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From the Philadelphia Public Ledger.
This nation is thoroughly patriotic and full of wln-the-war determination down to the last Boy Scout. There is nothing we will not do or endure or pay to make the tragic sacrifice of our splendid men at-aTOs tell to the last cartridge. We are not counting our troubles and depriva tions over here when over there they make light of ghastly wounds and face death daily with the fine, bright eyed courage of (he free born. But, in spite of thfe war we, after all, remain Americans. It is nationally Impos sible for us to stop thinking. There are questions the best of us will put. And there is nothing more dangerous to our complete brotherly cooperation in the Breset task of shattering forever the Ger man sword than to ignore a familiar series of insistent questions that are forced to the lips of every housewife, however loyal, and every purchaser of the necessities of life, however ardent his belief in the allied cause. We Americans will fight to a finish and we will fight with an intelligence and fixity of purpose which few of the bellig erent nations can possibly equal—If we are permitted to give our Intelligence free play and arc not asked to endure in the dark buffetings whose cause we cannot conceive. To come right down to brass tacks, there is one big, pressing and persistent question which every man and every woman—especially every woman—whose •duty it is to make frequent purchases of the necessities of life is constantly ask ing, and that question is: "Why is it that our various war authori ties, who' intervene dictatorially—and rightly so—in almost every other activity of life, cannot protect the domestic pur chaser from what seems systematic extor tion?" We regulate very nearly everything in this country now, save and except the most important thing of all—the cost of our living expenses. It may be econom ically Impossible to regulate that. The humble housewife who goes forth to buy the family dinner and finds that every mortal item on her list has gone up since last week is quite willing to be shown that the government can regulate what the, coal man can charge for coal, what the munition maker can charge for shells, what the farmer can charge for wheat, what the railway can charge for trans portation, who shall get steel, when we shall eat beef, what we shall eat in place of wheat, and a thousand other delicate points In our daily life, but cannot regulate what the grocer shall charge her for butter and eggs, or what the butcher shall ask for lamb, or how much the fishmonger shall get for fish. She is not only willing—she asks nothing so vehem ently as that she shall be shown. When the gocd word comes that we have met the demand for meat and that we can now eat it again, does the price of fish fall? Not BO you'd notice. One* a price gets up It seems utterly unable to climb down again. It goes up joyously like a skyrocket, but it makes It danger ously dizzy even to look down. We are going to have a fine opportunity now to judge the exact relation in these cases between supply and demand. Hoover has sent over the happy word 'that we need no longer deny ourselves wheat. While we were saving wheat to feed Europe—and we did It magnificently and effectively—the price for what little we were permitted to buy aviated, and the portions of wheat products served in the hotel's and restaurants approached the vanishing point. Bread became a luxury. Will bread now become cheap? Will the cost of wheat products go back to the old figures? Will the portions served return to the good old wholesome sizes? The housewife will believe it when she sees-it. Naturally the housewife asks questions. The housewife is the purchasing agent of tho home. Men make money come, but women make it go—and they are com pelled to make it go a very, very long way these days. The housewife wants to know: Why prices always go up and never come down. Why. when the government commands her to cat certain foods, it does not take any visible steps to prevent the venders of these funds from making them so dear that she simply cannot buy them. Why foods which are not put on the war index seem mysteriously to become as scarce and costly as those which are. Why the. substitues she is compelled to take in order to get a small allotment of what she really wants go up In price like an American aviator trying to get above a Hun raider when we are not shipping a pound of them to Europe and ane presumably producing at least as much as ever. Why the prices of articles already manu factured and in stock go up, though the merchant would have sold them gladly at the old price if they had not been "men tioned" in some way in a government order. Why the government cannot prevent this when they know they are about to Issue an explosive order. Why the government can regulate the things that tho government buys but not the things that tho unknown housewife buys. Why the government can regulate the prices and the distribution of some