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GAZETTE. WEEKLY. UNION Estab July. 1S97 .j Consolidated Feb. 1899. CORVALIilS, BENTON COUNTY, OREGON, FRIDAY, DECEMBER 7, lSOO. VOL. XXXY1I. NO. 50. GAZETTE Eitab. Dee., 1862, IK Of DIE m From All Parts of the New World and the Old. OF INTEREST TO OUR MANY READERS Comprehensive Review of the Important Hap. penings of the Past Week in a Condensed Form. A typhoon swept the Island of Guam, killing hundreds of natives. The dowager empress is trying to in duce the emperor to return to Pekin. The powers are debating on the wis dom of sending an ultimatum to China. The official vote ol Wisconsin fol lows: Republican, 265,866; Demo cratic, 159,285. A laborer on a bridge near Grant's Pas s was instantly killed in the col lapse of the structure. General Bates reports the capture of 33 Filipinos, six of whom murdered several persons last spring. The Dutch of Cape Colony are be coming restless and loyalists fear there may soon be an upiising. The population of Oklahoma is 398, 246, against 61,834 in 1890, an increase 'of 336,411, or 44 per cent. The population of South Dakota is 401,570, !i against 328,80 in 1890, an increase oi 72,762, or 22.1 per cent. The population of North Dakota is 319,416, as against 182,719 in 1890, an increase of 136,427, or 74.6 per cent. The population of Tennessee is 2.020,093, as against 1,767,18 in 1890, an increase of 23,098, or 14.3 per cent. The population of New Mexico is 195,210, as against 13,93 in 1890, an increase of 41,717, or 27.1 per cent. The United States auxiliary cruiser Yosemite gftnk in a typhoon at Guam, November 5, drowning five of the crew. The population of Idaho, as officially announced, is 161,772, as against 84, 385 in 1890, an increase oi 77,387, or 91.7 per cent. Two American privates were killed and three wounded in an ambush of ladrones near Malolos, Luzon. The in surgents escaped. Bank robbers at Em den, 111., com pletely wrecked the Farmers' bank with dynamite and got away with $3,000 to $4,000. By an explosion of nitroglycerine at Leaserville, W. Va., 20 miles above Wheeling, four boys were killed and 14 wonnded, of whom two will die. The population of the state of Wash ington as officially announced, is 518, 103, as against 349,390 in 1890, an in ncrease of 168,913, or 48.2 per cent. Conger has not signed the Pekin pro tocol. Secretary Root has returned fiom Cuba. Krnger visited the French govern ment officials. Palace guards have been sent to ar rest Prince Tuan. Colonel Denby may succeed Conger as minister to China. A conspiracy to assassinate Lord Roberts was discovered in Johannes burg. Governor Geer has issued certificates ot election to Republican electors for Oregon. Heavy fogs preaviled on Puget Sound, causing many minor accidents on both land and water. The official vote for presidential elec tors in New Jersey was: Republican, 221,701; Democrat, 164,808. The population of Texas is 3,048,710, against 2.235,523 in 1890, an increase of 813,137, or 36.3 per cent. The population of Nebraska is 1,068, 539, against 1,058,910 in 1890, an in crease of 9,620, or .9 per cent. Official returns show that the vote for president in Iowa was: Republi can, 307,818; Democrat, 209,466. The population of North Carolina la 1,803,810, as against 1,617,947 iu 1890, an increase of 275,863, or 17 per cent. The Portland, Or., Chambei of Com merce urges an appropiration of $4,. 000,000 for canal and locks at the dalles. The population of Utah, as officially announced, is 276,749, as against 207, 095 in 1890, an increase 68,844, or 33.1 per cent. An irrigation bill allowing more than $1,000,000 to Oregon, Washing ten and Idaho will be iutrodnced at the coming session of congress. Signor Marconi has practically solved the question of ocean transmission by wireless telegraphy, and will soon be able to use his system across the At lantic. The population of Montana, as an nounced by the United States census bureau, is 243,329, as against 132,159 in 1890, an increase of 111,170, or 84.1 per cent. The population in 1880 was 39.159, showing an increase of 93,000, or 237.4 per cent, from 1880 to 1890. Dr. Leopold Kabn, the Arctic ex plorer, is certain that Lieutenant Peary is wintering at Fort Conger. The yellow book on Chinese affairs published by the French foreign office shows close relations' betw en France and the United States. The will of Frank Williams, late of Johnstown, Pa., makes a bequest of $300,000 to the Lehigh university at South Bethlehem Pa., for the beneiit of worthy students. LATER NEWS. Salem, Or., re-elected its reform m nicipal officers. The ship subsidy bill will displace the Philippine bill. Krnger wept at Emperor William's refusal to meet him. Five men were killed by the blowing up of a power house in Chicago. The short session of the Fifty-sixth congress was successfully opened. Colorado game wardens arrested 16 Mormons who had killed 30 deer. Robbers blew up a Silverton, Or., bank, but failed to get at the cash. A strange woman is exciting the Pa pago Indians to be guided by their dreams. Congressman Lacey and Senator Tel ler are in favor of offering homes to the Boers. Oscar L. Booze, a West Point cadet, ia dying from the effects of a burning drink given him by hazers. A drunken man was killed and his body derailed a heavy locomotive on the O. R. & N., near Hood River, Ore gon. Colonel John S. Williams, third au ditor of the treasury nnder President Cleveland, died at La Fayette, Ind., aged 77. Rev. William Howard Day, D. D., general secretary of the A. M. E. Sec ond church, dijd at Harrisbnrg, Pa., aged 73 years. Rev Patrick Feehan, archbishop of the Catholic archdiocese of Chicago, will retire from the active manage ment of his office with the close of