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The Names on Your Bond
From the American Magazine. The next time you get to feeling onor bld about your modept income and your boastful expenses, go get your Liberty bond and study it carefully. On the face thereof you will find only two sig natures one, that of Secretary of the Treasury William G. McAdoo the other that of Register of the Treasury Hous ton B. Teehee. Behind the latter name lies the story of an American Indian and hiB Good for the People. From Collier's Weekly. Perhaps the most interesting feature in the "American" and national periodicals whicli less than two years a^co were humbly concerned with securing "justice for (Jermany" was the "Answers to Readers column. "Anxious Inquirer" would write in to ask whether it was true that members of the reiehstag are elected by uni versal, direct, equal, and secret suffrage, whereas England had the plural vote and property qualification and the editor was compelled to admit, all candor, that it was so. A would bet that Woodrow Wilson had more power over peace and war than "William'II, and the editor agreed that A had won. And so in the course of this inno cent, eyed search for information by countless readers it was brought out that thn home of real democracy was somewhere between the Rhine and tile Niemen, and that of all democratic institutions on earth the German army was perhaps the most democratic—almost bolshevist, on the whole. The puzzle, therefore, is where, in this ultra-democratic nation called Germany, the German governments of recent days found so many things to democratize. For instance, a single Copenhagen dis patch: The democratization of Germany is spreading through the federal states. At a meeting of the crown council at Dresden (Saxony) yes terday the question of asking socialists to Join the government was considered. The Baden government met at Karlsruhe to consider the abolition of the three class franchise system and the introduction of the proportional franchise. Wurttemberg also is said to be considering whether that government's representatives in the federal council shall not henceforth receive instructions direct from the representatives elected by the people rather than from the Wurttemberg government. The democratization of the first chamber there is also being con sidered. Less than a year after Napoleon crushed the Prussian army at Jena in October, 1806, the anxious inquirers and the A's and B's of the time discovered suddenly that there was room for improvement in the admirably ordered Prussia of the day. To be sure, it was still the blest above all countries the poor were protected against the xich, and justice was strict, and education was plentiful, and by con trast with the rank individualism of other countries the Prussian people lived and died contentedly for the state. And yet, and yet At any rate, in October, 1807, Frederick William III issued an edict (we quote from E. F. Henderson's "Short History of Germany"): From Martinmas, 1810, ceases all villainage in our entire states. From Martinmas, 1810, there shall be only free persons. For it had been suddenly discovered that two-thirds of the popu lation of Prussia were serfs. And again: Every inhabitant of our states is competent, without any limitation on the part of the state to possess, either as property or pledge, landed estates of every kind. Every noble is henceforth permitted, without any derogation from his position, to exercise citizen occupa tions and every citizen or peasant is allowed to pass from the peasant into the citizen class, or from the citizen into the peasant class. The German people may yet be as graceful for Chateau-Thierry as the Prussian people had reason to be grateful for Jena. A Chance Now for Free Poland. Prom the It may be said by the doubters that as Poland was unable to defend herself In the Eighteenth century, there is little liklihood of her being able to do so in the future. But there 18* no reason to as sume that a fatal weakness is inherent in the Polish character. Poland was broken up by her neighbors because she had the worst constitution ever devised by man. The nobility monopolized politi cal power, the peasantry were serfs, and there was no large middle class to give cohesion to the social fabric. Even in Poland's death throes the nobles de clined to accord equal rights to the peas ants, though the abortive constitution of 1791 promised them reforms. Kosciuszko, fresh from America, astonished and dis tressed his fellow nobles by calling upon the peasantry to rise in defense of their native land, and with these ill armed countrymen he gained a victory over the Russians before he was overwhelmed by numbers. Until 1883 the alien con querors were able, with no small success, to play off the Polish peasantry against their old oppressors, the nobles. It is hardly surprising that a nation thus sharply divided should have succumbed for the time. But the abolition of serf-4 dom and the rise of modern industry have transformed the situation, and the resolute efforts of the Polish nationalists struggle toward success which should be an inspiration to -even the humblest of us. The name Teehee is not rightfully a name at all. It is a nickname. When Mr. Teehee's father fought for the union in the civil war his companions had difficulty in pronouncing his Indian name "Dl-hl-hi" fcneonlng Killer), and so they compromised by calling him "Teehee." And this became the family name. Hence we have Houston B. Teehee en tering the world via the unpromising •surrounding of a Cherokee Indian res ervation in Sequoyah county, Oklahoma, on October 81, 1874, with not much to commend him to fortune but himself. Not only was his very name picked up from the patois of a battle field, but the American government branded him, in common with all his brethren, unfit and Incompetent to manage his own affairs, and set a guardian over him in the guise of a commissioner. When the boy got old enough to think it over he resented this treatment, and determined