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Utmost Efficiency Used in Crum
American Red Cross Is Aiding bling French Towns—How the in Rebuilding. By William Allen White. (Cupy isfcl 1917 by Wheeler Syndicate. Inc.) Paris—For 10 days after the British drive of October of this year persist ent reports kept coining: from French and British air men and from Belgian sources that the Germans were prepar ing to evacuate Ostend. The outward and visible signs of a German evacua tion of an enemy city are obvious to the air men. Trains of plunder begin moving out of the place long before the nuns are moved. Then fires begin to appear in the town and finally the guns and munitions pass out. The Ostend inovpinoni reported by the air men seemed to be in its first stages. It may interest Americans to know something of those first stages, l'or they are entirely German in their thoroughness. First the population is assembled in some hal lor some neigh borhood under guard. That means everyone—men, women and children, rich and poor. Then the German of ficers go ill rough tiie houses and pick out .siieh tilings as they care for—per haps pictures, jugs, objects of art, musical instruments and the life and these things are carefully packed and sent back to Germany. Then the private soldiers are sent in to loot and cloth ing. furniture, carpets and hangings are taken and sent back to Germany. Then the houses are stripped of woodwork, rough furniture and any articles that may be of use in the trenches for fuel or other comfort, and finally, as fast as. a house is stripped a chunk of dy namite is placed in the center of the building and the place is wrecked. The bigger and more beautiful the house, the more carefully and com pletely it is wrecked. Often huts of the poor escape with a mere fire, but the chateaux, the factories, the big shops, the cathedrals, the places of public in terest. about which loving civic tradi tions cluster—always they are wrecked as totally as a wise expenditure of dy namite will do its work. In some places, one looking at the ruins feels that rather more dynamite was wasted than the value of the wreck required. But such wanton waste of German powder is rare. They manage their wrecking with rare efficiency. And after a town Is wrecked, after the guns are ready to move back, the population of the place is released from the pale and is per mitted to view the ruins of its homes and shops and industries and places of public pride. The Problem of Reconstruction. Alter a town is wrecked, after the German troops withdraw and the troops of the allies move in. the problem of reconstruction begins. And one of the most important activities of the Red Cross is- the reconstruction work in Belgium and northern France. The American Red Cross in Europe has two important bureaus in its organ ization. One bureau is under M. L. Chevrillon. a Frenchman, who has spent many years in America as a mining engineer at Cripple Creek, Colo., and was with Mr. Hoover in his work in Belgium. This bureau considers only the physical difficulties—the engineer ing part of the work. The other bureau, under Dr. K. E. Hunt, devoted itself to the human part of the job. For example: When the American Red Cross decides to help in the re storation of a wrecked village a group of engineers under M. Chevrillon goes to the town and picks out four or five of its houses that may be most easily restored to human habitation—not re built as they were, but turned quickly and cheaply into abodes for human beings. Frequently the engineers find a two story house. Its slate or tiled roof is shattered lis windows and casings are gone its doors removed' its floors generally torn out. But often its walls are fairly strong, at least so far as the lower story goes. No at tention is paid to the top story, nor to the roof. But plans are made to put a temporary roof where- the first floor ceiling joins the walls. This roofing is either of corrugated iron or composi tion roofing. It furnishes shelter for the first floor. Doors, windows and a floor are put in the house, the simplest furniture is provided, and the engineer ing department turns that house and the four or five others like it in the village over to its companion bureau— the bureau of rehabilament, the human end of the work. Then it becomes the business of the bureau of rehabilament to find the original owner of the house, If he is alive. If he is alive and not In the army, he and his family are probably refugees in Paris or in England, or in some other city or village in southern or western France outside of the war zone. The Red Cross brings the family back to the partially restored house and with four or five o(h«r families, the work of rebuilding thlH community be gins. In France the villuK" Is usually an agricultural village. All tho fa mi workers within a five-mile riulluus live in the village. There nro no farm houses in France. And the first work after restoring the village is to got ready to plant crops. That means pro viding farm implements, bringing In seed, restocking the barnyard, and provisioning the family. When half a dozen families are reinstated In their homes, plans for restoring other houses are furnished and some materials