "Four years of war and lawlessness la parts of Islands' have created unsettled con ditions. Native constabulary and militia, which should he organized at once, will end this and the terrorism to which de fenseless people are subjected. The natives desire to enlist in these -organisations. If judiciously selected and officered, will be efficient forces for maintenance of order, and will permit early material reduction of United States troops. "Turning islands over to coterie of Taga log politicians will blight fair prospects of enormous Improvement, -drive out canltal, make life aud property secular and relig ious most Insecure; banish by fear of cruel proscription considerable body of conserva tive Filipinos who have aided Americans In well-founded belief that their people are not now fit for self-government, and reintro duce same oppression and corruption which existed In all provinces under. Malolos In surgent government during the eight months of its control. The result will be factional strife between Jealous leaders, chaos and anarchy, and will require and justify active Intervention of our government or some other. Trade Follows Peace. "Business Interrupted by war mncb Im proved as peace extends. :- In Negrcs more sugar in cultivation than ever before. New forestry regulations give impetus to timber trade aud reduce high price of'lum ber. The customs collections -for last quar ter 30 per cent greater than ever in Spanish history, and August collections show fur ther increase. The total revenue for same period one-third greater than In any quarter under Spain, though cedula tax chief source of Spanish reveuue. practically abolished. "Economy and efficiency of military gov ernment have created surplus fund of $, 000.000, which should be expended In much needed public works, uotably improvement of Manila harbor. With proper tar iff and facilities Manila will become great port of Orient." The commission is confident that "by a judicious customs law, reasonable land tax nnd proper corporation franchise tax, im position of no greater rate than that In the average Amerlcau State will give less an noyance and with peace will iiroduce reve nues sufficient to pay expenses of efficient government. Including militia and constabu lary. p No Sign of Alliance. They "are preparing a stringent civil ser vice !aw giving equal opportunity to Fili pinos and Americans, with preference for the former where qualifications are equal, to enter at the lowest rank and by promotion reach the head of the department. "Forty-five miles of railroad extension under negotiation will give access to a large province rich in valuable minerals, a mile high, with strictly temperate climate. Railroad construction will give employment to many and communication will furnish a market to vast stretches of rich agricultural lands." They report that there are "calls from all parts' of the Islands for public schools,, school supplies and I'.nsJ'sh teachers, greater than the com mission can provide until a comprehensive school system is organized. Night schools for teaching English to adults arc being established In response to popular demand. Native children show aptitude In learning English. Spanish is spoken by a small fraction of the people, nnd In a few years the medium of communication In the courts, public offices and between different tribes will be English. Working for Humanity. "Creation of central government within eighteen months, under which substantially ali rights described in the bill of lights In the federal constitution are to be secured to the people of the Philippines, will bring to them contentment, prosperity, education aud politicaj enlightenment." This shows to my countrymen what has been and is being done to bring the benefits of liberty and good government to these wards of the nation. Every effort has been directed to their peace nnd prosperity, their advancement aud well-being, uot for our ag grandizement nor for pride of might, not for trade or commerce, not for exploitation, but for humanity and civilisation, nnd for tbe protection of the vast majority of the popu lation who welcome our sovereignty against the designing minority whose first demand after the surrender of Manila by the Span ish army was to enter Jhe city that they might loot it and destroy those not in sym pathy with their selfish and treacherous de signs. Civil Service to Rule. Nobody who will avail himself of the facts will longer hold that there was any alliance between our soldiers and the Insurgents or that any promise of Independence was made to tbem. Long before their leader had reached Manila they bad resolved. If tbe comniauder of the Amerlcau navy would give them arms with which to fight the Spanish army, they would later turn upon us. which they did murderously and without tbe shadow of cause or justification. There may be those without the means of full information who believe tbat we were In alliance with the insurgents and ibnt we assured them that they should have Inde pendence. To such let mo repeat the facts: On the 28th of May. 1SU8. Admiral Dewey was instructed by me io make uo alliance with any party or faction in the Philippines that would Incur liability to malntalu ihelr cause In the future, and he replied under date of June 0. 