to show Ibe government where, in his case at least, It was wrong. He took all the schooling he could get at the government classes in the old Cherokee nation during the 18 years he spent on his father's farm. There was no English spoken on the reservation, 'and it was an extremely difficult study for him to master, but young Teehee stuck to his lessons and won his coveted knowledge. At 18 he went to the Cherokee national •sale seminary, studied there two years, then plunged into the English speaking world about him via Fort Worth Uni versity at Fort Worth, Tex. London Spectator. In UlO Teehee. informed the secretary the Interior that he considered hlm •f ,j»lf quite capable of getting along with •lut a government .guardian, and, on pro*-,. Elisabeth of the in* this-to the seeratary's satisfaction. studied medicine as a-strlV* the restriction* the management of gmdu&ted With, (Jm degree lib own affairs wars removed: aid with Lstpsic shortly before hs(. to educate their people have borne fruit. The peasants who now own their hold ings haye become fervid patriots, and 1# their cooperative societies they pos sess a formidable organisation. A Polish middle class has arisen, especially In Posen, and the old nobility, having lost its fatal privileges, has begun to play its true part in the affairs of the nation, The new Poland, in contrast to the old, is a democratic country, which will not be wrecked again by the class division^ of the semi-feudal era. The presence a very large number of Jews in the towns may create difficulties. The Jews ex, pel led from Germany in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth centuries took refuge in Poland, where they were patronized by the nobility because they took no Interest in politics. Their numbers have increased out of all proportion because they werq forbidden by Russia to spread at will through the empire and were herded within the pale. Mr. Kozlcki asserts, however, that there is in Poland no anti Semitism based on racial hate or religious difference, as in Russia, and it may bo presumed that when once the independ ence of Poland is reestablished the Polish Jews will free themselves from the sus picion of being too friendly to the Ger mans. Apart from the Jewish question, the outlook for the free and united Po land seems moet promising. what result you may see by glancing over your Liberty bond. After holding minor local offices in hia home village of Tahlequah, and serving as its first mayor when it was made a city of the first class, in 1908. Teehee was sent to the Oklahoma legislature, served later as county attorney, went to the legislature again in 1912, and special ised in constitutional law. In 1914 he was appointed United States probate at-, torney under the interior department, which office he filled until he resigned to take the oath at register of the treas ury, March 24, 1915. And that Is how the name of Houston B. Teehee, a Cherokeen Indian, once a ward of the government, happens to be affixed to the Liberty bonds of the world war, in 20,000,000 American hoptes. is on When peace has come, that boon elating, and battle flags are furled, I hope there'll be an end of hating throughout this warsick world. Let us get mad. if things demand it. and raise a rumpus great but anger, as I understand it, is different from hate. If I am injured by my neighbor. I lie In wait for him his swaybacke\ carcass I belabor, and rend him limb from limb but when our little scrap is ended we are good friends once more, and he, with sportsmaship that's splendid, slides dow my cellar door. We have no time for foolish hating, we have to do our chores, that we may both main tain our rating for credit at the stores. It's hate that keeps the' world un settled, and makes peace efforts vain a lot of kings, stallfed and mettled, have hatred on the brain. They don't get busy cultivating or pruning grow ing things they sit around their throne rooms hating and cussing other kings. One reason vfhy I hope the Teuton may, meet a crushing fate is that he's al ways at us shootin' his talk of death less hat*. And vainly will the Tfut endeavor our friendship to regain, un til be cuts out hate forever, and shows he's safe and sane. D. at WOMEN OF ITALY TO GAIN MORE LIBERTY New York—(by mail.)—Countess Marls. LoschI, of Home, who, as the gueat of the United States government is on a six weeks' tour of this country to survey social, educational and po litical conditions relating to women and report to the government of Italy, declares that Italy's liberated woman hood is preparing to take a big part in the rebuilding oC the devasted nor thern provinces. "It is the dawn of a new day," she said, "in the develop ment of our nations." The Countess is a young woman, dresses simply and speaks fluently English as well as French and Italian, •tie is a writer on sociological sub jects. a teacher of French literature in a college in Rome and, in addition, is on the staff of a technical* school. An ardent suffragist and one of five women, representatives of the Italian Feminine Patriotic league, appointed to aid the government authorities in devising a plan for the readjustment of labor after the war, the Countess Loach} says, "the future is bright with promise for the women of Italy more than fOO.OOO of whom are at work on farms and in munition plants." Unt|l the war started, she said, the status of women in Italy was one of "complete eclipse by men." She was not ajlowed to handle her own money, for Instance, without the consent of her husband. Woman, as such, had no standing in court except as the chattel of a husband or father. Now laws, said the countess, were being drafted which would elevate Italian womanhood to a plane as hifeh as that enjoyed by the women of any other country. Tiite changed attitude toward women in fcaly the countess attributed in part to the great response made by her sex to the appeals of the government for war loans. Taxation In Moderation. From the New York World. Sac rotary McAdoo's letter to Chairmen Simmons and