TO WEAKEN FOE
Continual Pounding on Restrict
ed Fronts Is Expected to
Pave Way for Ulti
SEE VICTORY NEXT YEAR
Russian Collapse Gave Allies
By FRANK H. SIMONDS,
Copyright 1917—The Tribune Ass'n
(The New York Tribune).
With the closing week of August the
Campaign of 191" on the western front
is reaching its climax, while, a new
Italian offensive along the Isonxo is
already asserted both by Rome and
Vienna to have passed all records on
the Austro-Italian front both for in
tensity of artillery preparation and ex
tent of line assaulted. In the present
articLe I shall confine myself mainly
to the Anglo-French front and endeavor
to point out the new tactics that are
being revealed by the defense and by
the attack—and both are in no small
degree derived from the methods of the
French commander in chief in his de
fense and subsequent offense at Ver
,There have been for a long time two
theories about the way to attack, giv
en the present trench warfare. One
school litis firmly held fo the Idea that
the attack must be over a wide front,
uaing for a parallel the great Macken
sen- assault tit the'DunaJec. which cov
ered many miles of front. This was the
method previously employed by Petain
In the Champagne attack of September,
1915: this was the method which
Nivelle employed in his recent and un
successful grand offensive along the
Ahlhe and east of Rheims.
Yhy Petain Method off Attack.
Aiiothw school lias advocated an at
tack on a relatively restricted front, a
front of something like 10 miles, with
•m even smaller front in cases where
the operation aimed at taking some
specific .point. Thus Petain's two of
fensive at Verdun last year, the British
attacks at Arras, Messines, Hill 70 and"
before Ypres this year, arid the new
Krench attack before Verdun. In the
Somme battle of last year, on the other
hand, there was a much wider front
involved in the first day's .operations.
Now, it is plain that an attack upon
a 10 mile front holds out little hope of
any piercing, any breaking through, be
cause the Invariable tendency of such
attacks is to narrow as they advance.
In the Champagne in 1915, the front as
sailed was hardly less than 18 miles,
but a Moroccan brigade that got clear
through emerged on a front of less
than half a .mile beyond Navarin farm
and was exterminated by the German
artillery on the near. Even with a wide
front involved the French failed at the
time of their first great offensive.
In their operation this spring the
French returned to the old idea and at
tacked on a. very wide front, some 40
miles, extending from Soissons to Au
berive, east of Rheims. Nivelle ex
pected fb break through, nnd he and
Mangin calculated that the French
wjould reach Laon, just as the French
'had expected they would get to Vou
isiers in 1915. Instead there was a con
siderable progress, a large bag of pris
oners and some capture of guns but
the-French losses were so great that
further attacks had to be abandoned,
and Fort Brimont, one of the main ob
jectives, was not taken, while Laon
remained eight miles beyond the French
front at the end of the attack.
French Failure Before Laon.
The reasons for this failure to break
through were many there were mis
takes of a nature that surprised those
who know the efficiency of French ar
tillery there were attacks without ade
quate artillery preparation but, in the
main the drive failed, it would seem,
because the preparation for so vast an
attack gave the Germans ample warn
ing to prepare for it. In addition, their
own retreat .between Arras and Sols
sons served, to release many reserves,
for by devastating the ground over
Which they, retired the Germans made
it Impossible for-'the allies to attack
on .the new front for some months.
Petain had opposed the April attack
In the first place, and Micheler, who
had commanded an army in the battle
joif the Somihe, supported, his view,
penile Nivelle and Mangin urged it. And
Nivelle was commander In chief, he
had his way. But the failure coat him
|rta*po8itioa, as It did Mangin. the com
4*and of an srrny. And with the com
win#-of Petain the whole French tactics
ged. To he sure, at first there
not chance for the French to at*
Endeavoring to take advantage
ilFrench depression due to the
to bceak through and of an
breakdown of the morale of
nob German* launched
against the Chemln-dea-DamM
Recalling the terrible later
MJrir tM ..the *tyl* of warfare
W*w.l»««t. iU aiuwared it as
I hi® arttylery rather
^. nnd counter attack
L'ffch#'. GMrmnns had laid
Important point, he
th« end .•»»
I on about half of this front. Here thetr
attack had something of the nature of
a surprise and the Germans suffered
the heaviest defeat of trench war, on
I their side of the battle Una. A British
eain of nearly five mil«js at one point,
and of more than four on a wide front.
the capture of Vimy ridge and the high
ground at Moncliy were equally im
much less value to them and it became
fire nml by trench operations. In the
end the fighting died down here.-after
great German counter attacks, which
were excessively expensive'to the Ger
mans, but served to hold the British.