also. Then other families arc located and brought back as their homes are ready and their neighbors help the new corn ers to begin life. Four Types of Villages. Of course, all the thousands of ruined French villages, towns and cities are not of the type above described. Rut they do fall Into four general types: Those evacuated by the Germans after occupation since the summer of 1914 those on the line of defensn which have been bombed to powder by the German guns (of this type Verdun la an ex ample—a ruin aa complete aa that of Pompeii, yet no German has entered the town) thoae places which have been the scene of fluctuating battle line, now held by one or the other of the opposing foes and, finally, those •Mate* not flgr from Paris from which the Qifeiu were forced after, the HUN ARMIES SURPASS IN DESTRUCTIVENESS Marne. These latter villages show fewer signs of the wreck of the war storm than others, though frequently the Germans even in their hasty retreat took time to burn and bomb and plunder as tliey hurried away. ith few exceptions the villages de stroyed in 1!)14 have been restored, at least partially. But back of these vil lages are hundreds of desolate towns. Some are mere heaps of ruins. Restora tion will be a waste of time and energy. l.Jut hundreds of villages may be re built. And the urgent need for the restoration of these villages—the need that has put the American Tied Cross into the work with energy—is the fact Belgium and France, are living abnor mal lives iu other people's homes, un able to find work, and they are rapidly becoming used to the life of refugees. Aside from the economic burden tliey have become, they have created a seri ous social problem, and with their fathers and brothers and husbands in the war. the whole unnatural situa tion demands a wholesome change. The dozen villages which the Ameri tliat the former inhabitants of these villages, nearly 2.000,000 people, from can Red Cross is trying to restore to be used as models of reconstruction methods, and the hundred other villages to whose reconstruction the American I ted Cross is furnishing substantial aid. will hardlv touch this miserable social and economic problem in France cre ated by the refugees. For mostly the villages under construction are rural villages, and a considerable portion of the refugees are from industrial cities and towns. And most of these indus trial refugees are in Paris. Ho the American Red Cross has a bureau of refugees and home relief in Paris under the management or .Miss Margaret Curtis. Here is one of her daily problems: She found in a school building in a suburb of Paris 110 refu gee families, not 110 people, but over 000. The French cared for these fam ilies last winter and cared for them well but this year French funds arc running low. It has become an Amer ican Red Cross problem. Gradually the refugees were moved from the school house and quartered in other places, some in the homes of other French peo ple some in little apartments, and the sick in hospitals. It took money— American monev and American organ izing talent—and it will take more, or during the winter these families will have to be clad, fed, housed and warmed. Their men folk are either sol diers^ or are dead in soldiers' graves, and in either case America's debt to the refugees is plain. Yet the Red ross the only American organiza tion which has the scope to handle that debt. And if it is not paid—if the men A- starving, shivering and lighting, find that their families are starving, shivering and dying—how long will those soldiers fight—and how well? And if these French soldiers weaken if they do not fight well, what of our million American boys who are to fight in France next spring? Their work will be that much harder and bloodier. So in Paris the bureau of home relief for the refuges In Jaris is a most im portant outpost on the American mili tary situation. No brigadier general in the American headquarters in France has a more important work mapped out for him than has Miss Margraret Cur tis. Her bureau Is establishing con fidential relations with all the relief agencies of Paris and a splendid co ordination of all the relief work in Paris is being accomplished to prevent dupli cation. Food has been bought whole sale by the Red Cross and the American army and distributed systematically: fuel also has been handled the same way. Clothing from America will be distributed under this bureau, and housing conditions will be improved. Visiting nurses wearing American Red Cross uniforms are visiting the sick teaching mothers the care of children and taking those who have Infectious diseases t'i hospitals provided for them The hostels for the broken and infirm, establishing through the efforts of Mrs. ICdith Wharton, have been taken over by the American Red Cross and in those hostels hundreds of underfed, poorly housed, ill-clad and battered' creatures are being rebuilt and turned into effective, self-supporting citizens. Tact in Helping the French.