things but not of others—apparently not the very things she, the noneconomlc, the nonproflteerlng. the unorganised house wife wants to buy. It will be good tactics to answer before we start another Liberty loan campaign. For not a few people are .feeling that their incomes are first taxed and then mort gaged for Liberty loans, but that the residue on which they must live Is not protected from the profiteer, petty as well as prodigious, who pilfers the lean house keeping purse of 10,000,000 hardworking families. Punishment. From the People's Home Journal. Crawford—Your wife must be senti mental to have kept the old love letter* you wrote her before marriage. Crabshaw—That Isn't the reason. She reads them to me whenever she geu angry. The railroad station and entrance to Chateau-Thierry on the Marne river has been the scene ot violent fighting on the part of the allies to hold It against the Hun hordes. Chateau Thierry is at the southern end of the great counter offensive launched July 18. It is believed that one result of the counter blow will be to decrease the danger of its capture by a possible terrific thrust by the Germans. The fact that It Is a railroad center makes a valuable military point. v- -v«. /-. ••••. f' 1 S .'"'v. VANISHED POTASH SCARE. From the Baltimore American. For nearly four years now the United States has been getting 4 along without German potash, and blue ruin hasn't yet struck the 4 country. It is in the prospect that, taken all around, this year 1918 will exceed the previous high score year in the matter of food production, and this without a pound of Ger ttian agricultural potash. It is now practically assured that the winter wheat crop of the United States will be near to 50,000,000 bushels larger than any previous one-year yield of winter wheat. 4 The hay crop is likely to be a 4 record breaker, and a score of other 4 standard food crops are up to or 4 beyond the average. As to the 4 missing German potash, the United 4 States during the l4st 12 months 4 has produced a home supply proba- 4 bly more than 10 times as great as 4 the home yield of this farm chem- 4 ical in 1914. The home supply has 4 come from more than 1,000 different 4 sources, a little here, a good deal 4 more there, and upon the whole 4 about as much as the farm Indus- 4 tries have needed. 4 The cement mills have supplied 4 great quantities of agricultural pot- 4 ash as a byproduct. The hunt for 4 potash continues, and it is a hunt 4 that seems to be making many 4 finds. There seems to be no cause 4 for alarm about the future potash 4 supply of the United States. is.', 4 Baedeker Passes. From the New York Times. War, which is no respector of persons, ts ruthless also with reputations and in stitutons. The latest stronghold of Ger man efficiency and thoroughness to be attacked by French and English forces Is the Baedeker handbooks, better known to their numberless users simply as tiaedeker. The Baedeker guides were more than books, and the men who made them were, to most persons, more than a business group of individuals. Both the Baedeker house and the Baedeker hand books were alike institutions. The one, to the popular imagination, appeared as an Immense organization of eagle eyed ex perts ceaselessly on the move secretly present on every railway or mountain path stopping, in some mysterious fashion, at every hotel and dining at ev ery restaurant: and discovering, by some curious intuition, everything that the or dinary traveler should know or avoid. The other, to the same public, stood as a kind of totality of perfection by which men swear a book unfailingly accurate, Impartial In its judgments, complete as to everything that a reasonable person should wish to know. To travel with a Baedeker was to know, absolutely, that whatever was said to exist In this place or that would certainly be found if one fol lowed directions. To find an error any where between the red covet* was an ex jierience as rare as discovering some rank weed in an English college close. So, in time, Baedeker became an insti tution only vaguely German, rather a part of the eternal order of things. And, for a time, it seemed as though the insti tution would survive the war. Not until the war was more than three years old did the Baedeker guides begin to disap pear from the bookshops in London and Paris, or from hotel newsstalls in Canada. The enemy is the Blue Guides, a new seriels to be published In England. 