That the British expected at the out
set to break the line at Arras seems
I'litc unlikely. That was not the view I
found when I was with the British
army less than two months before the
battle occurred. I suspect that the
extent of the victory of the first day
may have led them to ihe view that it
might le possible, but there is precious
little belief in the Rritisli army that
the break through can come while the
Hermans are still in such force as they
still maintain on the western front.
No Decision in 1917.
.The chance of a decision in 11M7 went
'glimmering. It became a question of
exerting the utmost pressure upon the
Germans, exacting the largest possible
casualty lists, while losing as few men
as possible, and for this form of war
fare it was recognized that Petain's old
method in his two Verdun offensives of
last year, was the best possible form
I of tactics.
attacks. At the Messines or "White
did exactly the same thing, and so com
plete was their artillery preparation
there was no German counter attack
for 40 hours, and then it was easily
In de* Itainea
in addition, this intense artillery
preparation demonstrated that the gun
was again getting the better of the de
fensive. Concrete works were churned
up and the barrage was so effective
In keeping troops in deep dugouts while
the advance was getting forward, cov
ered by a creeping barrage, that the
Germans were driven back upon
Petain's method in the defense of Ver
dun— a method very largely born of
necessity. Then, with their trenches
destroyed by the hitherto unprece
dented artillery fire of the Germans,
the French hung on in shell holes, con
cealing machine guns in these exca
vations and maintaining a line, not
continuous but still sufficing to hold
back the German sweep. This is what
the Germans are now doing in con«
siderable measure both before the Brit
ish at Ypres and Lens.
We see then clearly that the British
and the French have laid aside any
real thought of breaking through this
year. It is not possible, because the
Germans still have the men and guns
to man their lines. They will have
them because the Russian collapse has
released reserves from the east. Since
it is not possible to breeze through, as
the French experiment in April demon
strated, the present effort is confined
to inflicting disproportionate losses and
attaining important local objectives.
Breaking through Moat Unlikely.
It Is always possible that one of the
heavy, swift thrusts will produce a
complete disorganisation of a sector of
the German front But it is the moat
unlikely, thing In the world, and there
is no allied expectation anywhere of
breaking-through this year. Kvery ef
fort win be mads by the Germans to
Yet is proved impossible to stretch sized the fact that Crrmun.v still luul
this to an actual piercing, a breaking the men and guns
through. When the llrillsh had got on The End Next Summer.
four mile* their heavy suns were of
a problem of getting them forwarf, United States is able to put a con
over ground devastated hv the fighting ooo^'^h""^
of thr^e years, torn and seamed bv shell ?.?°T°" «n,V
And with the end of the battle of
Arms and the failure of the French
before Laon and in front of Rheims.
the western campaign took on a differ
ent aspect. The Russian collapse had,
released many German troops and.! Tf you have had a case of typhoid
what was more important, reserves that fever in your family recently or have
had been marked for use in the east, such a case now* read the followiim
This method called for an intensive
artillery preparation on a relatively
narrow front, then a swift and sudden
blow, an advance of carefully restricted
aniaiiuv in uaifiuuy rpsinciea »»». v.. iv m. .naci lypnotu in istia.
extent, hardly more than a mile in most. Her nurse contracted it. Later in the
cases, the capture of high ground, a vil- same year two. daughters and another
'age, some objective of importance but relative contracted typhoid. It was
not of great area. Superior artillery found that this woman caused four
produced the destruction of the defend- cases in 1911, four in 1912, one in 1913
ing force, and this superior artillery, and two in 1914.