the present year. General W. L. White, ex-qnarter-m aster-general of the Michigan Na tional guard, pleaded gnilty to complic ity in state miliatry clothing frauds, and was sentenced to 10 years in prison. John Baines, a constable, was mur dered at Dallas, Tex., by burning. His clothing had been saturated with tur pentine and ignited. Both eyes were bnrned ont. John Chapman and Ed Fanlkner, saloon keepers, were arrest ed, charged with the murder. The Pacific cable committee has ac cepted, on behalf of the government of Great Biitain, New South Wales, Queensland and New Zealand, the bid of the Telegraph Construction & Main tenance Company, to make and lay a cable from Vancouver to Queensland and New Zealand, via Fanning, Fiji and Norfolk islands, for 1,795,000, the work to be finished by the end of 1902. . Boxers are active around Tien Tsin. The Guam typhoon was the worst in 40 years. House Democrats will offer a new army bill. Secretary Hay signed a canal treaty with Nicaragua. The United States gunboat Monocacy will winter at Taku. The Chinese conrt has lost confidence in Earl Li and Prince Ching. Twelve hundred bolomen aui render ed to the Americans at Vigan. An Austrian field marshal criticizes the British army organization. An American warship will make a demonstration against Morocco. Six men were drowned in a feny boat disaster on Spokane river. Texas' vote for presidential electors was: Bryan, 267,432; McEinley, 121, 673. University of Oregon defeated Uni versity of Washington in football by 43 to 0. Fulton, Kentucky, was visited by a fire which destroyd 20 establishments and cnased a loss of $250,000. A Snmpter, Or., miner was badly in jured by the explosion of giant powder which he placed on a stove to thaw ont. Fred W. Bnhsnell, for several years city editor of the Minneapolis Tribune, died at that city of oancer of the stom ach. The population of Indian Territory ia 891,960, aa against 190,162 in 1890, an increase of 211,775, or 117.5 per cent. The population of Wisconsin, as an nounced by the census bureau, ia 2,069, 049, aa against 1,686,880 in 1890, an increase of 382,142, or 22.6 per cent. Two steamer? collided on the river about 20 miles above Huntington, W. Va., sinking 30 coalboata containing 500,000 bushels of coal, entailing a Ion of $100,000. Advicea from Australia state that the volcano on Beach island, in the New Britain group, haa again become active, causing a great upheaval on land and sea. Many natives have been killed. The award of the Swiss government in the Franco-Brazilian boundary dis pute gives Brazil 147,000 square miles of the contested territory. France gets about 3,000 square miles north of the Tumnc Huemac range. There are 400 cases of smallpox in the city of Winona, Minn., and to pre vent its spread the pnblio schools have been closed and street-car companies compelled to atop their oaia at the boundary of the infected district. Unsatisfactory rate arrangements with railroads may prevent the G. A. R. encampment in Denver. The man who built the city ball ol Denver is now selling cigars and tobac co at a etaad in the corridor of the building. Colonel Benjamin West Blanchard, once one of the most widely known railroad men in the country, died at bis residence in Washington, aged 74 years. imrrs me Recommendations for Civil Gov ernment in the Philippines. REVIEW OF THE CHINESE QUESTION The History of a Year The West Indies Operations of the Departments Other Foreign Questions. washijnuton. Dec. 3. President Mc Klnley's message went to Congress to day. It follows: To the Senate and House of Representa tives: With the outgoing of the old and the Incoming of the new century you begin the last session of the 56th Congress, with evidences on every hand of individual and National prosperity and with proof of the growing strength and increasing power for good of Republican institutions. Your countrymen will join with you in fe licitation that American liberty is more firmly established than ever before, and that love for it and the determination to preserve it are more universal than at any former period of our history. The Republic was never so strong, be cause never so strongly entrenched In the hearts of the people as now. The Constitution, with few amendments, exists as it left the hands of its authors. The additions which have been made to !t proclaim larger freedom and more ex tended citizenship. Popular government has demonstrated in its 124 years of trial here its stability and security and ts efficiency as the best instrument of Na tional development and the best safe guard to human rights. When the sixth Congress assembled, in November, 1800, the population of the United States was 5,308.483; it ia now 76,304,799. Then we had 16 states; now we have 45 Then our territory consisted of S09.050 square miles; it is now 3,846,595 square miles Education, religion and morality have kept pace with our ad vancement in other directions, and, while extending its power, the Government has adhered to its foundation principles and abated none of them in dealing with our new peoples and possessions. A Nation so preserved and blest gives reverent thanks to Gou and invokes his guidance and the continuance of his care and favor. CHINESE PROBLEM. Cause Tbnt Led Up to tbe Recent Troubles. In our foreign intercourse the domi nant question has been the treatment of the Chinese problem. Apart from this our relations with the powers have been happy. The recent troubles in China spring from the anti-foreign agitation which for the past three years has gained strength in the northern provinces. Their origin lies deep in the character of the Chi nese races and in the traditions of their government. The Tai Ping rebellion and the opening of Chinese