The duel that took place between Ger
many and the entente for Turkey's favor
was a most unequal one. Germany had
won the victory when she smuggled the
Goeben and the jBresl&u into the sea of
Marmora. The English, French, and Rus
sian ambassadors wcli understood this,
and they knew that they could not make
Turkey an active ally of the entente they
.probably had no desire to do so however,
they did hope that they could keep her
neutral. To this end they now directed
their efforts, "you have had enough of
war," they would tell Talaat and Enver,
of the Turkish government. "You have
fought three wars in the last four year*
you will ruin your country absolutely if
you get involved in this one."
On condition that Turkey should remain
neutral, they offered to guarantee the
integrity of the Ottoman empire.
Unhappily, the entente's promise to
guarantee Turkey's integrity did not win
Turkey to their side.
"They promised that we should not be
dismembered after the Balkan wars,"
Talaat would tell me, "and see what hap
pened to European Turkey then."
Wangenhelm, German ambassador, con
stantly harped upon this fact. "You can't
trust anything they say," he would tell
Talaat and Enver. "Didn't they all go
back on you a year ago?" And then, with
great cleverness, he would play upon the
only emotion which really actuates the
Turk. The descendants of Osman hardly
resemble any people I have ever known.
They do not hate, they do not love they
have no lasting animosities or affections.
They only fear. And, naturally, they at
tribute to others the motives which regu
late their own conduct. "How stupid you
are," Wangenhelm would tell Talaat and
Enver, discussing the English attitude.
"Don't you see why the English want
you to keep out? It is because they fear
you. Don't you see that, with the help
of Germany, yeu have again become a
great military power? No wonder Eng
land doesn't want to fight you!"
Public opinion, so far as public opinion
existed in Turkey, regarded England, not
Germany, as Turkey's historic friend.
Wangenhelm. therefore, had much oppo
sition to overcome and the methods
'which he took to break it down form a
classic illustration of German propaganda.
He stared a lavish publicity campaign
against England, France, and Russia.
Turkish feelings had been piqued at
losing Turkish ahlps In England (com
mandeered). Wangenhelm's agents now
filled, columns of purchased space in the
.press with bitter attacks on England for
taking over these vessels. The whole
Turkish press rapidly passed under the
control of Germany. Although the Turk
ish constitution guaranteed a free press,
a censorship was established In the Inter
'est of the central powers. All Turkish
editors were ordered to write In Ger
many's favor, and they obeyed Instruc
tions. The Jeune Turc, a pro-entente
newspapers, printed In French, was sup
pressed. The Turkish papers exaggerated
German victories and completely manu
factured others they were constantly
prlntlnc the news of entente defeats, most
of them wholly Imaginary. In the eve
ning Wangenhelm and Pallavlclnl would
show ne official telegrams giving the de
tails of. military operations but when, in
the morning, I would look In the news
papers, I would find that this news had
beta twisted In Germany's favor.
A certain Baron OppenheUn traveled all
over Turkey, manufacturing public
opinion against England and Pranee.
Ostensibly he was an archaeologist, while
.la reality he opened offices everywhere,
:from which Issued streams of slanders
against the entente. Huge maps
on. walk, showing
First Standing Army Was by Saul
From the Spokane Spokesman-Review.
The first standing army was formed by Saul, 109.} B. C.
The catapult was invented by Dionysius 399 B. C.
The sword came from ancient Egypt and was used throughout
Palestine, bj 1 ii and Asia Minor, India and throughout the western
•world. It was in Egypt that the three shapes of the sword blade
originated, these being the straight, the curved and the half curved
The Roman sword was larger than that of the Greeks and in the days
of the empire many of the sheaths were so covered with precious
stones as to be veritable art treasures. Among the Moslems the
highest title given to a warrior of renown is the sword of Allah."
The Chinese made swords of iron as early as 1879 B. C.
Bullets of stone were used in 1514, while bombs came" into
general use in .1634. Bomb vessels had their origin in France in 1681.
iFireships first appeared in the early part of the 16th centurv.
The use of cannon dates back to the year 1338. Artillery con
structed of brass first, appeared in 1635. Among the curiosities of
artillery odd invention* have a great place. Cannon have been made
of the most unlikely materials. Leather was used as early as Henry
VIII "s day. at the siege of Boulogne. The Scotch used leather guns
it1- 1640 to batter Lord Conway's fortifications at Newbourne. Artil
lery was first used in war by ihe Moors at Algeciras, Spain, in 1341.
Cannon were first used by the English, bv direction of the governor
of Calais, in 1383.