since the advance was restricted, was Mrs. L. B. had typhoid in 1886. Since
just a.s useful in beating down counter that year .she has sold milk to her
attacks, when they came. neighbors. Many cases of typhoid oc-
Such tactics in Verdun in October curred among her customers, but the
I December last year enabled the. number could not be ascertained. One
11- rench first to retake Douamont and physician recollected 16 cases traceable
I aux and then a wide area of country to this source in 17 years. In those
in circle from Vachereauville to earlier years jjuch matters did not re-
Be/.onvaux, together with 18,000 pris- ceive much thought. In 1912 her sister
oners and many guns. visited her and contracted tvphoid. In
At erdun Petain used relatively 1913 three relatives got tvphoid. In
small forces, yet so successful was his 1914 two relatives and neighbor were
December attack that the German lines infected bv her.
were abolished for a considerable ex- W. W. S*. caught tvphoid from aease
tent. But despite German disorganiza- in 1906. In 1911 Mrs. W. W. S„ a daugh
tion his troops carefully limited their ter, and a neighbor all had tvphoid In
»n2nvtti ground that could be 1912 a daughterinlaw and a grand
easily held and from which they could daughter had the disease. In 1914 five
PV"'8]1 ^verely any counter attack, cases-a son, two hired men, a maid
The result was there were no counter —J
It will be seen that both in the first
and second attacks before- Ypres re
cently the advance has been for some
thing like a mile in each case, and this
has been followed by the announcement
that the objective sought'has been at
tained. Then there comes the pause, a
new artillery preparation and a new at
tack, still directed at a nearby ob
jective. The Germans on their part
have quite cleverly set apout to dis
count the effect on the world of suc
cessive advances by declaring that the
British and the French undertook their
operation with a distant objective in
view and failed to attain it. Thus in
the first attack at Ypres, on August 1,
the Germans saw an effort to sweepj Ur. dry and heilthT, with a wn"^te~floor.
is fortunate. It can be used for
•VWVT VftkVt ll vv owVV§f,
them immediately' from the Belgian
seacoast. When the Canadians at
tacked and took Hill 70 the other day
the German official statement talked
about a failure to reach Vendin-le-Vlel,
two miles-further to theeast and wholly
outside of Canadian calculations.
establish the idea that the purpose of jfj Itfjj '•?, comfortable cellar, your
the allies Is to break through, and they ft*®8
will claim a great success at the end of [S keeD canned rSSwi
the campaignjrhen their lines are still d£ aSl ^£oi 5£d ta wteter^? Mffl!
unbrokeiy sjthough notarially pushed cJeatty warm to prevent all chance of the
hack. But th« trnth ls that th« present CMned goods becoming overheated
allied tactics •ro dlrvctea at producing gotfir cellar you are tn
casualtia*. it gifting pn at—sitin of the I1**" blessed among men.
high ground Ukd the-advantageous po
—Imn whlch to make their later
to take ground
over but the purpose should be clesiia
kept in mind. There are less than It
weeks of fighting: weather left, and
even if the'Hermans were forced to re
treat because of a break in their line
there is not now sufficient, time tu
profit by such an event." Russia's col-?
lapse put a wholly different ccrmiilexioit
on the war for the present year. Tim
French failure to get to Laon empha
a. ICIIVII mnuif to JJfl III IxUllI t'llllJUit-
When the war approaches German
territory the fact, will be plain to the
whole of Germany, .lust as long as the.,
fighting is far away in France, Belgium
and Poland the German rulers can
make a f*aso for insisting upon poac*
based upon profits for Germany, or. at.
the least, peace by which Germany es
capes all financial payment for her
devastations ip Belgium and France.
histories and then think over the his
tory of the persons in the household of
the sick person. If you think there is
any similarity to any of the following
histories in the history of any member
of the household, call the similarity to
the. attention of vour health depart
Mrs. L. H. D. had typhoid while a
nurse in 1898. in 1900 her husband had
typhoid. In 1910 a nephew died of ty
phoid. In 1913 two farm hands in her
household had typhoid.
Mrs. C. K. K. .had typhoid in 1909.
and the child of an employe had ty
phoid. In 1915 another employe devel
oped the disease.
Mrs. T. L. had typhoid in 1901. She
kept one cow and supplied milk to three
families. In 1916. five members of one
family contracted,typhoid and one.died.