4 -Financial Comparisons. From the New York Times. At the beginning of the fifth year of tho world war the British chancellor ol the exchequer asks for his greatest vote of credit. Simultaneously the war cabinet announces through Lord C*rzon that Eng land has recruited 7,000,000 fighting men, of whom 5,000,000 now are in the trenches. This is the greatest effort made by any of the allies in either men or money. It sur passes Germany's demonstration of force by the fact that it is all done from British resources, under the handicap of lack of preparation. In order to appreciate England's effort and burden its suffices to compare it with our own, remembering that we surpass England in both wealth and population. Our war expenses are running about one half above England's, but our war debt is about one-third of England's and our individual burden of taxation is about one-half. The total of England's war credits exceeds M0,000,000,000, and is about the same as her national debt, which dur ing the war has increased twelvefold. At the end of July our advances to allies totaled $6,492,000,000, and nobody thought them niggardly. But England's advances to allies have been $7,000,000,000, or, includ ing colonies, $8,000,000,000. The merit of this effort is increased by the fact that Englishmen know what they are doing. There Is no deceit about British finances, such as is luring Germans into 9, bottom less abyss of bankruptcy. England is paying all debt charges out of current taxation, the yearly taxation having risen from about $1,000,000,000 a year to over $3,000,000,000. If we paid the British taxes we should pay $8,000,000,000, abou': what we are expecting to pay next year. The Dangdest Time O'Day. 'Pears to me like chore time Is the dangdest time o'day For an old fellow to get lonesome Why, I'm right ashamed—but say When the long day's work is over An' you bring the horses in, An* they stomp and nose the feed box As you slam the old oats bin ,, When old Bossy is a-lowln' By the timber pasture gate. An' the dratted pigs Is raising Ned, 'Cause their feed's a little late When I have fed and watered Nellie And her colt put safe away. Then I miss my boy a-whistlln' While he's throwing down the hay. Mother comes In from the kitchen, Supper dishes put away, Then she stands and picks her apron And her eyes they seem to say, "Hiram, don't you miss our Johnny?" (Now she knows well I do) But don't catch me a-lettin' on It makes mother feel so blue. Miss him? Well, you bet I miss him! Miss his orneryness and fun, Miss his towsle* head o" mornln's, Miss him In the noonday sun. But I miss him most at chore time. That's the dangdest time o'day. For I miss my boy a'whlstlln' While he's throwing down the hay. —J. E. Christian, In Clarion Leader, A Diplomat. From the Washington Star. "What is your objection to children?" asked the man who was hunting a flat. "I like 'em,' replied the janitor. "I haven't the heart to ask anybody with children to move Into a place that was as short of heat as this was last winter." THE FRENCH FIRESIDE. Frances Toplits, in New York Times. The French love their "foyers," their own fireside, and the solidarity and separateness of their family life. They have not the boarding house or hotel habit as wo have in America, and gre garlousness does not suit their temper ament. The very enterprising do not wait for the officials to find separate lodgings for them. They usually do It themselves. For the others, the less energetic. It is a matter of weeks some times before they can be satisfactorily placed. With a proper regard for the training of the people, tho French offi cial does try not to send a weaver to an agricultural center and a farmer to a factory town. But mistakes do happen. •"The French government has planned well for its now.shifting population. A daily allowance is made according to age rent is paid, or, rather, provision is made for rent whenever families de cide to lodge separately. That the fine program of the government is not al ways carried out my be due to the enormous volume of work—this placing of whole cities of people at one time and at short notice. Where the task is too big for the local authorities, the Red Cross steps In, and together the responsibilities are carried. There is a fine spirit of co-operation. With the Red Cross worker's understanding that sho Is not there to show the French people what they should do, but to help them carry out the work they have planned, rehabilitation of families can be made to count It is a tremendous rush and hurry all the time. Things must be done quick ly, one must think on one's feet. Get ting materials, furniture, stoves, kitch en utensils, is a problem in some things the country has been scraped to the bone. It keeps the purchasing bureau on the hop. Here are thousands of people with nothing but the clothes they are standing in. And eventually they are to go back to their homes— homes denuded—yes, and in many In stances Wized to the ground. The few things they can take back with them will be their beginning. Give a Frencnwoihan a bed, a "mar mite," and a stove, and she can makf home. It is one of the gratifying things after a day's work to step into one of these little improvised homes of a "repat," as we, in our American hurry, have abbreviated them, and see a reconstructed family. It may only be a bed, a table, some chairs, a stove, and a "marmite," but we know that in their hearts they feel that it Is bettor than the "cantonement," and the woman, industrious from habit, bustles about as if she had a com plex household to take care of. You may drop into a home at al most any