1S8: "nave acted according to spirit of depart ment's Instructions from the beginning, and 1 have entered Into no alliance with the In surgents or with any faction. This squadron can reduce tbe defenses of Maulla at any moment, but it N considered useless until the nrrival of sufficient United States forces to retain possession." Denies Any Compact. In tbe report of the first Philippine com mission, submitted on Nov. 2. lSili), Admiral Dewey, one of Its members, said: "No alliance of any kind was entered Into with Aguinaldo nor was any promise of in dependence made to him at any time." General Merrltt arrived in the Philippines on July 25, 1SDS, aud a dispatch from Ad miral Dewey to the government at Wash ington said: "Merrltt arrived yesterday. Situation Is most critical at Manila. The Spanish may surrender at any moment. Merrltt's most difficult problem will, be how to deal with tbe Insurgents under Aguinaldo, who have become aggressive and even threatening to ward our array." Here Is revealed the spirit of the Insur gents as early as July, 1S8, before the pro tocol was signed, while we were still en gaged In active war with Spain. Even then the Insurgents were threatening our army. Filipino Took No Part. On Aug. 13 Maulla was captured, and of this anrt subsequent events the Philippine commission says: "When the City of Manila was taken, Aug. 13, tbe Fillpiuos took no part In tbe attack, but. came following in with a view to loot ing the city and were oniy prevented from dolug so by our forces preventing them from entering. Aguinaldo claimed that he had the right to occupy the city. He demanded of General Merritt the Dalace of Malacanan i for himself and the cession of all the churches of Manila, also that a part of the ! money taken from the Spaniards as spoils ; of war should be given up, and, above all. ' that he should be given tbe arms of tbe i Spinlsh prisoners. All these demands were refused. No Promise- Made. Generals Merrltt, Greene and Anderson, who were io command at the beginning of our occupation aud until the surrender of Manila, state tbat there was uo alliance with the Insurgents and no promise to them of Independence. On Aug. IT, 1898, General Merritt was instructed that there must be no joint occupation of Manila with the In surgents. General Anderson, under date of Feb. 10, 1000. says that he was present at the Interview between Admiral Dewey and the insurgent leader, and that In this inter view Admiral Dewey made no promises whatever. He adds: "He (Aguinaldo) asked me If my govern ment was golhg to recognize his govern ment. I answered that I was there simply In a military capacity: that I could not ac knowledge his government, because I had no authority to do so." Easy to Find Fault. Would not our adversaries have sent Dewey's fleet to Manila to capture and de stroy the Spanish sea power there, or, dis patching it there, would they have with drawn It after the destruction of the Span ish fleet; and if the latter, whither would thev have directed to sail? Where could It have gone? What port in the Orient was opened to It? Do our adversaries condemn the expedi tion under the command of General Merrltt to strengthen Dewey In the distant ocean and assist in our triumph over Spain, with which nation we were at war? Was It not our highest duty to strike Spain at every vulnerable point, that the war might be successfully concluded at the earliest prac ticable moment? "Asks for Honest Opinion. And was It not our duty to protect the lives and property of those who came within our control by the fortunes of war? Could we have come away at any time between May 1, 1808. and the conclusion of peace without a stain upon our good name? Conld we have come away without dishonor nt any time after the ratification of the peace treaty by the Senate the United States? There has been no time since the destruc tion of. the enemy's fleet when we could or should have left the Philippine archipelago. After the treaty of peace was ratified no power but Congress could surrender our sovereignty or alienate a foot of the terri tory thus acquired. The Congress has not seen fit to do the one or the other, and the President had no authority to do either, if he had been so inclined, which he was not. So long as the sovereignty remains In us It Is the duty of tbe executive, whoever he may be, to uphold that sovereignty, and If It be attacked to suppress Its assailants. Would our political adversaries do less? Began by Insurgents, It has been asserted that there wonld have been no fighting in the Philippines If Con gress had declared Its purpose to give Inde pendence to the Tagal Insurgents. The In surgents did not wait for the action of Con gress. They assumed the offensive, they opened fire on our army. Those who assert our responsibility for tbe beginning of the conflict have forgotten that before the treaty was ratified In tbe Senate, and while It was being debated in that body, and while the Bacon resolution was under discussion, on Feb. 4. 