In another family one fatal case oc
Mrs. G. A. had typhoid in 1884. For
the last few years she has run a small
milk business, selling most of her sup
ply to one large boarding house. In
1915 12 cases of typhoid occurred in
this boarding house. In 1916 there were
13 cases in this boarding house and
six in another house using milk bought
from Mrs. G. A.
Mrs. K. K. gave a history of a seven
weeks fever in 1894. She kept seven
cows and sold milk, butter and cheese
to the neighbors. Three neighbors who
ate at the K. K. house had typhoid—
one in 1900, one in 1901 and one in 1902.
In 1904 a visitor developed the disease.
In 1908 an employe died of it. In 1912
and 1913 employes had it. In 1914 three
neighbors, customers of Mrs. K. K„
had typhoid. In the same year four
persons cjuight the disease through eat
ing cheese made by'Mrs. K. K. In 1915
she infected a boy.
These are illustrative cases from a
collection of 69 carriers discovered by
Dr. Chesley and his associates in three
The reason these Minnesota authori
ties have discovered more carriers than
have others is because they have inves
tigated more closely.
When a person is discovered to be a
typhoid carrier he should not be al
lowed to have anything to do with the
preparation or sale of any food that is
eaten raw. He should not be allowed
especially to act as a cook, waiter, milk
producer, dairyman, butter or* cheese
maker. The members of his family and
his employes should be vaccinated
Clesn Out the Collar Now
From the Memphis Commercial Appeal.
What is the condition of your cellar?
Is ft Properly aired? Has the floor been
scrubbed? Has all the accumulation of
the summer months b4en removed?
This is an Important matter. Every man
Is not so fortunate in possessing a cellar,
and some have cellars that should be con-
demned by the sanitary officers.
The man who has a well ventilated eel
purposes and-serves as a splendid store
room for canned goods and preserves.
Too.niany people in the summer con
vert their cellars Into a sort of junk room
In which all manner of plunder Is hidden,
Mine worth saving some that might well
be destroyed. Few realise how this trash
accumulates until they make an Inspec
tion of their basement.
Winter will shortly be with us and it la
about time that preparations should be
made to get ready for It. More than one
*rtnter honw has been destroyed because
of Inflammable stuff stored In the base
Clean up and do not put it off any
longer. Take a look-•round and see Just
what Is necessary,
t'" "r' 'V
tremr-„,Jouh .n numbers
's well as guns, ami it Russia should
rally the enrl woiild. in my judgment,
come before this time next year: and
by the end 1 mean, not the fall of iior
lin or the passage of the lower Rhine,
but the expulsion of the Germans from
France and Belgium unci the clear and
unmistakable military decision which
will dissipate the Prussian idea of vic
tory through deadlock.
Ftom the Arkansas-Qautte.
.- The other night
Al «eat the theater *.
Wlth a low brow frijwl
14 Out of 15 Soldiers Safe'
Rojror Babson. the eminent statistician of Welleslev, ha* gathered
the* following figures from a close study of war casualties.
Fourteen men out of every lo have been safe so far. Tinder
present conditions, where man power is being saved, not more than
one in 30 is killed.
Only one man in 500 loses'a limb—a chanee no greater than.in
hazardous conditions at home.
Mr. Babson \s conclusions are based on the mortality figures of the
French army for the full three years of the.war. and attention is called
to the fact that present fighting is not resulting in anywhere near the
number of 'deaths recorded for the first two years.
''Most of the wounds sustained in the trenches." said Mr. Babson,
"are clean cut and of a nature that a few weeks in the hospital make**
the subject fit as ever. But 300,000 French soldiers have been dis
charged on account of wounds during the three years of the war.
"From fighting in the trenches most of the wounds are in the
top of the head, simply scalp wounds. Practically speaking, a wound
is either fatal or slight, with but few in between these extremes. -•.
"Of course the whole thing is horrible enough as it is. But Ayish
to tell the mothers and fathers left behind by the boys that, looking
at the matter in the light of cold reason that they are not going into
anywhere near the danger the folks at home imagine.
An Insidious Propaganda.
From the.Christian Science Monitor.