Iron bullets were first mentioned in the Foedera in 1550. Muskets
were first used in 1414, during the siege of Arras, while chain shot
was a device of a Dutch admiral, De Witt, in 1666.
The bayonet was invented in Bayonne, France, in 1670.
Pistols were first employed by'the British cavalry in 1544. The
revolving chambered breech of the pistol was patented by Colt in 1835.
Muskets supplanted the bow and arrow among the British
soldiery in 1521. Spain was the first nation to equip foot soldiers
Leaden bullets came into use shortly before the end of the 16th
The. Millie rifle was invented about 1833 by M. Minie, of Vin
oennes. The battering ram had its beginning with Arteinones, 441, B.
while the first, army arranged in a regular line of battle was that
of Palamedes, of Argas.
Palainedes is credited with devising the idea of placing sentinels
with pickets around a camp. The watchword as used by sentinels is
supposed to have been his conception also.
The most famous cavalrymen of antiquity were the Parthians.
Their invasion of Judea, 40 B. C., resulted in such terrible devastation
of the country that 100 years later the terrors of the Parthian invasion
gave the Apostle John the idea for one of his most vivid pictures.
How Germany Forced
Turkey Into the War.
Henry Morganthau, in Land and Water.
tory whtSh Turfceyhad
oeatury. Jtbssto'was portrayed
and attention was drawn
fact that England had now become
Russia's ally. Pictures were published
showing the grasping powers of the en
tente as rapacious animals, snatching
away at poor Turkey. Enver was adver
tised as the "hero" who had recovered
Adrianople Germany was pictured as
Turkey's friend the kaiser suddenly, be
came "Hadji Wllhelm," the great pro
tector of Islam stories were even printed*
that he had become a convert to Moham-'
medanism. The Turkish populace was in
formed that the Moslems of India and of
Egypt were about to revolt and throw
off their English "tyrants."
But Germany was doing more than pois
oning the Turkish mind she was appro
priating Turkey's military resources. I
have already described how, in January,
1914, the kaiser had taken over the Tur
kish army and rehabilitated it in prepara
tion for the European war. He flow pro
ceeded to do the same thing With the
Turkish navy. In August Wangenhelm
boasted to me that "'we now control both
the Turkish army and navy." At the time
the Goeben and Breslau arrived, an Eng
lish mission, headed by Admiral Llmpua,
was hard at work restoring the Turkish
navy. Soon afterwards Limpus and his
associates were unceremoniously dis
Night after night whole carloads of Ger
mans arrived at Constantinople from Ber
lin there were finally 3,800 men, most of
them sent to man the Turkish fiavy and
to manufacture ammunition. They filled:
the cafes every niglit, and they paraded
the streets of Constantinople in the small
hours of the morning, howling and sing
ing German patriotic songs. Many of
them were skilled mechanics, who im
mediately got to work repairing the de
stroyers and other ships and putting them
in shape for war. The British firms of
Armstrong and Vickers had a splendid
dock in Constantinople, which the Ger
mans appropriated. AH day and night we
could hear this work going on, and we
could hardly sleep because of the hubbub
of riveting and hammering. Wangenhelm^
now. found another opportunity for In
stlHtng more poison into the minds of
Enver and Talaat. The German workers,
he declared, had found that the Turkish,
ships were in a desperate state of dlsre-'
pair, and for this he paturally blamed'
the Rngllsh naval mission. He said that,
England had deliberately let the Turkish,
navy go to decay this was all part of
England's plot to ruin Turkey! "Look!",
he would exclaim, "see what we Germans
have done for the Turkish army, and see
what the English have done for your
ships!" As a matter of fact, all this was
untrue Admiral llmpus had worked hard
and conscientiously to improve the navy
and had accomplished excellent results.
On September 27, Sir Louis Mallet, the
British ambassador, entered my office In
a considerably disturbed state of mind.
The khedlve of Egypt had Just left and I
began to talk to Sir Louis about Egyptian
"Let's discuss that some'other time,"
he said. "I have something far more Im
portant to tell you. They have olossd
By "they" he meant, of course, not the
Turkish government, the only power
which had the legal right to take this
drastic step, but tho actual ruling powers
In Turkey, the Germans.
A Fair Exchange.
From tho Pittsburgh Chronicle-Telegraph.'
A man who had purchased seme currasg
buns at a bakery was dlslruiwd on start*
ing to eat on* to And It contained a fly.
Returning toihe bakery, ha mads, an la
dlgnaat complaint, dtmandfo* aaothsr
bun the Inhabits* oas,
"I'm sir," saM the sdlsswomsn.
