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BIfTBRCD AT THI POSTOM IC« AT JAOKSOW AS SacOND-CLASS MATTER.
TUTC DADCD >» *«Pt on «'« »t B. C. DAKR'B Advertising Agency. 779 Market «treet 1 nlo rAt Civ San Francisco, California where contracts for advertising can be made AMADDR LEDGER Published every Friday Afternoon RICHARD WEBB Editor and Proprietor SUBSCRIPTION RATESI Osayear (In advance M 00 One your (If not In advance) 9 SO Six months ...'. ' > 1 00 Three months 0 60 One or more go Dies each • « # «>•»«..«« . i .*...»*>»• m... >* . km*. ................. Cfi Legal advertising— per square of 834 nrna- B'lrs t Insertion ....'.« -..« 1 1 -00 Subsequent Insertions— per square-eaoh „ ■ B0 FRIDAY DECEMBE 30, 1910 THE NEW REVENUE SYSTEM. The adoption of the constitutional amendment separating state and county taxation is already causing much discussion as to the effect it will have in the increase or curtailment of revenue for county purposes. The next assessment of prop erty will be made in conformity with the new order of things, and financial solons are busy preparing a bill to be passed by the incoming legislature to carry out the provisions of the amendment. Under the new method .certain classes of prop erty, such as railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, ielec tric light and power companies, express and banking corpor ations, will be taxed for state purposes; and the state govern ment will have to depend for support upon the revenue raised from these sources, without any general levy upon all tax able property, as has heretofore been the case. The county governments will be maintained by a tax levied upon the balance of the property left after these state taxed items are eliminated. It is evident that this radical change in the revenue laws will bear very uuequally upon different coun ties, according to the value of state-taxed properties within their respective borders. Some counties in which the pro portion of state-class property is above the average will be adversely affected, while those counties where the proportion is below the average will be benefited by the new departure, To reduce this disturbance of financial conditions to a mini mum, at least until the new system becomes fairly estab lished, the state will make good any loss sustained by a county for a certain period — five years we understand. How the state will be reimbursed for this liberality dees not ap pear, as there is no provision that the counties financially helped by the change shall divy up their gains for a co '-re- How is Auiador county likely to be affected by the new deal— adversely or otherwise ? — may be asked. The tax rate for state and county p'uposes has averaged in the neighbor hood of $2 on the $100 for a number of years past. Of this levy about one-fifth has been represented by the state tax. It therefore follows that the county can stand a reduction of one-fifth in its assessment roll without suffering any loss of revenue for local purposes. That is to say, a tax levy of $2 on the $100 011 an assessment roll four-fifths as large as at present would leave us practically unchanged. With an assessment roll of between five and six million dollars under the old regime, a shrinkage of a million dollars in valuation would not disturb the county finances. It is difficult to ap proximately estate the value of Amador county property that will be set off for state assessment. The Pacific Gasjand Electric Company's holdings are assessed for about half a million dollars. The railroad and other corporation property included in the state class will easily, all told, bring the sum total over the million dollar mark. But a portion of this property, classed as "inoperative,' 1 will still be retained for county assessment. How much will be so held will depend upon legislative action defining the scope and meaning of in- operative property. It is being heralded throughout the state that at a recent 'meeting of county assessors an important point was gained for the counties by having certain portions of corporatiou property included in the " inoperative" class, and therefore assessable by the county assessors. While this action is doubtless merely advisory to the legislature in the framing of a bill on the subject, still it indicates a likely source o f content between the state and county authorites over the new revenue system. With the division of the corporate prop eity into "operative'' and " inoperative," the first named as sessable by the state and the latter by the