ports to foreign trade and settlement disturbed alike the homogeneity nd the seclusion of China. Meanwhile foreign activity made itself felt in all quarters, not alone on the coast, but along the great rivers, arteries and in the remoter districts, carrying new Ideas and introducing new associations among a primitive people which had pur sued for centuries a national policy of isolation. The telegraph and the railway spread ing over their land, the steamers plying on their waterways, the merchant and the missionary penetrating year by year farther to the interior, became to the Chinese mind types of an alien invasion, changing the course of their national life, and fraught with vague forebodings of disaster to their beliefs and their self control. For several years before the present troubles all the resources of foreign di plomacy, backed by moral demonstra tions of the physical force of fleets and arms, have t een needed to secure due respect for the treaty rights of foreign ers, and to obtain satisfaction from th? responsible authorities for the sporadic outrages upon the persons and property of unoffend'ng sojourners, which from time to tim? occurred at widely sep arated points in the northern provinces, as in the case of the outbreaks in Sze Chuen and Shan Tung. Posting of anti-foreign placards be came a daily occurrence, which the re peated probation of the imperial power failed to check or punish. These inflam matory appeals to the ignorance and superstition of the masses, mendacious and absurd in their accusations, and deeply hostile in their spirit, could not but work culminative harm. They aimed at no particular class of foreigners; they were impartial in attacking everything foreign. An outbreak in Shan Tung, In which German missionaries were slain, was the too natural result of the malevo lent teachings The posting of seditious placards, exhorting to the utter destruc tion of foreigners and of every foreign thing. continued unrebuked. Hostile demonstrations toward the stranger gained strength by organization. Tbe Boxer Agitation. The sect commonly styled the Boxers developed greatly in the provinces north of the Yangt e. and with collusion of many notable officials. Including some in the immediate councils of the throne Itself . became alai mlpgly aggressive. No foreign er's life, outside cf the protected treaty ports, was safe. No foreign interest was secure from spoliation. The diplomatic representatives of the powers in Pekin strove in vain to check this movement. Protest was followed by demand, and demand by renewed protest, to be met with perfunctory edicts from the paiace and evasive and futile assur ances from the Tsung li Tamun. The circle of the Boxer influence narrowed about Pekin. and, while nominally stig matized as seditious, it was felt that its spirit pervaded the capital itself, that the Imperial forces were imbued with its doctrines, and that the immediate coun selors of. the Empress Dowager were in full sympathy with the anti-foreign movement. ' The Increasing gravity of the condi tions in China, and the imminence of peril to our own diversified Interests in the empire, as well as to those of all the other treaty governments, were soon appreciated by this Government, causing profound solicitude. The United States, from the earliest days of foreign inter course with China, has followed a policy of peace, emitting no occasions to tes tlfy good-will, to further the extension of lawful trade, to respect the sovereign ty of its government, and to Insure, by all legitimate and kindly, but earn est, means, the fullest measure of pro tection for the lives and property of our law-abiding citizens, and for the exer cise of their b.neficent callings among the Chinese people. Mindful of this. It was felt to be ap propriate that our purposes should be pronounced in favor of such a course as would hasten united action of the powers at Pekin to promote the admin istrative reforms so gieatly needed for strengthening the imperial government and maintaining the integrity of China, In which we believed the whole West ern world to be alike concerned. To these indsl caused to be addressed to the several poweis occupying; territory and maintaining spheres of influence in. China the circular proposals of 1899, in viting from them declarations of their intentions and views as to desirability of the adoption of measures Insuring the benefits of equality of treatment of all foreigners throughout China. With gratifying unanimity, the re sponses coincided in this common policy, enabling me to see in the successful ter mination of these negotiations proof of the friendly spirit which animates the various powers interested in the untram meled development of commerce and in dustry in the Chinese Empire as a source of vast benefit to the whole commercial world. Powers Acted In Concert. In this conclusion, which I had the gratification to announce as a completed engagement to the interested powe'-s March 20, 1900, I hopefully discern a po tential factor for the abatement of the distrust of foreign purposes, which for a year past had appeared to inspire the policy of the imperial government, and for the effective exertion by it of power and authority to quell the critical and foreign movement in the northern prov inces most immediately influenced by tbe Manchu sentiment. Seeking to testify confidence in the will ingness and ability of the imperial ad ministration to redress the wrongs and prevent the evils we suffered and feared, the marine guard, which had been sent to Pekin in the Autumn of 1899 for the protection of the Legation, was with drawn at the earliest practicable moment, and all pending questions were remitted, as far as wc were concerned, to the or