1899. the Insurgents attacked the American array, after being previously advised that tbe American forces were under orders not to fire upon tbem except In defense. The pa pers found In the recently captured archives of the Insurgents demonstrate tbat this at tack had been carefully planned for weeks before It occurred. Only line Conrse Open. Their unprovoked assault upon our sol diers at a time when the Senate was dellb crating upon tbe treaty shows tbat no ac tion on our part except surrender nnd aban donment would have prevented the fighting, and leaves no doubt in any fair mind where the responsibility rests for the shedding of American blood. With all tbe exaggerated phrnsemaking of this electoral contest, we are In danger of being diverted from the real contention. We are in agreement with all of those who sup ported the war with Spain, aud also with those who counseled the ratification of the lieatv. of peace. Upon these two great es sentlal steps there can be uo Issue, and out of these came all of our responsibilities. If olbers would shirk the obligations imposed by the war and the treaty, we must decline to act further with tbem, and here the issue was made. It Is our purpose to establish In the Philip pines a government suitable to the wants and conditions of the inhabitants, aud to prepare them for self-government, and to irlve tbem self-government when tbey ore ready for it, and as rapidly as I hey un ready for It. Thai 1 am aiming to do nnder my constitutional authority, and will con rinujt- to do until Congress shall determlue the political status of the Inhabitants of the archipelago. Pica for Consistency. Are our opponents against the treaty? If so, they must be reminded that It could not have been ratified lu the Senaie but for their assistance. The Senate which ratified the treaty and the Congress which added Its sanction by a large appropriation comprised Senators and Iteprescntatlves of the people of all parties. Would our opponents surrender to the In surgents, abandon our sovereignty or cede It to tbem? If that be not tbelr purpose, then it should be promptly disclaimed, for only evil can result from tbe hopes raised by our opponents in the minds of tbe Filipinos, that with their success at the polls lu November there will be withdrawal of our army and of American sovereignty over the archipela go, the complete independence of the Taga log people recognized and the powers of government over all the other peoples of the archipelago conferred upon tbe Tagalog leaders. Prolongs the Rebellion. The effect of a belief in the minds of tbe Insurgents that this Will be done has al ready prolonged the rebellion and Increases tbe necessity for the continuance of a large army. It Is now delaying full peace In the archipelago und the establishment of civil governments, and has Influenced many of the insurgents against accepting the liberal terms of amnesty offered by Geu. MacAr'bur under my direction. But for these false hopes a considerable reduction could have ben had In our military establishment lu tbe Philippines aud the realization of a stable government would be already at hand. The American people are asked by our op ponents to yield the sovereignty of the United states in tbe Philippines to a small fraction of the population, a single tribe out of eighty or more inhabiting the archipelago, a faction which wantonly attacked the American troops In Manila while In rlght fnl possession under the protocol with Spain, awaiting the ratification of the treaty of peace by the Senate, and which has since lieen in active, opeu rebellion against the United States. We are asked to transfer our sovereignty to a small minority In the Islands without consulting the majority and to abandon the largest portion of the popu lation, which has been loyal to us, to the cruelties of the guerrilla Insurgent bands. Demands Cannot Be Met. More than this, we are asked to protect this minority iu establishing a government, and to this end repress all opposition of the majority. We are required to set up a sta ble government In the Interest of those who have assailed our sovereignty and fired upon our soldiers, and then maintain It at any cost or sacrifice against its enemies within and against those having ambitious designs from without. This would require an army and navy far larger than Is now maintained In the Philip pines and still more In excess of what will be necessary with