"I oM't gtVs ypu another iftaa, tot if yon
wUl krlSg back the fly I wHI tsrhsUgs It,
for a currant."
BEAUTY PATCH IS
FOR SOLDIER LAD
Miss Ida Kashner, a Cleveland, Ohio,
girl, is the first to wear a beauty spot
especially designed to show that she is'
remembering a boy In France. Instead
of merely wearing the crossed rifles to|
show he is in the trenches, she has
interwoven with rifles the new V
shaped service insignia. This is Miss
Kashner's own idea, which she intro
duced in Atlanta, Ga., recently, where
she and her sister have been singing
and dancing for the soldiers.
HORSE MEAT SCHEME
HAD GREAT PROMISE
Promoters Soon to Be Placed
on Trial In Federal Court
Chicago. Otto Breitkreutz, widely
known as "Big Otto, the animal
trainer," and his business associate,
August Beneke, directors of the "horse
meat syndicate," will be placed on trial
here soon on charges of using the mails
to defraud. The men were brought
here after having: been trailed by post
office inspectors and arrested on op
posite sides of the continent.
"Horse meat at 10 cents a pound
will win the war," ttjjs the motto of the
syndicate, according to authorities,
who declare that the trial will develop
unusual interest and that men promi
nent in business and political circles
here will be called upon to testify.
Breitkreutz, formerly promoter of
the "Big Otto Mine," took as a partner
In the get-rich-quick syndicate, Frank
Kunza, a Chicago butcher, and the
Kunza Packing company was formed,
capitalized at $1,000,000. Kunza in
vested $1,000, said to be the only money
advanced by the "partners." A plant
was rented, office* established and
salesmen hurried out to sell $1,000,000
worth of stock, the government
The salesmen worked fast. They
told how "Big Otto." the 480 pound
animal trainer, fired by a spirit of
patriotism, had studied out the horse
meat scheme. They said he had talked
with President Wilson, Food Adminis
trator Hoover, J.ord Northcliff, buyer
for the allies, and others and all agreed
horse meat would win the war. The
salesmen further declared that a con
tract for 20,000 barrels of horse meat
300 pounds to a barrel, had been ob
tained at 10 cents a pound, f. o. b. Chi
Two thousand dollars a day would
be the minimum profit of the Kunza
Packing company horses were plenti
ful at $5 each shin bones would bring
990 a ton, other hones $10 a ton, cas
ings $2 each, hair from 50 cents to
$1.25 a horse, grease $7 a horse. Be
sides, the oil from horses' hoofs was
valuable. And to top it off, the sales
men pointed to the price of 10 cents a
pound with a contract for 6,000,000
pounds already signed, the government
Charges. Salesmen received a com
mission of 26 per cent of all stock sold.
While most of the buyers were
foreign butchers and other persons
With little knowledge of get-rich-qulck
schemes, It is said that at least one in
fluential merchant invested heavily,
and that other business men purchased
small blocks of stock. When pros
perity began smiling on "Big Otto,"
according to the government, he took
into the firm William Dunn and Charles
Green and gave each 160,000 worth of
stock. A city ordinance forbidding the
slaughtering of horses for food pur
poses was to be repealed through the
"Influence" which Arthur Qulnn,
known as "Prince Arthur," said he had
with certain friends, the government's
Investigation showed. Suddenly post
office inspectors became interested and
the entire matter was placed before
the grand Jury, which quickly returned
the indictment against "Big Otto" and
Beneke. They fled, according to tho
government, and were making plans to
establish smilar concerns in the east
Toad Eats Cutworms.
From the Popular 8clence Monthly.
The toad Is useful because of its diet
No fewer than 81 spedes of Insects, most
ly Injurious, have been proved to enter
Into Its. dietary. In his "Civic Biology"
(American Book company), George W.
Hunter says: A toad has been observed
to snkp up: IS flies in.half an hour. Thus
at a low estimate It copld easily destroy
MM Insects during a day and do an Ira-
service to the garden during the
r. It has been twisted by Kirk-
tood that ft single toad may. on account
orthe cutWorms whkto'ifjdn^ be worth
tUM sMh! season-Itlfrtirtbe damage
done ly eitfBh ouiwoy-jy stl«i«a. at
jMiy 1 JSA Teads 4e*«*dupoa atagi
From an admirable review of James
W. Gerard's book, "Face to Face With
Kaiserism," in the London Spectator,
we reproduce the following:
In his opening sketch of the personality
of the German emperor Mr. Gerard gives
him full credit for manliness, great abil
ity. versatility, knowledge of foreltjn
countries, business capacity, accessibility,
and genia'.ltv (on occasion). But these
qualities are combined with duplicity and
surpassing craft. He notes his un-German
vehemence, and even violence, of speech
and gesture and his feverish restlessness.