* Tt Is a big job. And in doing tne work, tact is needed rather before money and brains. For the moment the Frenchman feels that the smart Americans are coming over there to show France how to do it—we don't do it. Or the moment France gets an idea that she is the beneficiary of the rich Americans—she puts up the bars. France has her pride. She will not ac cept help as a fool, nor aid as a pauper. But she will accept the hand of a friend and It must be always as a friend that America comes to France in the hour of need. The American Red Cross understands the situation. It is not going about France poking its Yankee nose into the benevolent activi ties of the French and gasping "how shiftless" like a "Miss Ophelia" at un American conditions disclosed. The French run their bcnevolences one way the French way. We have expressed our emotions of fraternal aspiration quite another way. We have our as sociated charities, and we have or ganized down to the gnat's heel, every benevolent energy, just as we organize commercial and educational and religi ous energies or political machines. And we lose a certain individual hu man expression in our super-organiza tion and individualism which the French like. They know all iibout or ganization—American organization if you will, but they knowing about it, prefer their own way of developing their own genius, their own kind ol life. And It is to the credit of tho Amer ican Red Cross that it is working with the French on French conditions hi France, as the French tradition guides the work. For after all. that is what we allies are fighting for. The fight of each people to live its life in its own way. The chief quarrel civilization lias with Germany is in Germany's de termination through the destruction of other civilizations to Impose the Teu tonic civilisation on the world by force to put "Germany over all" by whatever cruelty, whatever barbarism. what ver moral turpitude the job re quire! substituting the conscience of mllltat necessity for the civic con science of Christendom In the process of conquest. America, even a little, is not making the German mistake in her neighborly relations with France. She is doing her neighborly service of neighborly benevolence in as nearly the French way as the American Red Cross can do It. ^Thus in rebuilding the wrecked I French villages vve are not making American villages, but we are restoring 1 French villages. If they don't care for sewers, modern plumbing, electric lights .and a telephone in every house if they prefer to keep the stable next to the dining room and the manure pile by the front window, that's the affair of the French people. And if in the care of tho refugees, the French desire to have une society supply coal, another shoes, another pocket handkerchiefs,. another macaroni and a dozen other) societies supply each of a dozen other things-—that's the French wax-. It's a I way that working through other human' energies has made a brave, competent and lovable people. So Americans' .neighboring with these people in God's, work in war and peace, will work their wa.v to get the results which thev desire. Horse a War Factor. l'roni the Xalionnl Hum-on- lii-vl.-w There are 4,500,000 horses engaged in this war. On the western front the losses have averaged 47.ami horses a .mouth, in eight hours' fighting along a three-mile front at Verdun the 1 French lost. 5,011 horses. •More than 1,500,000 uf America's horses have been purchased for serv ice with the allies. In the first seven months of 1917 the value of horses shipped to Europe from American ports was $25,327,333. For the mouth of .lulv alone the value was $1,377.'JUL'. Wast age of horses means an enormous money loss, which mere money cannot now replace. Thirty-three thousand horses have died in America while awaiting shipment and tl.omi have died at sea in course of transit. In nine weeks the British captured 832 German field and lie lost avy guns am! none. The Gorman losses ar« I partly due to lack of horses. I America, with an armv of l\300.0011 .men, will require 750,000 horses to be gin with, and shipload after shiploaf, to keep the force up to the strength The total need will exceed 1,000,000 a year under fighting conditions, and may even be vastly greater. War and ^Whiskers. From tlie Columbus Disputi-li. Just what style of whiskers the pres ent war is going to develop remains to be seen, but it is certain that some style will come out of it. It alwavs has happened. The most conspicuous instance Is that of the long mustache. In the Cri mean war the cavalrymen began allow ing their mustaches to grow to great length. The infantrymen were forbid den to wear any kind of mustache: they were required to shave the upper I lip. The cavalry performed many dar ing feats and the civilian is always quick to adopt something to cause peo pie to believe him daring. So civilians began growing long mustaches so they I would be taken for hussars. There is no distinguishing style of wearing the beard or mustache at this time. That is, no branch of the service has adopted any particular style. It may be that later on the short, stubby mus tache will come to be worn by the ar tillery, or the eyebrow effect by the aviation corps, or the goatee by the commissioned officers of any arm of the service. Then, whatever arm of the I service becomes most popular, the civil ian will imitate it by wearing the style of whiskers worn by the members of I that particular arm