dinary resorts of diplomatic intercourse. The Chinese Government proved, how ever, unable to check the rising strength of the Boxers and appeared to be a prey to internal dissensions. In the unequal contest, the anti-foreign influences soon gained the ascendancy, under the leader ship of Prince Tuan. Organized armies of Boxers, with, which the imperial forces affiliated, held the country between Pekin and the coast, penetrated Into Manchuria up to the Russian border and through their emissaries threatened a like rise throughout Northern China. Attacks upon foreigners, destruction of property and .slaughter of native converts were re ported from all sides. The Tsung 11 Tamun, already permeated with hostile sympathies, could make no effective re sponse to the appeals of the Legations. At this critical juncture, in the early Spring of the year, a proposal was made by the other powers that a combined fleet be assembled in Chinese waters as a moral demonstration, under cover of which to exact of the Chinese Govern ment respect for foreign treaty rights and the suppression of the Boxers. The United States, while not participating in the joint demonstration, promptly sent from the Philippines all ships that could be spared for service on the Chinese coast. A small force of marines was landed at Taku and sent to Pekin for the protection of the American Legation. j Other powers took similar action until some 400 men were assembled in the capi tal as legation guards. Still the peril increased. The Legations reported the development of the seditious movement In Pekin and the need of In creased provision for defense against it. Taking of TaUu Forts. While preparations were in progress for a larger expedition to strengthen the legation guaids and keep the railway open, an attempt of the foreign ships to make a landing at Taku was met by Are from the Chine?? forts. Tne forts were thereupon sh lied by the foreign ves sels, the American Admiral taking no part in the attack, on the ground that we were not at war with China, and that a hostile demonstration might consolidate the anti-foreign elements and strengthen the Boxers to oppose the relieving col umn. Two days later, the Taku forts were captured after a sanguinary con flict Severance of communication with P. kin followed, and a combined force ot additional guards, which was advancing to Pekin by the Pel Ho, was checked at Lang Fang. The Isolation of the Lega tions was complete. By June 9, the Legations were cut off. An identical note from the Tamun or dered each Minister to leave Pekin, under a promised escort, within 24 hours. To gain time, they replied asking prolonga tion of the time, which was afterward granted, and requesting an interview with the Tsung 11 Tamun on the following day. No reply being received, on the morning of the 20th the German Minister, Baron von Ketteler, set out for the Ya mun to obtain a response, and on the way was murdered. An attempt by the legation guard to recover his body was foiled by the Chinese. Pekin Legations Attacked. Armed forces turned out against the Legations. Their quarters were surround ed and attacked. The mission compounds were abandoned, their inmates taking refuge in the British legation, where all the other Legations and guards gathered for more effective defense. Four hundred persons were crowded in its narrow com pass. Two thousand native converts wre assembled In a near-by place under pro tection of the foreigners. Lines of defense were strengthened, trenches dug, barri cades raised and preparations made to stand a siege, which at once began. With the negotiation of the partial armistice of July 14, a proceeding which was dc ubtless promoted by the represen tations of the Chinese envoy in Wash ington, the way was opened for the con veyance to Mr. Conger of a test message sent by the Secretary of State through the kind offices of Minister Wu T,ng Fang. Mr. Conger's reply, dispatched from Pekin on July 18 through the same chan nel, afforded to the outside world the , first tidings that the inmates of the le j gat Ions were alive and hoping for succor. This news stimulated the preparations for a joint relief expedition, in numbers suffi cient to overcome the resistance which for a month had been organizing between Taku and the capital. Reinforcements sent by all the co-operating governments were constantly arriving. The United States contingent, hastily assembled from the Philippines or dispatched from this country, amounted to some 5000 men, un der the able command of the lamented Colonel Liscum and afterwards of Gen eral Chaffee. Reacne of Leicat loners. Toward the end of July the movement began. A severe conflict followed at Tien ! Tsin, in which Colonel Liscum was killed, j The city was stormed and partly de ' stroyed. Its capture afforded the base ; of operations from which to make the : final advance, which began In the first days of Augus the expedition being made up of J. nese, Russian, British ! and American troops at the outset. An other battle was foughT and won at lYong.Tsun. Thereafter, the disheartened Chinese troops offered little show of re sistance A few days later, the impor tant position of To SI Wo was taken. A j rapid march brought the united forces to : the populous City of Tung Chow, which j capitulated without a contest. On August 14. the capital was reached. ! After a brief conflict beneath the walls, the relief column entered and the Lega tions were saved. The United States soldiers, sailors and marines, officers and men alike. In those distant climes and unusual surroundings, showed the same valor, discipline and good conduct and gave proof of the same high degree of In- telllgence and efficiency which have dls- ! tinguished them in every