"Holding that "one-man power always falls
in the end," Mr. Gerard sets himself to
answer the question. "Who does the
kaiser's thinking?" His answer shows
that Germany is not really a one-man
show. Although the reichstag has no real
power, being subordinate to the bundesrat,
and the chancellor Is responsible to
neither but to the kaiser, tho greatest
power in Germany is that of the great
general staff, which in the last resort con
trols, or at any rate has latterly con
trolled, tho emperor. The break with
America over the unrestricted submarine
campaign was determined not by the
foreign office but by the army chiefs.
Heads may fall but the system remains.
Writing in January, 1917, Mr, Gerard
ascribes to Tlrpitz tl»e saying that Hin
denburg was the real ruler of Germany.
His own view was that Ludendorff, who
supplied Hlndenburg with brains, was
already the real dictator of Oermanv.
Mr. Gerard notes that since the fall of
Prince Furstenberg there have been no
outstanding Imperial favorites. He has
no hesitation In saddling the responsibility
for the sinking of the Lusltania, which
he regards as the ultimate cause of Amer
ica Intervention, on the kaiser. It was
not a mistake it was deliberately planned
'and approved by the kaiser, In spite of his
subsequent disavowals, at a time when,
for a while, he controlled the great gen
eral staff. With a few exceptions. It was
greeted with universal rejoicing In Ger
many, "frlghtfulness' being a Prussian
heritage from the days of the Order of
Teutonic Knights. Nothing Is more im
pressive In these pages than Mr. Gerard's
repeated warning that "no trick and no
evasion, no brutality, will be untried bv
Germany in this war. There Is
nothing that kaiserism Is not capable of
trying in the hope of victory.'
The passages from Mr. Gerard's diary
from June, 1915, to January, 1917, based oh
notes of conversations with the kaiser,
chancellor, and ministers, and on per
sonal observations and close study of the
press, are chiefly remarkable as showing
the steady growth of the hatred of Amer
ica in Germany. -In publishing them Mr.
Gerard is clearly desirous of enlightening
his countrymen as to the systematic du
plicity of the policy of the German gov
ernment towards America. He did not
believe all the stories of German atro
cities, but the brutalities they admitted
excited his horror. The cruel treatment
of prisoners is constantly referred to,
notably the deliberate starvation of the
Russians. His relations with Bethmann
Hollweg appear to have been on the
whole uniformly friendly, and he speaks
of the ex-chancellor with good will, and
even respect, as a moderating influence
overborne by the war party. He was, and
evidently still is, under no illusions as to
the possibility of Germany's being ever
SPECULATION AS TO
BI6 GERMAN SHELL
Ambassador Gerard's Study of
When Will the War End?
From the Financial World.
When the war will end is a topic of endless discussion in Wall
Btreet, since on the duration of the war depends the values of the
things Wall street trades in.
Wall street doesn't know when the war will end or on what
terms, but it has been lately hearing of sonic tremendously big plans
pf the government, or rather the general staff, for carrying the
contest into Germany. To that end it is said the general staff has laid
out a plan for building 10,000 locomotive engines and for hundreds of
miles of standard gauge steel tracks to run clear into Germany. Two
or three years more of the war are anticipated and we will have had
5,000,000 soldiers in France by that time.
Many letters coming from the French front from American
Holdiers do not support the belief that the war is tc be prolonged.
Not a few letters mention a much circulated report that the war wili
end by October 1 next. These statements are based on numerous
interviews with German prisoners who say there will be no very
^serious Hun resistance after September and that a eollapes in Ger
many is rapidly approaching. In some of the divisions the soldiers
are wagering 2 to 1 that the early winter will see peace re-established.
It is our impression (it is dangerous to have positive convictions
in a time like the present when kaleidoscopic changes are possible
any day) that there is a conviction at Washington which is not openly
voiced that Germany may crack at any time, but that it is good military
tactics and also good strategy as well, to drive ahead at full speed
both in preparation and with the armies in the field, as though the
foe were as fresh as when he started. The ocular evidence to Germany
that we are preparing for an army of 5,000,000 men will do more to
bring her military chiefs to a realization of the uselessness of the strug
gle and cause greater restlessness and division among her people than
the boasting the allies may do.