Dissemination of falsehood, carefully disguised, intended to breed
doubt, discoimigement. alarm and eventually. panic, as-these huve
been so successfully bred in Russia by German secret service
agencies, is well under way in the United States. Written into skill
fully worded articles on the progress of the war are statements intend
ed to impress the American reader with the practically impregnable
position of the central empires, the uselessness of efforts by the allies,
to break the lines on the western or eastern,fronts, the trumndons re
serves of Germany and Austria in men, munitions and money, the
impossibility of checking the submarine campaign, the certainty that
the soldiers of the Uuited States dispatched to the'war /.ones will be*
"slaughtered" by the tens of thousands, the utter hopelessness of the
attempt to bring the Teutonic powers to terms by other than diplo
amtic processes. Says one of the most recent and most daring ser-«
vants of this propaganda in the columns of a New York newspaper: T]
tout it is not through invasion that I think the United States will. .,**
suffer the most if this war is indefinitely protracted. It is through
sending 1,000,000 men a year, 1,000,000 of our splendid young Americans
every year of a war which may last from seven to 10 years, to be offered
up in bloody sacrifice to the ambition of contending nations on foreign
battlefields. Is it not better to make peace now than to look forward,'
to year after year of such national and individual sorrow and saorifloe,
to such wastage and woe, to such destruction of the best specimens of
the human race, to such irretrievable demolition of the sustaining
structure of our occidental civilisation
Here, virtually, we have high treason to the republic sugar coated
for popular consumption, well calculated to deceive the casual reader
into the belief that the writer is striving to serve the United States.
We have, elsewhere, the announcement that Germany, in the spring,,
will be ready to confront the "little American expeditionary force"
with 4,000,000 men. In another, assurance is given the American
reader, and particularly the American parent, that all the chances
are against "our brave American boys." There is always a phrase
intended to convey the impression that American interests only are
Recently American newspapers that should have known better
have been made vehicles for descriptive matter intended to present
to their readers every possible "horrifying" phase and aspect of the
war. Especial care has been taken to show that the Canadians,
always pressed to the van, have suffered "astounding" losses. There
is poison in every letter which undertakes to show that the oversea
troops are chosen to meet clangers from which the British and French
troops are preserved, yet it does not seem to be detected by usually
Perhaps the most insidious of all the work carried on along this
line is that conducted through the medium of a whispered campaign
intended to caust* distrust of the government with regard to the
management of army camps and naval stations. Almost every possi
ble form of rumor is afloat in this connection. The recruits are not
properly fed, are not properly clothed, are not properly housed, are
neglected when they need aid. are falling victims to disease by the
score. This rumor mongering, it must be understood, is practiced
systematically and skillfully. It is part of the plan to undermine
public confidence in. the government, to interfere with enlistment, to
hamper the draft, to force upon the nation a peace that would ever
Steps should and must be taken promptly and decisively to
overcome the effects of a false propaganda that is daily assuming a
more dangerous form. The United States is not Russia, nor likely to
be deceived as Russia has been but with the example of Russia before
them the authorities should lose no time in striking at the roots of con
spiracy and treachery. In these times, with such vital interests at
stake, it is the duty of the government to suspect upon reasonable
cause and to act for the general good upon reasonable suspicion.
There Are Very Few Slackers.
From the New York Times.
More significant than the fact that a few cowards here and there
are trying to escape the military draft is the stirring fact presented'
in the news columns of the Sunday Times, with statistical proof that
since April 1 more than 1,750,000 men have volunteered for service in
the army, navy and marine corps of the United States. Many of these
men were rejected by, the recruiting officers because they could not
pass the rigid physical examinations. But that was their misfortune
and the country s. Their patriotism is beyond all question. Doubt
few the failure to pass, in many cases, has impelled the men to take
better care of their bodies, to try to overcome their physical defects
so that they may be accepted for military service later on
In spite of the many rejections of volunteers, this country now
has, equipped and under arms, more than 800,000 men. This nuinber
£°.e8In®t delude the men already selected for the natiotoaf
too, that the recnutinp has been conducted in tlie most businesslike
way The martiftl spirit has not been amused by military parades and
nraaic. There haye been no reports of military.achievements,^ or mis
adventures imder the^Amenean flag to stir our young men to offer
the natioual guard, the marine'
It must be borne in mind,
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