county, the battle will be on for each side to get as much as possible of this property included in its respective class. To swell the "in operative" column will mean more pickings for the county assessors and increased revenue or a reduced tax levy for the county. The capture of recruit property for the "operative" column will mean either enhanced income for the state or a reduction of taxes for the corporations concerned. This dual authority seems a vulnerable feature, likely to give birth to considerable litigation before it is definitely settled by the courts, and several years will doubtless pass ere the new law gets down to a smooth working basis. SCIENTIFIC MISCELLANY Reported weekly for the Ledger A Successful Land Fruector— The Eye Sheath of Birds— Earthquake Forestry — The Iron That Grows— Earth Tremors from Changing Air Pressure— Engine Economy— Baking by Steam Without Pressure—Elec trocution — Varying Influence of Light. A flexible armor of concrete bricks strung on wires is a novel anchor for a sand deposit, and is a French solution of the problem of preventing the wash ing away of river and lake shores and even the shifting of. dunes exposed to the ocean. The bricks, weighing ten pounds each, are pierced with two holes each for the passage of gal vanized iron or copper wires. The slope being properly graded, a horizon tal wire cable is stretched along its bottom, wirea are attached to this, and the bricks are shipped upon the wires so- as to lie close together in regular rows. The bricks can be made and laid rapidly, the gravelly sand of the locality being used with : the cement. A number of applications of this method of land protection have been made in France, and have suc cessfully resisted water, frost and ocean gales for two or three years. The sheathing of the Soulac. dune, soon to be extended 3500 feet, is now 900 feet long and 20 feet high. The first part was completed early in 1909, and has withstood some bad storms. The "parasol" with which the eyes of such birds as owls, eagles and cocks are protected, has been the subject of recent experiments by French natural ists.' This is a black, opaque mem brane attached to the retina near the optic nerve, and, while it closes into a thin line that does not . interfere with vision, it opens so as to completely cover the retina and protect it from strong light. The eagle that boldly faces the sun sees nothing, for his curious eye parasol is spread. To prevent earthquakes seems to be the most surprising of the many reasons for restoring forests. It is suggested that in such localities as- Messina and southern Italy, cutting away the forests has loosened the soil, and this may have given rise to faults and added to the earthquake disturbances or their effects. If this theory.is correct, of course replanting the trees should again bind the loose material with roots, giving the surtace its old time greater stability. Since the growth of cast iron under repeated heatings first attracted atten tion some years ago, various explana tions have been offered. Superheated steam causes high pressure steam valves to become enlarged, and in the great Baltimore tire cast-iron beams were so changed by the intense heat as to distort and ruin masonry building, while the buildings in which cast steel had been used were not affected. Re peated heatings cause cast-hon bars to become porous and cracked. Prof. H. Carpenter, a British metallurgist, ex plains that the growth has now been definitely ascribed to the chemical re action that takes place between the flame gases and the constituents of the iron, especially to the change of sili con to silica, and also to the reaction between the flame gases and the gases originally dissolved in the iron. To obtain iron that will not grow it has been necessary to give care to its com position. The silicon must be removed as nearly as possible, and all carbon contained must be in chemical com bination with the iron, none being pre sent in the free state. Changes of pressure over the great areas of high and low barometer that persist for long periods over much of the earth's surface are regarded by Dr. Otto Klotz as a cause of earth vibration, or microseisms. The crea tion or alteration of those areas shifts a vast load, and may Bet up vibrations in blocks of the earth's crust covering tens of thousands of square miles. Differences of temperature or the transient differences due to the pas sage of storm or fair weather areas would have little influence. The nature of the vibrations produced is