of the national de« fense. The Pig Puts One Over. From the I'lilrasu News. Moses, the great law giver and sani tarian. regarded swine as unclean and, without naming any names, excluded them from the table of his followers by the edict against using as food any animal that divides the hoof yet does not chew the cud not chew the cud. by progressive civilization, this Mosaic pronouncement seemed to prey on the pig's mind and through the annals of history there have been rumors and traditions of an aspiring pig that did not part the hoof. Aristotle mentions such a pig in a vague way and Gold smith specificallv teils of a Swedish breed of hogs that ol not the cloven hoof. But Aristotle did not insist that he knew what he was writing about and Goldsmith was notoriously inac curate as a historian, so the'matter was not followed up. Now, however, the ingenious Ameri can breeders have developed a distinct type of "mule footed'' swine and these interesting animals have captured sev eral prizes at hog shows and country fairs in Ohio and other parts of the country. XoboU.v seems to know where the type originated, but that it is here is indubitable. And it is rapidly increas ing in numbers and influence. Pork is high enough, heaven knows, so that any increase in the demand for it Is to be deprecated, but It will be interesting to learn whether the mule footed pig is going to remain under the Mosaic ban. Very likely it wiU be con tended that the pig is seeking to es cape on a mere technicality the age-old opprobrium which has been his portion. Greyhounds Fastest Creatures. |K I From the Springltcl'l Republican. Comparatively few people realize of what remarkable speed dogs are capa ble. The wolf can run between 50 and 60 miles in one night, and the Arctic fox can do quite as well, if not better. Nansen met one of these foxes on the ice at a point more than "0 miles north west of the Sannikow territory, which is 480 miles from the Asiatic coast. Eskimo and Siberian dogs can travel 45 miles on the ice in five hours, and there is one case on record in which a team of Eskimo dogs traveled six and one-half miles in 28 minutes. English setters and pointers hunt at the rate of 18 to 19 miles an hour, and they can maintain the speed for at least two hours. Foxhounds are extraordi narily swift, as is proved by the fact that a dog of this breed once beat a thoroughbred horse, covering four miles in six and one-half minutes. Greyhounds are the swiftest of all four-footed creatures, and their speed may be regarded as equal to that of carrier pigeons. English greyhounds which are carefully selected and which are used for coursing are able to cover at full gallop a space between 18 and 23 yards every second. It is said that a hare at its greatest speed never goes faster than at the rate of 18 yards a second. These inter esting statistics fully prove the tight of the greyhound to rank as the sTlftest of the quadrupeds. ::. I I do not suppose that there ara very many people in tills country who know what a large number of Americans have been fighting the Germans in France ever since the war began. You will before long have a very big and 1 am sure from what I have seen of them a very formidable force In the field. Hut y..u have had for three years and three months past a number of brave atxl adventurous young Americans putting their backs into tin war alongside of the British and the French. That is how I am able to de scribe a visit to American troops on the French front, although you have not as yet oflicially taken your places oil that front with the armies that you have raised for the crushing of the Prussian attempt at world domination. In September, 1914. The first time I came across Americans at the war was In September. 1914, only about a month after it had begun. Dur ing the battle of tho Marne I was billeted in a village where there were a number of dispatch riders belonging to the British army. 1 was a good deal surprised to find that among them were many from the lulled States. On their motorcycles they were doing excellent work and thor oughly enjoying It. Before this, in the very first days of the war. there had been numerous enlist ments of Americans in the French foreign legion, it seemed us if every American young man living, or even staying as a visitor, in Paris, felt that he must be "In It." These also were rapidly turned Into good soldiers. The French have testi fied over and over again to their pluck fttid endurance and other valuable fight ing iiualltles. The Flying Service. There were, and still are. many Ameri cans In the French and British flying services. American boys make very good airmen. They have cool heads and bold spirits. They very often know something about machinery, and readily pick up that technical knowledge of engines which Is so useful to the driver of an airplane. I am glad to say that hundreds of American airmen are now being trained by British officers, with many Canadians among them, at the great aviation camps In the province of Ontario, Canada, in a week or two these camps are to be moved to Texas, where flying is possible .luting the winter on account of the milder climate and the comparative absence of wind. There Is no doubt that