Paris Experts Believe They
Have flotation of Its Ex
Paris (by mail)—That the bursting
Charge of shells from the German long
range guns is mixed while the projec
tiles are In actual flight is the belief of
French scientists, according to a tech
nical Journal published here. When
the. shelling Of Paris began it was
noticed that the explosion of a shell
produced a cloud ofblack smoke mixed
with a little that was white and accom
panied by a strong'smell of ethei^ Re
cently the smoke has been entirely
white, and very light, the ether odor
No shell .that failed to explode-ha|
Md reliayje, tha
expfaslvelfc'nUsfeet leads «x|Wh
to suppose that- the shsjl to
with two liquid explosives.
starved- out, and in the early autumn of
1916 he observes that "It Is Impossible to
conceive of the general breakdown of
nerves amongst this people." He has some
Interesting comments on the early Ger
man plots In Mexico, at a time when
Germany professed sympathy with the
United States, and on the projected coup
d'etat to take place in Austria on the
death of Franz Josef, the succession to
the throne to be given to Austria alone,
with Prince Kitel Fritz as king of Hun
gary. and possibly a Czech kingdom in
Bohemia. The president's peace note in
December, 1916, was received with en
thusiasm in Germany. Writing a month
later. Mr. Gerard regards It as an exceed
ingly wise move:
It has made it very difficult for the
terrorists liore to start anything which
will bring Germany into conflict with
the United States. The chancellor.
Zimmerman, Stumm. have all ridiculed
the idea that Germany will go back on
her Sussex' pledges but If she does,
then tho peace note makes It easier
lor America to enter the war on the
allies' side with a clear conscience and
the knowledge on the part of the
people at home that the president did
everything possible to keep us out of
Of the remaining chapters, the most
Important, In view of recent events, is
that on "The Alms of Autocracy.' The
kaiser alone could not have driven Ger
many into war, but his system could and
did. The first aim of autocracy Is "to
keep its own political position at home,
the second is to obtain as much of the
territory of other nations, as great an In
fluence in unconquered lands as possible,
and the third Is to make peace, but only
if it la a German peace, which can be
called arid advertised and proclaimed as
a German victory."
But the greatest prize of all is the com
mercial control of Russia which the
autocracy hopes to win for Its merchant
class. "Time and again I was told in
Germany that a separate peace with
Russia was near, and that the exploits
tlon of Russia by the enterprising German
merchants In a short time would repay
Germany for all the losses of the war."
This was written before the collapse of
Russia and the bolshevlst peace. And
further Mr. Gerard declare* his convic
tion that "oven if Germany evacuates'
France and restores the complete Inde
pendence of Belgium, even if no territories
are gained to the east or protectorates or /.
independent states carved from the body
of Russia to be later prey of Germany,
Germany will have won If German rule
Is predominant In central Kurope"—In
cluding the control of Serbia, Rumania,
and Mesopotamia. In his survey of,.
"Austria-Hungary—the Kaiser's Vassal
State." Mr. Gerard declines to accept the
view that the assassination of the crown
prince was engineered "from the Inside
of royalty," though admitting that the
circumstances of his burial lend conflrma
tlon to the theory. But he does believe
that the war of 1914 was finally agreed
at Konoplsht. He writes with friend
liness. and even appreciation, of individual
Germans, but of the progressive deteriora
tion of German, and especially Prussian,
moral he has no doubt. The gist of the
whole book is to be found in his quotation
from Goethe: "The Prussian was born a
brute, and civilization will make him
by the perforated partition which is!
known to exist in the center of the
projectile. When the shell is fired atr
a high angle the liquid in the upperf
end combines with that in the lower
chamber, and churned by the violent
rotation, produces at the moment of
impact, three minutes later, a perfect.
mixture. This would explain, it is said,
the ability of the charge to resist the
enormous shock when fired, and the re»
City Owns Noted Castle.
j, Prom the Detroit News.
1 he Scottish castle and Its park which.
according to British antiquaries, mark'
the .scene of the final erfcounter between
Macbeth and Macduff and' where, as all
the world has known slnee Shakespeare's?
time, Macbeth was slain, has become the
property of the City of Dundee.'
The name .of t|ie castle where Macbeth
got "enough" an^ paid the. Jvif penalty
for his numerous crimes Is Belmbnt. -Mrs.
Marryat, sister and heiress of the late'
Mr James Calrd, has given the estate,
including the castle and Ml-acres of park.
,to the city. The property lies 17 miles
north of Dunoee.
Belmont was at one
tho heme of:
Htttnr Cawpbon-Mannermart. who
purchased the estate from Lord
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