emergency. The Imperial family and the govern ment had fled a. few daya before. The city was without visible control. The remaining imperial soldiery had made, on the night of the 13th, a last attempt to exterminate the besieged, which was gallantly repelled. It fell to the- occupy ing forces to restore order and organize a provisional administration. Tbe Rnuian Proposition. ! The Russian proposition looking to the restoration f tbe Imperial power In Pe tln has been accepted as in full con sonance with our own desires, for we lhave held and hold that effective repara tion for wrongs suffered and an endur ing settlement that will make their re currence impossible can best be brought about under an authority which the Chi nese Nation reverences and obeys. While so doing we forego no jot of our un doubted right to exact exemplary and de terrent punishment of the responsible autnors and abettors of the criminal acts whereby we and other nations have suf fered grievous injury. For the real culprits, the evil coun sellors who have misled the imperial judgment and diverted the sovereign au thority to their own guilty ends, full ex piation becomes Imperative within the rational limits of retributive justice. Re garding this as the initial condition of an acceptable settlement between China and the powers, I said In my message of October 18 to the Chinese Emperor: "I trust that negotiations may begin so soon as we and the other offended gov ernments shall be effectively satisfied of Your Majesty's ability and power to treat with Just sternness the principal offenders who are doubly culpable, not alone toward the foreigners but toward Your Majesty, under whose rule the pur pose of China to dwell In concord with the world has hitherto found expression in the welcome and protection assured to strangers." Taking as a point of departure the imperial edict appointing Karl Li Hung Chang and Prince Ching plenipotentiaries to arrange a set tlement, and the edict of September 25, whereby certain high officials were des ignated for punishment, this Government has moved in concert with the other powers toward the opening of negotia tions which Mr. Conger, assisted by Mr. Rockhill, has been authorized to conduct on behalf of the United States. General bases of negotiations, formu lated by the Government of the French Republic, have been accepted with cer tain reservations as to details, made necessary by our own circumstances and by like similar reservations by other powers open to discussion in the prog ress of the negotiations. The disposition of the Emperor's Government to admit liability for wrongs done to foreign gov ernments and their citizens and to act upon such additional designation of tbe guilty persons as the foreign Ministers at Pekin may be in a position to make gives hope of a complete settlement of all questions involved, assuring foreign rights of residence and intercourse op terms of equality for all the world- I regard as one of the essential factors of a durable adjustment the securement of adequate guarantees for liberty of faith, since insecurity of those natives who may embrace alien creeds is scarce ly a less effectual assault upon the rights of foreign worship and teaching than would be the direct Invasion thereof. Matter of Indemnity. The matter of indemnity for our wronged citizens is a question of grave concern Measured In money alone, a sufficient reparation may prove to be be yond the ability of China to meet. All the powers concur in emphatic disclaim ers of any purpose of aggrandizement through the dismemberment of the em pire. I am disposed to think that due compensation may be made in part by increased guarantees of security for -for eign rights and immunities, and most important of all, by the opening of China to the equal commerce of all the world. These views have been and will be earn estly advocated by our representatives. The Government of Russia has put for ward a suggestion that in the event of a protracted divergence of views in regard to indemnities, the matter may be rele gated to the court of arbitration at The Hague. I favorably Incline to this, be lieving that high tribunal could not fail to reach a solution no less conducive to the stability and enlarged prosperity of China itself than immediately beneficial to the powers. OTHER FOREIGN RELATIONS. Relations Wltb Germany. Good will prevails In our relations with the German Empire. An amicable adjust ment of the long pending question of the admission of our life insurance compa nies to do business in Prussia has been reached. One of the principal companies has already been readmitted, and the way Is opened for the others to share the Priv ilege. The settlement of the Samoan problem, to which I adverted in my last message, has accomplished good results. Peace and contentment prevail in the islands, espe cially in Tutuila, where a convenient ad ministration that has won the confidence and esteem of the kindly-disposed natives has been organized under the direction of the commander of the United States naval station at Pango Pango. An imperial meat inspection law been enacted for Germany. While it may sim plify the Inspections, it prohibits certain products heretofore admitted. There is still great uncertainty as to whether our well-nigh extinguished German trade in meat products can "revive under Its' new burdens. Much will depend upon regula tions not yet promulgated, which we con fidently hope will be free from the dis criminations which attended the enforce ment of the old statutes. The remaining link In the new line of direct telegraphic communication between the United States and the German Em pire has recently been completed, afford ing a gratifying occasion for exchange of friendly