this close association of Americans and British fly ing men will have a good and lasting effect. Fought Over London. I heard a young American pilot who has served with the British army describe in N'ew York the other day how he took part repelling an air raid on l.ondon. He brought down one of the enemy ma chines with great skill and then, unfor tunately. had the bad luck to be hit. Tl« managed to get to ground without further mishap, but was in a hospital for sotne time, ainl finally had to be Invalided home. He is only one of many to whom the British nation Is gralefui for their services, given voluntarily and always with courageous devotion. Some few months ago 1 had the very interesting experience of vl.,itlng a Cana dian regiment in which some hundreds of Americans were serving. I paid tills visit by request of Sir Douglas Huig, who has a high opinion of these American soldiers, 'j'hey were coming out of the trenches one afternoon, after being in them for two horrible, muddy, dangerous weeks. I met them near the village where they were to be in rest billets for a short time. They came down a hillside through a wood of tall pine trees, ome down with long steps and cheerful calls to one another, •is if tliey had been having the easiest, happiest time in the world. Obviously Americans. It was easy to see what continent they runic from. Tall they weie. and spare of figure, with long, serious Jaws and far seeing blue grey eves. Release from the cramped positions ami the tension Americans Fighting in France. Lord Northcliffe in the Chicago Tribune. of trenches, where there was water two feet deep. and where the shelling was almost continuous, mado them like schoolboys freed from their tasks. Tliey were env red with mud. Some of them had their heads In one march on the Mexican border in which 17,000 men participated 21.5 per cent of those who fell out and had to be transported in ambulances or wag ons failed because of poor feet. In another march participated in by 11.000 the percentage was 58.39. ('i a study of the feet of 30,309 soldiers it Wbs found that 21,586 had corns, 18.1T*/ had toes that were jammed or crowded together, 1.481 had bunions, 2.145 lutd overriding toes, 8,751 had pinching in of the big toe with enlargement of the bones at tin.- base joint, 8,(544 had in growing toenails, 1.204 had hammer toes, 5,227 had eollosities, and 18,463 had good feet. It is to be remembered that the re cruiting examiner throws out applicants with very bad feet, An equal number of civilians would have made a much worse showing. Of these rriore than 30,000 men only r.,417 were wearing shoes which fitted them, 6,'j0ti were wearing shoes that were one-half size too small. 14.4S2 had shoes that were one size or more too small, 3,511 had shoes that were loo large. The army shoo js very much the best shoe made. It was devised after a most careful study of the human foot in ac tion made by the best men in the army. It Is right in every way insofar as any shoe is right. The soldier is not only supplied with these shoes but he is in structed in shoeB and the care of his feet. If so large a proportion of soldiers wear shoes' that do not fit, we can be Certain that very few civilians wear properly fitting -shoes. Especially is this true of adolescent boys and girls, and practioallv all of the ruining of feet la done in the years of adolescence. Af ter that the poor cripples hobble the An axiom frequently attributed to Napoleon was to the effect that un armv traveled on its stomach. Surgeon I Jones, of the t'nited States army, ways that, while that statement was true in olden times, it is not true now. Armies travel now upon their feet, be savs. in olden times the limitation of an army lay iu its difficulty in getting a food supply. Now the machinery for provi sioning an army is so well organized: that the commanding general is not I stopped by the limitations of his food supply. But he knows that he cannot crowd Ids men too far, else their feet will give out. NEED FOR GOOD FITTING SHOES. or arms bandaged. But tliey were all lithe and active, and when they were paraded for Inspection before being dis missed to the cottages and barns where they were to find quarters, they had a kind of smartness, In spite of their fatigue, in spite of their muddy appearance, which impressed me a« a characteristic decidedly suggestive of the American continent. Were Chewing Gum. noticed, by the way, a number of jaws working, and I heard afterward that the habit of chewing gum had been Introduced among British and French soldiers by their American and Canadian comrades. The army doctors are Inclined to think that it is quite a useful Innovation. They say that chewing gum has a soothing ef fect and anything which can quiet the nerves of mun who are under tho flro of trench mortar and mine throwers, called familiarly "Minnies" from the German word "mlnenwerfer,' l« certainly of value. Those who are sending parcels to the soldiers of the American expeditionary forco in France should certainly Include packets of this sweetmeat. Another thing which should always lie put 111 Is a lioini* newspaper. 