time and the "marmite" is on the stove. A thick soup with some bread broken into it, and they have a meal. It Is well not to question what goes into that soup but when it is ready to be served it is very savory and palatable. I can only recall one instance where there was that lack of provident planning, so apparent in many of our American households, where the "delicatessen" store is the first aid, and there the woman apol ogized for having eggs, butter, red wine, and bottled witter-for her lunch eon. Eggs and butter are almost pro hibitive as to price, and one wondered how she ever did it on the allocation money—1 franc 50 centimes (30 cents) a day for adults, and 1 franc (20 cents) for each child—plus the 40 centimes an hour she earned for cleaning—8 cents an hour. War bread, loaves fully a yard long, or in rings no less than two feet in diameter, or in solid round loaves of similar dimensions, is ever present. It is never wrapped in paper. Everybody walks along the street with his loaf of bread under his arm, and all the san itary measures we take to have our bread wrapped and sealed, or handled with gloved hands only, would prob ably be scoffed at. Tlie war bread is not very good, but we may judgo from the size of the loaves tha't it is not un popular. One does not feel anv short age of food here, except, perhaps, sugar and chocolate. I have not tho least doubt thero are many "speak easy" places in town where these can be had. FAMOUS OLD LAKE BOATS BEING REBUILT Detroit, Mich.—The splendid work manship of shipbuilders of half a cen tury ago today is making possible re construction of craft of those days. One of these vessels, known 50 years ago as the passenger steamer Meteor, is being rebuilt into a coal carrier. It was the Meteor that in 1865 rammed the steamer Pewabic off Thunder Bay, Lake Huron, and sank it with heavy loss of life. The Meteor continued in the passen ger service until 1872 when it was seriously damaged by fire and found ered in River Rouge. It remained there an abandoned hulk for many years, finally being raised and used to carry coal for the Detroit water works. When reconstructed the Meteor will carry coal between Detroit and Toledo and be renamed the Nelson Bloom. Anpther old vessel that the demand for tonnage will bring to life again is the steamer Italia, S07 feet long. The Italia floundered in a storm a number of years ago. It was raised and towed to a Detroit river shipyard. Later it was swept by fire, and has since been the subject of litigation. Reconstruc tion work will be started as soon as title to the hull is cleared up. There are several other similar cases Involving vessels regarded as worth re building, despite the fact that they took their initial plunge into the water many decades ago. The different colored hat cords show what branch of service each private has entered. Light blue signifies in fantry. scarlet artillery yellow, cav alry buff, quartermaster corps soar let and white, engineer CO.-JJS orange and white, signal corps scarlet and black, ordnance black and white, field clerk maroon, medical corps black and gold, officers silver and black, ad jutant general's clerk green, ins true tor home guards green and white, home guards. These cords are worn •nly on service hats. Cadet aviators wear as hat bands Inch and a half white ribbons and on coat collars in signia representing the aviation branch of the signal corps, propeller blades. t. it t*?" .. ym\ BOLSHEVISTS JOIN WITH BOURGEOIS IN FINLAND From the Literary Digest. Finland is now free from the hated rule of Russia, and almost at perfect liberty to chose between accepting a king named by Berlin or German minister resident who will tell their government what to do. Berlin has not yet decided which the Finns shall se lect. Meantime, they are in another dilemma. It will be recalled that the Germans entered Finland in support of the White guards, the anti-Russian section of the Finnish population which was engaged in civil war with the Red guard, or radical element, which was pro-Russian. The result has been a decisive victory for the White guard, which represents the bourgeois ele ment. Now that the bolshevists are heart and soul with the Germans, wo have this comic-opera situation. As one editor puts it, "The bolshevist ele ment in Russia is capable of strange logic, but it would seem a very re markable partnership for the bolshevist Russian to join hands with the bour geois Finn to help the autocratic Ger man beat the democratic allies." But this is just exactly what has happened on the Murman coast, where the Rus sians and Finns are engaged in occas ional conflicts with the American, Brit ish and French forces stationed in that Rretic region. Touring to the po litical side of the enigma, one thing seems to be certain, and that is, that tlie Finns have bound themselves ir revocably to the Germans by a so called commercial treaty. It is from the Scandinavian papers that we learn its :erms. The Bergens Aftonabald tells us that it includes the following: "Finland