congratulations with the German Emperor. The Boer War. Our friendly relations with Great Brit ain continue. The war In South Africa Introduced important questions. A condi tion unusual in international wars was presented in that while one belligerent had control of the seas, the other had no ports, shipping or direct trade, but was only accessible through the territory of a neutral. Vexatious questions arose through Great Britain's action- in respect to neutral cargoes not contraband In their own nature, shipped to Portuguese South Africa, on the score of probable or suspected ultimate destination to the Boer states. Such consignments in Brit ish ships, by which alone direct trade Is kept up between our ports and South Africa, were seized in application of a law prohibiting British vessels from trad ing with an enemy without regard to any contraband character of the goods, while cargoes shipped to Delagoa Bay In neutral bottoms were arrested on the ground f alleged destination to the enemy's coun try. Appropriate representation on our part resulted in the British Government agreeing to purchase outright all such goods shown to be the actual property of American citizens, thus closing the inci dent to the satisfaction of the immediate ly Interested parties, although unfortu nately without a broad settlement of the question of a neutral's right to send goods not contrband per se to a neutral port adjacent to a belligerent area. Alaska Boundary. The work of marking certain provis ional boundary points for convenience of administration around the head of Lynn Canal, in accordance with the temporary ! arrangement of October, 1899, was com I pleted by a Joint surveyln July last. The modus vlvendl has so far worked without friction and the Dominion Government has provided rules and regulations for i securing to our citizens the benefit of the reciprocal stipulation that the citizens or I subjects of either power found by that arrangement within the temporary Jurls- diction of the other shall suffer no di minution of rights and privileges they bave hitherto enjoyed. But, however necessary such an expedient may have been to tide over the grave emergencies of the situation. It Is at best but an unsatisfactory makeshift, which should not be suffered to delay tbe speedy and complete establishment of the frontier line to which we are entitled under the Russo-Amerlcan treaty for the cession of Alaska. In this relation, I may refer again to the need of definitely marking the Alas kan boundary where It follows the 141st meridian. A convention to that end has been before the Senate for some two years, but as no action has been taken, I contemplate negotiating a new convention for a joint determination of the meridian by heliocentrls observations. These, asit is believed, will give more accurate and unquestionable results than the sidereal methods heretofore Independently fol lowed, which, as Is known, proved dis crepant at several points on the line, al though not varying at any place more than 700 feet.' International Arbitration. It Is with satisfaction that I am able to announce the formal notification ot The Hague, on September 4, of the depos it of ratifications of the convention for the pacific settlement of the international disputes by 16 powers, namely, the United States, Austria, Belgium, Denmark. Eng land, France, Germany, Italy, Persia, Portugal, Roumania, Russia, Siam, Spain, Sweden and Norway and The Nether lands. Japan also has since ratified the convention. The administrative council of the permanent court of arbitration has been organized, and it has adopted rules or order and a constitution for the In ternational Arbitration Bureau. In ac cordance with article 23 of the convention providing for the appointment by each signatory power of persons of known competency in questions of International law as arbitrators I have appointed as members of this court, Hon. Benjamin Harrison, of Indiana, ex-President of the United States; Hon. Melville W. Fuller, of Illinois, Chief Justice of the United States; John W. Griggs, of New Jersey, Attorney-General of the United States, and Hon. George Gray, of Delaware, a Judge of the Circuit Court of the United States. The Nlcnragna Canal. The Important matter of an Interoceanle canal has assumed a new Dhase. Ad hering to Its refusal to reopen the question of the forfeiture of the contract of the Maritime Canal Company, which was terminated for alleged nonexecution in October, 1899, the Government of Nicara gua has since supplemented that action by declaring the so-styled Eyre-Cragin option void for nonpayment of the stipu lated advance. Protests in relation to these acts have been filed in the State Department, and are under consideration. Deeming Itself relieved from existing en gagements, the Nicaragua Government shows a disposition to deal freely with the canal question, either in the way of negotiations with the United States or by ! taking measures to promote the water way. Overtures for a convention to effect the building of a canal under the auspices of the United States are under considera tion, in tne meantime, tne views ox con gress upon the subject in the light ot the report of the committee appointed to examine the comparative merits of the various trans-isthmian ship canal proj ects may be awaited. I commend to the early attention ot the Senate the convention with Great Britain to facilitate the construction of such a canal, and to remove any objec tion whleh might arise out of the conven tion commonly called the Clayton-Bul-wer treaty. Relations With Spain. Satisfactory progress has been made toward the conclusion of a general treaty of friendship and Intercourse with Spain In replacement of the old treaty, which