1 mean a local newspaper, which gives the Intimate details for which the boys at the front long so pathetically when they are far away from home. They like to see what their friend* are doing. They like to read about "church socials." They like to know that Miss Smith poured tea for Mrs. Brown. The troops at the front always have plenty of the world's great news papers to tell them what is going oil, but the local home journal Is a gift for which they are always very grateful. Whst They Said. I saw those American soldiers having a feast on some rather special occasion and talked with many of them. They all assured me that they were very glad to be taking part In putting an end to the horrible organised savagery of the Prus sian and that they were well looked after. They said they could not understand why Uiere was at that time so much peace talk in the United States. They called the Germans "eiantheads," and said, "if our people at home only knew what they are doing to Frenoii and Belgian women and children, they cer tainly would agreed that the war can't stop until the Prussians are down and out." They told me with glee how, when the Germans put our boards In front of their trenches with "Why not have a peace talk" chalked on them, the only re ply they got was a tremendous bombard ment which cured them of that particu lar trick most effectively. About German Propaganda. Another trick in which the CJermana indulged with special reference to the Americans then fighting against them was to spread the report that the allies had hired them to fight. The hire which thejr received amounted to J1.25 a day. That may have seemed a very large sum to the German mind. The wages paid In Germany were notoriously small. But tho men with whom 1 talked In that pine forest and in the village close by were certainly not the kind of men who could be attracted by $1.25 a day Into giv ing up their usual occupations. Thoro were business men among them, real state men, lumber men, university grad uates, engineers. That silly Germany story wa.s, like so many of their Inept attempts at propaganda, a boomerang which re turned to hurt those who launched It. A Third Lesson. Now the German propaganda talk makes light of the American armies which are in training for the task of helping to elid the war. There is a stern warning in holy Scripture against the folly of underesti mating your enemy's strength. The Ger mans have already had two lessons which ought to have proved to them the wisdom of the biblical adage. They said at the beginning, as they had said for years be fore the war, that the French were a worn out nation and could not stand up iu battle against them. They called the British armv "contemptible." Let the American people remember these taunts. That which the Germans are flinging in their Indolence at the American armies will, I know, be dis proved In the same crushing and signifi cant way. through life paying the penalty of their youthful folly. To properly fit a shoe the soldier stands on a scale which measures the length from heel to toe 2 is added to tire measurement on the scale. Then a tape line is used to measure the circum ference around the ball of the foot. Then the shoe is tried on. It must bo comfortable when the soldier stands with forty pounds of weight on hlH shoulder.- The end of the great toe must not be less than two-thirds of an inch from the end of the shoe. The ball of the foot must not spread out broader than the sole when the weight is carried on the front of the foot and at the same time the shoe must not be too lose. If there are bunions, callosi ties, or corns, a shoe stretcher with adjustable knobs must be used to fit the shoe to the foot. Dr. Johnson's Views on "Womin." From Boswell's "Johnson." Mrs. Knowles affected to complain that men had much more liberty allowed them than women. Johnson—Why. Madam, women have all the liberty they should wish to have. We liave all the labor and the danger. and the women all the advantage. We go to s.^a, we build houses, we do everything, in short, to pay our court to the women. Mrs. Knowles—The doctor reasons very wittily, but not convincingly. Now, take the instance of building: the mason's wife, if she is ever seen in liquor. Is ruined tho mason may get himself drunk ns often ay he pleases, with little loss of character iiuv. may let his wlf« and children starve. •Ichnson—Madarn, *ou must consider, if ilie mason doe.. get himself drunk, and let his wife and children starve, the parish will oblige him to find security for their maintenance. We have different modes •if rc-strainim evil. Stocks for the men. a ducking stool for women, and a pjund for lxasts. If we require more perfection from women than from our selves, it Is doing them honor. And women have not the same temptations that we have they may always liVe in virtuous company men must mix in the world Indiscriminate ly. If a woman has no Inclination to do what is wrong, being secured from It Is no restraint to her. Mrs. Knowles—Still, Doctor. I cannot help thinking It a hardship trmt more In dulgence is allowed to men than to women. It gives a superiority to men to which do not see how they are entlttai. Johnson—It is plain. Madam, one or other must have, the superiority. As Shakespeare says: "If two men tide en a horse, one must ride behind."