the full recognition of our sovereignty. A military support of author ity not our own, as thus proposed, is the very essence of militarism, which our opponents In their platform oppose, but which by their policy would of necessity be established In Its most offlensive form. No Premium on Murder, Tbe American people will not make the murdprers of our soldiers tbe agents of the republic to convey the blessings of liberty and order to the Philippines. They will not make them the builders of the new common wealth. Such a course would be a betrayal of our sacred obligations to tbe peaceful Fili pinos, aud would place at the mercy of dan gerous adventurers tbe lives and property of the natives and foreigners. It would make possible and easy tbe commission of such atrocities ns were secretly planned, to be executed on the 22d of February, 18D9, in the City of Manila, when only the vigilance of our army prevented the attempt to assas sinate our soldiers and all foreigners and pillage and destroy the city end Its surround ings, s in short, the proposition of those opposed to us to continue all tbe obligations In the Philippines which now rest upon the govern ment, only changing tbe relation from prin cipal, which now exists, to that of surety. Our responsibility Is to remain, but our pow er Is to be diminished. Our obligation Is to be no less, but our title is to be surrendered to another power, which is without experi ence or training, or tbe ability to maintain a stable government at home and absolutely helpless to perform its luternatlonal obliga tions with tbe rest of tbe world. Will Defend Our Title. To this we are opposed. We should not yield our title while our obligations last. In the language of our platform, Our au thority should not be less than our responsi bility," and our present responsibility la to establish our authority in every part of the Islands. No government can so certainly preserve the peace, restore public order, establish law, justice and stable conditions as ours. Neither Congress nor the Executive can es tablish a stable government In tbese Islands except under our right of sovereignty, our outhority and our flag. And this we are do ing. We could not do It as a protectorate power so completely or so successfully us we are doing It now. As the sovereign power ws can Initiate action and shape means to ends, and guide tbe Filipinos to selt-developmeut and self-government. As a protectorate power we could not Ini tiate action, but would be compelled to fol low and uphold a people with uo capacity yet to go alone. In the one case we can pro tect both ourselves and the Filipinos from being Involved In dangerous complications; In the other we could not protect even tbs Filipinos until after their trouble had come. Consent of the Governed. Besides, If we cannot establish any gov ernment of our own without the consent of the governed, as our opponents contend, then we could not establish a stable govern ment for them or make ours a protectorate nitbont the like consent, and neither tbe majority of the people nor a minority of the people have Invited us to assume It. We could not maintain a protectorate even with the consent of the governed without giving provocation for conflict and possibly costly wars. Our rights In the Philippines are now free from outside interference and will continue so In onr present relations. They would uot be thus free In any other relation. We will not give up our owu to guarantee another sovereignty. Our title Is good. Onr peace commission ers believed they were receiving a good title when they concluded the treaty. The execu-" tlve believed It was a good title when be submitted it to the Senate of the United States for its ratification. The Senate be lieved it was a good tide when they gave It their constitutional assent, and the Con gress seems uot to have doubted Its com pleteness when they appropriated $20,00 ),0 XI provided by the treaty. Title Is (inquentionnhle. If any who favored Ms ratification believed It gave us a bad title they were not sincere. Our title Is practically identical with (hat under which we hold our territory acquired since the beginning of the government, and under which we have exercised full sov ereignty nnd established government for tbe Inhabitants. it Is worthy of note tbst no one outside of the United States disputes the fullness and Integrity of the cession. What, then, Is tbe real Issue on this subject? Whether It Is paramount io any-other or no!. Ir Is whether we shall be responsible for the government of the Philippines, with ihe sovereignty and authority which enables us to g'lide them to regulated liberty, law. safety and progress, or whether wt shall be responsible for th-e forcible and arbitrary government of a mi nority, without, sovereignty and authority on our part, and wiih only the embarrass ment of a protectorate, which draws us ln:-i their troubles without the power of prevent ing them. - Obligations of War. There were those who two years ago were rnshlng us on to war wlih Spain who are unwilling now- to accept- its clear conse quences, as there an- those among as wh-o advocated the ratification of tbe treaty of peace, but now protest against its obliirar tlons. Nations which go to war must be prepared to accept its resultant obligations, and when they make treaties must keep tbem. Those who profess to distrust the liberal and honorable purposes of tbe administra tion In Its treat nieut of the Philippines are not justified. Imperialism has no (dace la Its creed or conduct. Freedom Is a rock up on which ihe Republican party was build. 