shall, during 20 years, bo under the economic control of Ger many. One hundred thousand Finns are to be at the disposal of Germany should Russia recommence war. Ger many, on her part, is to invest capital in a number of Finnish industrial con cerns, preference being given to those which produce articles for export to Russia. German officers shall be fur nished as teachers in the Finnish mili tary colleges." The London Telegraph quotes a let ter from one of its correspondents in Sweden who, after describing the seri ous food shortage there, goes on to say: "With regard to the Germans, it is estimated that there are some 25,000 to 30,000 German troops in Finland, most of whom are from the Italian front. For the most part the Germans are maintaining what may be described as a correct attitude in fact, much more correct than some of the pro German Finns. So much is this the case that the people of "Finland as a whole do not understand what is the German game. "The Germans are largely leaving affairs of administration In the hands of the White or Finnish government, but, at the same time, they are pur suing a policy of commercial penetra tion which needs close watering. They have secured control of copper, zinc, lead, and other metals, leather, cotton goods, sewing cotton, and, among oth er things, 100,000 pieces of soap. Ger man soldiers in Helsingfors say that they have not seen any soap for two years. The immediate result of all this Is that the Finnish population can get nothing whatever of these articles. "For purposes of their own, which are not quite clear to the ordinary mind, the Germans are warning the Finns that one day Russia will again be a great nation, and will resent any action of Finland in annexing Russian terri tories, including Karelia, without per mission. In short, the policy of the Germans is a complete mystery to the Finns." MANY OF TORPEDOED SHIPS ARE RAISED London, (by mail.)—Not all the ships which German torpedoes and marine collisions send to the bottom of the Bea stay there. In less than three years more than 400 sunken merchant vessels have been restored to service. And more than one ship has been raised, sent forth on a new career, and then sunk and raised anew for a third lease of life. This rescue work Is done by the sal vage section of the British navy. Be fore the war no one thought of at tempting to save such wrecks as are now brought up from the depths, but ships now are priceless. The financial value of the salvage work is enormous. The cargoes salved are themselves worth many millions of dollars. Recently a big American tanker col lided on a dark night in the English Channel with a sturdy Rritish stand ard ship carrying oil. There was an explosion of benzine, and both vessels were quickly swept by flames. Of the crew of the British ship only eight men, who Jumped overboard, were saved. Salvage work on both ships began with the arrival of tugs which, after overcoming many difficulties, managed to tow them close in shore. There it was necessary to sink them by gunfire. They are now being brought to the sur face, a long, arduous task. The tanker, fine vessel some 500 feet long and newly built, had on board 16,000 tons of oil, and through she blazed for four days, half of the cargo was salved. When thoroughly repaired, the tanker will be returned to the United States, not much worse for wear, the damage being estimated at $750,000—a small amount in marine figuring in these days when persons think in millions. BATTLE SCARRED GUNS ARE GIVEN REPAIRS Manchester (by mail)—Big, battle scarred guns from Flanders are re turned here for overhauling and repair. One, it was noted, by a party of jour nalists inspecting war work in this dis trict, had been blown in two, the effect of a shell's premature explosion. The remnant of the gun had been brought here so that experts might determine what had been the shell's defect. In the early days of the war faulty shells were responsible for a large number of guns being destroyed as a result of "prematures." So much care Is now taken In the manufacture of shells that the percentage of prema tures has fallen remarkably low, the figures being only one to many hun dred thousands. By means of a new "trouble truck,'* designed for the use of automobile re pair establishments, one man may loaJ on a damaged car and convey it to tb* repair shop. FEDERAL AUTHORITIES WORKING ON THE CASE Expect to Lay Bare Socialist and Black Hand Plots In Trial of Italian Girl. Chicago.