possibly dependent on or modified by marked geological configuration, and when once set up the vibrations many con tinue lung after the cause hau disap peared. Though aeroplane engines represent a gain in lightness, they show a loss in fuel economy. Such is the result of teats carried out at the National Pysi cul Laboratory in England, where it has been learned that the Gnome en gine, so famous for lightness per horse-power, uses 0.89 pounds of fuel per brake horse-power hour, while a good automobile engine runs on 0.54 pound. As water is heated above 212 deg, F., the pressure risea very rapidly with the increasing temperature of the steam, but the new method of superheating without 'the' water may give steam a temperature higher than that of red-hot Iron with a pressure perhaps not exceeding a pound per square inch. Thia method has been applied to heating bakers' ovens. Superheated steam has been -used in the old way for baking, but the tem perature of 700 deg. or 800 deg. or more develops a pressure that may reach 2,000 pounds per square inch, and as the steam-pipes passing around the oven become rusted and worn there is much risk from bursting pipes. By the new plan, the steam is first generated in a small boiler. It is then passed through a number of pipes in a furnace, and is there superheated to 1000 deg. before entering the pipes of the oven. In the process of baking only a part of the heat is given off, the steam being left sufficiently hot for boiling and other purposes before it condenses again to water. Steam superheated in this way, being safe and economical, is recommended for a variety of uses. Considering the curious fact that an electric shock of 100 volts is sometimes fatal, while currents of 1000 volts do not always kill, a British Medical As sociation paper points out that the effects depend upon many factors. The volume, or amperage, of the current as well as its tension may count. The character of the current— whether it is direct or alternating— may play some part, and the duration of the shock and the point of application may signify much. Then, too, the resis tance of the skin, is not always the same. Ono individual may differ greatly from another in susceptibility, and even the conditon of the mind is found to have an influence, as a person prepared to receive a shock is less liable to be affected than one receiving The action of light on plants has been shown by Combes, a French botanist, to vary with its intensity, as well as with the age and character of the plant. A strong light favors the development of large stores of re serve material, as in the tubers of the potato and the root of the beet, and a weaker light tends instead to pro mote the growth of vegetative organs. End's Winter's Troubles To many, winter is a season of trouble. The frost bitten toes and fingers, chapped hands and lips, chil blains, cold sores, red and rough skin, Jprove this. But such troubles fly : De- Tore Bucklen's Arnica salve. A trial convinces. Greatest healer of burns, boils, piles, cuts, sores, eczema and sprains. Only 25c at Spagnoli's drug store. Land Office Rules. New rules of practice governing cases before the United States local land office, the general land office and the department of the interior have been approved by secretary Ballmger. The new rules which will go into effect February Ist, are intended to simplify practice, to avoid delay and to reduce the number of successive appeals. Under the present system it is said the multitude of appeals give advantage to a contestant of wealth over one who is poor. A contest against an entry or claim of record, under the new rules, can only be instituted by a per son who seeks to acquire title to or claims an interest in the land in volved, and the grour.d of the contest must be based on matters not disclosed by the records of the land department. —Citizen. Will Promote Beauty Women desiring beauty get wnderful help from Bucklen's Arnica Salve. It banishes pimples, skin eruptions, sores and boils. It makes the skin soft and velvety. It glorifies the face. Cures sore eyes, old sores, cracked lips, chapped hands. Best for burns, scalds, fever sores, cuts, bruises and piles. 