3 and now rests. Liberty Is the great Repiib'i ean doctrine for which the people went ! war and for which a miltiou lives were of fered and billions of dollars expended r make it a lawful legacy of all without t ha eousent of master or slave. Strain of Hypocrisy. There Is a strain of Ill-concealed hypocrisy In the anxiety I a. ex tend the constitutional guarantees to the people of tbe Philippines, while tbelr nnllificni ion is openly advocated at home. Our oppen -m may d;s"ru-l lieut selvPs. but tbey lunc no right to discredit the good folih and patriotism of the major ity of tbe people who are opposed io them. They may fear the worst form of imperial ism with the helpless riUpinos in their hands, but if i hey do II Is I,. c tse tbey !lav parted wlih the spirit and faith of the fath ers and have lost the virility of ihe founders of the parly which tbey profess lo represent The Republican party doesn't have Io as sert its devotion to the Hecla ration of Inde pendence. That Immortal Instrument of tbs faihers remained unexecuted until the peo ple, under the lend of tbe Republican party in the awful clash of battle, turned Its prom ises Into fulfillineut. It wrote Into tbe Con stitution the amendments guaranteeing po litical equality to American citizenship, and It has never broken them or counselled oth ers io breaking them. It will not be guided In Its conduct by one set of principles at borne nnd another set lu the new territory belonging to the United States. ltoctrine of Llnco'n. If -onr opponents would only practice aa well as preach the doctrines of Abraham Lincoln there would be uo fear for tbe safe ty of our Institutions at home or their fright ful Influence in any territory over which our flag fioats. Empire has been expelled from Porto Rico a"nd the Philippines by American freemen. The flag of the republic now floats over these Islands ns an emblem of rightful sovereign ty. Will the republic stay ami dispense ta their Inhabitants the blessings of liberty, education and free Institutions, or steal away, leaving them lo anarchy or Imperial ism ? The American question Is between duty and desertion. The American verdict will be for dnty and against desertion, for the Republic against botb anarchy and Imperial ism. The country has been fully idvlsed of the purposes of tbe United 8tates In China, and they will be faithfully adhered to as already defined. Snfferers In Pekin. The nation Is filled with gratitude that the little band, among them many of our own blood, who for two months had been sub jected to privations and peril by the attacks of pitiless hordes at the Chinese capital, ex hibiting supreme courage In the face of de spair, have been enabled by God's favor to greet their rescuers and find shelter under their own flag. The people not alone of this land, but of all lands, have watched and prayed through the terrible stress and protracted agony of the helpless sufferers in Pekln; aud while at times the dark tidings seemed to make nli hone vain, the rescuers never faltered lu the heroic fulfillment of their noble task. We are grateful to our owu soldiers and sailors .; marines, anu to an tne ornve men wno, dsrh assembled under many standards. "oresensine Peonies mid races strangers la country and speech, were yet united in the sacred mission of carrying succor to tne ue sleged, with a success that Is now the causa of a world's rejoicing. Passing of f ectionalism. Not only have we reason for thanksgiving for onr material blessings, but we should re joice in the complete unification of the peo ple of all sections of our country tbat has so happily developed in the last few yer.rs and made for us a more perfect anion. Tbe obliteration of old differences, the common devotion to the flag nnd the common sac rifices for its honor, so conspicuously showa by the men of the North and South in the Spanish war, have so strengthened the ties of friendship and mutual respect that noth ing can ever again divide us. The nation faces the new century grate fully and hopefully, with Increasing love of country, with firm faltb In Its free Institu tions, and with high resolve that tbey "shall not perish from the earth." Very respectfu ly yours, WILLIAM M'KINLET.