passed Into abeyance by reason of the late war. A new convention of extradi tion Is approaching completion, and 1 would be much pleased were a commer cial arrangement to follow. I feel that we should not suffer to pass an oppor tunity to reaffirm the cordial ties that existed between us and Spain from the time of our earliest independence, and to enhance the mutual benefits of that com mercial intercourse which is natural be tween the two countries. By the terms of the treaty of peace, the line bounding the ceded Philippine group on the southwest failed to include several small islands lying west of the Sulus, which have always been recog nized as under Spanish control. The oc cupation of Sibutu and Cagayan, Sulu. by our naval forces elicited a claim on the part of Spain, the essential equity of which could not be gainsaid. In order to cure the defect of the treaty by re moving all possible ground of future mis understanding respecting the interpreta tion of its third article, I directed the negotiation of a supplementary treaty, which will be forthwith laid before the Senate, whereby Spain quits all title and claim of title to the islands named, as well as to any and all islands belonging to the Philippine Archipelago lying out side the lines described in said third ar ticle, and agrees that all such islands shall be comprehended in the cession of the archipelago as fully as If they had been expressly Included within those lines. In consideration of this cession the United States is to pay Spain the sum of 100,000. A bill is now pending to effect the rec ommendation made in my last annual message, that appropriate legislation be had to carry into execution article 8 of the treaty of peace with Spain, by which the United States assumed the payment of certain claims for indem nity of its citizens against Spain. I ask that action be taken to fulfill this obli gation. CONDITIONS IN PHILIPPINES. Recommendations for a Civil fisv i ernment for tbe Islands. In my last annual message I dwelt at some length upon the condition of af fairs In the Philippines. While seeking to impress upon you that the grave re sponsibility of the future government of those islands rests with the Congress of the United States, I abstained from rec ommending at that time a specific and final form of government for the terri tory actually held by the United States forces, and in which, as long as the In surrection continues, the military arm must necessarily be supreme. I stated my purpose, until the Congress shall have made known the formal expression of its will, to use the authority vested in me by the Constitution and the stat utes to uphold the sovereignty of the United States in these distant islands, as in all other places where our flag right fully floats, placing to that end at the disposal of the- Army and Navy all the means which the liberality of the Con gress and the people have provided. No contrary expression of the will of the Congress having been made, I have steadfastly pursued the purpose so de clared, employing the civil arm as well toward the accomplishment of pacifica tion and the institution of local govern ments within the lines of authority and law. Progress in tbe hoped-for direction has been favorable. Our forces have suc cessfully controlled the greater part of the islands, overcoming the organized forces of the Insurgents, and carrying order and administrative regularity to all quarters. What opposition remains is for the most part scattered, obeying no concerted plan of strategic action, oper ating only by tbe methods common to the traditions of guerrilla warfare, which, while ineffective to alter the general con trol now established, are still sufficient to beget insecurity among the popula tior.s that have felt the good results of our control, and thus delay the confer ment upon them of the fuller measures of local self-government, of education and of Industrial and agricultural devel opment wbicb we stand ready to give them. By the Spring of this year the effective opposition of the dissatisfied Tagals to the authority of the United States was virtually ended, thus opening the door for the extension of a stable administra tion over much of the territory of the archipelago. Desiring to bring this about, I appointed Jn march last a civil com mission, composed of the Hon. William H. Taft, of Ohio; Professor Dean C. Worcester, of Michigan; Hon. Luke E. Wright, oi Tennessee; Hon. Henry C. Ide, of Vermont, and Professor Bernard Moses, of California. The alms of their mission and 'he scope of their authority are clearly set forth in instructions ot April 7, 1900, addressed to the Secretary of War, to be transmitted to them. PORTO RICO AND CUBA. Success In tbe Former Progress Toward Cnban Autonomy. The civil government of Porto Rico provided for by the act of the Congress approved April 12, 1900, is in successful operation. The courts have been estab lished; the Governor and his associates working intelligently and harmoniously, are making a commendable success. On the 6th of November a general election was held in the island for members of the Legislature and the body has been called to convene on the first Monday of December. I recommend that legislation be enacted by Congress conferring upon the Secre tary of the Interior supervision over the public lands in Porto Rico, and that he be directed to ascertain the location and quantity of lands the title to which re mained in the crown of Spain at the date the cession of Porto Rico to the United States, and that appropriations for sur veys be made and the methods of the disposition of such lands be prescribed by law. FEDERAL DEPARTMENTS. Army Should Be OO.OOO to 100,000 The Navy, Postofftccs, Etc. The present strength