—Federal authorities expect to develop information concerning the operation of radical socialistic groups in the United States together with some of the secrets of the Italian "Black Hand" organizations and their suspected relation with German propa gandists through the trial of Gabrielle Giose. the "dynamite girl," alias BUa Antollna, alias Linda Jose, which will open here soon. The girl was arrested here in January, charged with trans porting high explosives in Interstate commerce without taking proper pre cautions specified in the federal law. The story which Miss Giose is ex pected to tell on the stand will con cern 30 pounds of high power dyna mite, enough to blow up the Chicago union station where she was arrested a negro porter, who played detective and brought about the girl's arrest the murder, apparently by conspirators of the husband of the woman who be friended her, and the tragic tale of a loveless marriage and a faithless "af finity," who officers say gave her the dynamite with instructions to bring it here. Gabrielle Giose was born in Italy but was brought to the United States while still an infant. She moved with her parents through the industrial districts, of tlie south and New England, coming finally to Youngstown, Ohio, where, at the age of 15, she was married through the offices of her parents to a man sh» did not love. Went With Affinity. Last winter she left tho factories of Youngstown when she fell In love and ran away with another man, a friend of her husband. According to the au thorities it was this man who gave her the dynamite at Steubenvllle, Ohio, and told her to bring it to Chicago. She left her lover on the Btation platform at Steubenvllle and, although she has spent months in jail since that time, no word has come from him, nor have the efforts of federal operatives to locate him been in any way successful. They believe him to be either a political fa natic or an enemy agent. It was the Pullman porter who first noticed something queer about the suit case Gabrielle carried. He had not been allowed to lift it on the train. He had noticed that the girl never left it, even for her meals. Several times he offered to move It for her, but each time she refused. Finally, he turned off the steam in the car. It was in mid-winter and when the passengers protested, he told them the heating apparatus had broken down and it would be necessary for them to go into an adjoining Pullman. They all departed except Gabrielle who stayed with her suit case until she could stand the cold no longer. Then she too left. The porter immediately locked both car doors against intruders and "Jim mied" into the suit case. When he saw what it contained he called the con ductor who ordered the valise left where it was and notified the Chicago authorities. Gabrielle was arrested as she stepped off the train here. She first attempted to kick the suit case and explode the dynamite—with certain fa tal effect as far as she, the officers and hundreds of bystanders were con cerned—and then drew a revolver in tending, she said later, to shoot the detectives and then herself. She was overpowered and taken before a United States commissioner who held her un der $25,000 bond. 1 All known devices were employed to make the girl reveal the names of her alleged accomplices but she steadfast ly refused, clinging to the belief that the man who gave her the dynamite would attempt her rescue. After sev eral months, during which no word came from her lover, she made a full statement to the authorities and her bail was reduced to $15,000. Mrs. Vln cenza de Angelo, a wealthy Italian woman, took pity on the friendless girl, signed her bond and took Gabrielle to her home to await trial. It required several weeks for news of the girl's whereabouts to filter through the underground channels of the extensive Italian colony, but one night, .is the de Angelo family and Gabrielle were returning through the rain from a nearby motion picture the atw, a man stepped out of the shadows and fired several shots at the girl. None of the bullets struck Gabrielle but one of them killed the husband of her benefactress. No clew to the iden tity of the murderer has been found, but department of justice operatives now guard the pretty defendant wher ever she goes and a guard is main tained constantly at the de Angelo home. Federal authorities have intimated that several arrests may be expected before the girls goes on the stand. ITALY THE COUNTRY OF UNLOCKED DOORS $ -JUt) Headquarters Italian Army (by mail)—"Italy ought to be called the country of unlocked doors," said P. C. Thwalts, of Milwaukee, who Is in charge of the American Red Cross work on a large section of this front "I think honesty is the chief trait of the Italians," he said. "The best proof of this general statement is that I never lock my hotel door anywhere in Italy, nor do any other Americans after they have been here a few weeks. We go away from our hotels, perhaps for days at a time, leaving our doors unlocked and all our personal belong ings at the mercy of the first comer, and yet we never dream of losing any thing, either through hotel servants or transients. "Out on the front you can leave your automobile standing anywhere you like, with your overcoats or any other be longings and be sure that nothing will be disturbed. At that there may be plenty of poor fellows about who would most gratefully accept any small present." Examination of trustworthy records has convinced scientists that there has been no appreciable change in the cli mate of northern Europe in 1.M0 y« J* *7 1 4