25c at Spagnoli's drug store Will of F. W. Zeile Filed for Probate The will of F. W. Zeile, formerly one of the leaders in San Francisco banking circles, has been filed for pro bate. It leaves an estate valued at $200,000 to the immediate relatives. Mr Zeile died December 3, 1910. His will bears the date May 18, 1909. Miss Marion Zeile is named as executrix without bonds. She is heir to one third of the estate. The remainder is divided between Mrs Ida May Zeile, the testator's widow, and Miss Kuth Zeile, a daughter. For the past several years Mr Zeile was an invalid and took no active part in business. The greater part of his fortune was invested in real estate in the Sacramento Valley. Most of the money was made in bank ing and in the warehouse business.— Argonaut. Ol3ll«lr*rt Cry FOR FLETCHERS CASTORIA JACKSON CLEANING WORKS Thos. J. Earle 9O; Main Street Jackson ! NATIONAL HOTEL j £ D. S. and H .S. Mason, Prop's. 5 • BEST MEALS 35 &50 CENTS I j 2 Fine Sample Rooms for Commercial 2 2 Travelers - - Stage Office for all • • points - - Open day and night • Z Jackson, - Amador Co., - Cal. £ | - CLEAN ROOMS * * * j • * * * ELECTRIC LIGHTS • S I 8; New Management !S j Globe Hotel! qj » fi I W. 0. Green 8s Son, Prop's | 1 1 I Board and Lodging at | % Reasonable Rates. Sample If U - 23 « Rooms for Commercial | | Travelers. All Stages Stop || |at This Hotel «=^ | vA W ■ 55 ' ■ •-•" S 1 1 I JACKSON 1 I Amador Co., . Calif. § Taylor & Podesta, Prop'rs Phone Main 26 Enterprise Livery Stable Particular at- J&^ Four-ln-hands million Paid /if- — -^XJ^ Surroys to Commer- Kit vvV J Saddle Horses clnl Travelers «&ir"»"TY Pole and andTranclent |TV^»II single Buggies Customers v!-.-«Ji5sJLa Rates Kalr Main Street, ... - Jackson Amador County, Cal. Cain's Wife "I never discuss marriage*," said the late Gen. Fitzhugh Lea, to the Womans' Companion, "without think ing of an old colored preacher in my state who was addressing his dark skinned congregation, when a white man rose in the back of the building. Ji"Mr Preacher," said the white man. "Sir to you," said the parson. "Mr Preacher, you are talking about Cain, and you say he got married in the land of Nod, after he killed Abel. But the Bible only men tions Adam and Eve as being on the earth at that time. Who, then, did Cain marry?" "The colored preacher snorted with unfeigned contempt. "Huh!" he said. "You hear dat, brederen an' sisteru? You hear dat fool question I am axed? Cain, he went to de land 0' Nod, just as de Good Book tells us, an' in de land o* Nod Cain gits so lazy an' so shiftless dat he up an' marries a gal o' one o' dem no 'count white trash families dat de inspired apostle didn't consider littin' to mention in do Holy Word." Baby won't Buffer five minutes with croup if you apply Dr. Thomas' Eclectic Oil at once. It acts like magic DORNAN'S Dr. A. Reed Shoes On jtf^v Sale Here. IvVtA These Shoes are ««» Cushion Soled. V' C pOWNES KID \^. l-« GLOVtS Aro j£ ■ WARRANTED iß^fS^ MEMO Corset / wS&p3s^ >\ \\ Leads ALL I 471T ////\J ' " Others for \ t\v//l( Style and Com- \l 11 /A\\ f ort - No other Vwil/WX Corset Reduces NM'i /y\\\ Ta " or Medium Jj#>\\\ Stout Figures I sV\ \ \ More Effectlve- //ilTm -M ly and so tom * V iUw! 1 «\ •am Exclusive /ifintat "» Aflent for Thes« OCCgZ^Siij-ffcDucmo Goods and Will Who Call. Their True Merits. DORNAN'S 23 MAIN ST. JACKSON Amador Hotel J. M. Coffman. Prop. Board by Day, Week or Month Table, always supplied with the very best in the market SAMPLE ROOMS For Commercial Travellers Opp. Livery Stable Amador City Phone Main 1 2 FOREST HOUSE IV. Easton, Prop- First Class Accomodation Commercial Sample Rooms Special Attention to Transient Patrons PLYMOUTH AMADOR, • CO., ■ CALIF. Plymouth r Livery W. J. Ninnia PROP. « afonabln Prices ymouth, Cal. NOTICE FOR PUBLICATION— O2OS4 Department of the Interior. U. S. Land Office at Sacramento, California, November 21, 1910. Notice is hereby given that DAVID RHODKS, of Defender, California, who, on March 3, 1905. made 11. E. No 7796, for W^ of SW^ Section 1, and SE^ of SE}£, Section 2, Town- ship 7 N,. Range 13 E., Mount Diablo Meridian, has tiled notice of intention to make Final five year Proof, to es- tablish claim to the land above de- scribed, before the U. S. Commissioner for Amador County, at his office in Jackson, California, on the 4th day of January, 1911. Claimant names as witnesses : Samuel Lessley and J. H. Campbell, of Volcano, Calif., Fayette Mace and F. B. Joyce, of Defender, Calif. JOHN F. ARMSTRONG, n025 Register. ANY LADY can easily make from $18.00 to $25.00 per week working for me quietly in her own home locality. This is a ..- bona fine offer— one which will pay you to investigate, even ir you can only spare two hours pen day. No investment required. Ture your spare time into money. Wntf me at once for particulars. Address MARY B. TAYLOR, Box, Sffl Woman's BuiUdng jo|let, Illinois,