of the Army is 100,000 men 65,000 regulars and 35,000 vol unteers. Under the act of March 2, 1S99, on the 30th of June next the present vol unteer force will be discharged and the Regular Army will be reduced to 247 officers pnd 29,025 enlisted men. In 1888 a board of officers convened by President Cleveland adopted a comprehensive scheme of coast defense and fortifications which involved the outlay of something over 1100,000.000. Tliis plan received the approval of the Congress and since then regular aproprla lions have been made and the work of fortification has steadily progressed. More man $60,000,000 have been invested in a g-eat number of forts and guns, with all the complicated and scientific machinery and electrical appli ances necessary for their use. The proper care of this defensive machinery requires men trained In Its use. The number of men necessary to perform this duty alone is ascertained by the "War Department, at a minimum allowance, to be 18,420. There are 58 or more military posts in the United states other than the coast defense fortifications. The number of these posts is being constantly Increased by Congress. More than $22,000,000 have been expended in building and equipping them, and they can only be cared Tor by the Regular Army. The posts now In existence and others to be built provide accommodations Tor, and, if fully gar risoned, require 26,000 troops. Many ot these posts are along our frontier or at important strategic points, the occupa tion of which is necessary. We have in Cuba between 5000 and 6000 troops. For the present our troops in that island can not be withdrawn or materially dimin ished, certainly not until the conclusion of the labors of the constitutional conven tion now In session and a government pro vided 1 y the National Constitution should have been established and its stability assur- d. In Porto Rico we have re duced the garrisons to 1636. which include 896 native troops. There Is no room for further reduction here. We will be re quired to keep a considerable force In the Philippine Islands for some time to come. From the best information ob tainable we shall need there for the Im mediate future from 50,000 to 60,000 men. I am sure the number may be reduced as the insurgents shall come to acknowledge the authority of the United States, of which there are assuring Indications. It must be apparent that we will re quire an army of about 60,000, and that during present conditions in Cuba and the Philippines the President should have authority to increase the force to the present number of 100,000. Included in this, authority should be given to raise native troops in the Philippines up to 15.000, which the Taft commission believes will be more effective in detecting and suppressing guerillas, assassins and la drones than our own soldiers. The full discussion of this subject by the Secretary of War in his annual re port is called to your earnest attention. The Navy. Very efficient service has been rendered by the Navy In connection with the Insur rection in the Philippines, and the recent disturbance in China. A very satisfactory settlement has been made of the long-pending question of the manufacture of armor-plates. A reason able price haa been secured, and the necessity for a Government armor-plate plant avoided. The Hawaiian Islands. Much Interesting information Is given In the report of the Governor of Hawaii as to the progress and development of the islands during the period from July 7, 1898, the date of the approval of the joint resolution of the Congress providing for their annexation up to April 30, 1900, the date of the approval of the act providing a government for the territory and there after. The last Hawaiian census, taken In the year 1896, gives a total population of i09,020, of which 31,019 were native Ha waiian:. The number of Americans re ported was 8485. The results of the Fed eral census taken this year show the islands to have a total population of 154. 001, snowing an increase over that report ed in 1896 of 44,981, or 41.2 per cent. There has been marked progress In educational,, agricultural and railroad development of the islands. The Twelfth Census. The Director of the Census states thai the work In connection with the 12th cen sus is progressing favorably. This Na tional undertaking, ordered by the Con gress each decade, has finally resulted in the collection of an agregation of statis tical facts to determine the industrial growth of the country. Its manufacturing and mechanical resources, its richness in mines and forests, the numbers of its agricultural districts, their farms anl products, its educational and religious op portunities, as well as questions pertain ing to sociological condit'ons. Precaution Against Extravagance. In our great prosperity we must guard against the dangers It Invites in extrav agance in government expenditures and appropriations, and the chosen represen tatives of the people will. I doubt not, fur nish an example In their legislation of that wise economy which, in a season of plenty, husbands for the future. In this era of great business activity and oppor tunity caution .is not untimely. It will not abate but strengthen our confidence. It will not retard but promote legitimate Industrial and commercial expansion. Our growing power brings with it temp tations and perils requiring constant vig ilance to avoid. It must not be used to in vite conflicts, nor for oppression, but for the more effective maintenance of those principles of equality and justice upon which our institutions and happiness de pend. Let us keep always In mind that the foundation of our Government is lib erty; its superstructure peace. WILLIAM McKTNLET. Executive Mansion, December 3, 1900.