Kitchin upon needed modi fications In the pending tax bill is dis tinguished by breadth and moderation, ffhs general policy he indicates should be 'followed. The secretary desired—properly, as we think—and the House enacted an $8,000, 000,000 tax bill on the assumption that the 'War might list at least until spring. The Senate has cut the House provisions to IMMl,000,000. Mr, McAdoo thinks we may safely further reduce collections to $6, 000,000,000 now and $4,000,000,000 in 1920. War loans should not be at an end with the active war. "Some of the allies must have working capital in the form of credits" to get upon a peace basis, and it will be good business to continue ac commodation to them, since otherwise they cannot buy of us. War taxation can be reduced by gradations. "Initiative and enterprise are entitled to know in ad vance" about it. These conclusions are unassailable. "De finlteness and certainty," not only as to retroactive demands upon the Income of 1918 but as to the calendar year 1919, will "enable business and enterprise to pro ceed with confidence and courage." The larger items of taxation may well be made payable in instalments. Above all. the bill should be quickly passed. The frame of the pending act .will re quire little change to meet the needs so ably stated. It has been under discus sion more than seven months. Not many more days should be necessary. Of war taxation nothing need be asked but that it be fair and as moderate as the condi tions will permit—not forgetting prompt- The Influenza. Influenza, labeled Spanish, came and beat at* to my knees seven doctors pouldnt banish from my form that pui^t)-dipeas« for its 'rtot among the MjPftri: ThWjr doctors pour their blt ailing human or It tecs they and Rich U. S. Girls Feed Soldiers In France and Teach French Mrs. Russell (nee Miss Harrimsn), at left, and Mrs. Vincent Astor, in rear( waiting on soldiers in Bordeaux canteen. Paris,—(by mall).—Two of America's I boys how to talk French, for both speak richest young women are working eight it fluently. or more hours a day in a Y. M. C. A. canteen club in Bordeaux, feeding American soldiers and in slack mo ments they teach the United States w- The millionairesses are Mrs. Vin cent Astor and Mrs. Russell, daughter of the late E. H. Harriman, railroad magnate. my doctor, "I have tackeld every sort of ill there is I have cured up people shackled by the gout and rheumatiz with the itch and mumps I've battled, and my triumps have been tattled, so I pause to say G. Whiz." I am burn ing, I am freezing. In my little truckle bed I am cussing^ I am sneezing with a poultice on my head and the doc tors and the nurses say the patient growing worse is, and they hint around of hearses, and of folks who should be dead. Doom has often held the cleaver pretty near my swanlike neck I have had the chills and fever till my system was a wreck I have had the yaller janders, foot and mouth disease and glanders,. and a plague they brought from Flander on an old windjammer's deck. *But this measly influenzy has all other ills outclassed it has put me in a frenzy, like a soldier who's been gassed If the villainous inventor this my lodge of pain should enter I would use the voice of Stentor Jill he had been roundly sassed. May the Influenza vanish! Of all ailment* its the worst but I don't believe it's Spanish—have n't though so from th^ first on my couch of anguish squlrmln', I've had llesure to determine t&at the blamed disease is German, which is why it is accurst. isrps War Makes T»\pm Big. Hsl From the Pittsburgh Leader. War brings into prominence many places small and insignificant in them selves, The names of tiny villages Uke Given#hy and Messines. for Instance, will live far all time in the history books of the future, says London Tit-Bits. Similarly, Blenheim, the scene of Marl borough's most famous victory, is but a hamlet of some Jialf dozen houses strag gling along the Bavatfian bank of the Danube. Waterloo is a small place, with fewer than 4,000 inhabitants. Austerlltz, where Napoleon defeated th# combined armies of Austria and Russia, falls into the same category. Agincourt—or Azlncourt, to give it the modern spelling*—is a mere hamlet of a few hundred souU. So are Fontenoy and Malplaquet. Abu Klea, where, in 1885, 1,600 British troops defeated 15,000 of the mahdi's picked warriors, is a ramshackle collec tion of Arab huts Mustered around a group of wells. Mafeklng. Colenso, Storm berg, Magersfontein and Paardeberg, places famous in the South African war, are quite unmportant villages apart from the historical events associated with then:. THE CHOICE BEFORE MANKIND From tfie Manchester Guardian. The choice before mankind was well described lu Prof. Gilbert Murray's impressive speech. Roughly, it is the choice between a life without war or a life with nothing but war. Rousseau said that it was for o%r own good that Nature kept her aocrets from us. We have learned in the last four years perhaps th.i most terrible of her secrets—that anything that can be used in poace can be used for war. Simultaneously we have abolished space, ^rui nations like our own have ceased to live on Isl ands. In such a world we must either renounce war or never allow ourselves to forget it. The mere preparation that each nation would make In order to be ready for every kind of surprise would be so costly as to leave us no time or money for anything else. We should all become the slaves of a universal terror, giving it the serv ice of our minds and our hands, and heaping up our treasure for its insatiable appetite. Some people think the idea of a league of na tions Is chimerical. What kind of future do they imagine for the world without it? The truth Is, as Prof. OUbert Murray said, that we have reached a stage when we have to take great step-forward 'Hr lose what we-have gained In the leog'and stew ettaggle of the raoe. »f "he Yank's Stang. Frw.i the Llierary Digest. "Sammy's" appearance, .serial conduct, anil conversation, to say nothing of his military prowess, have endeared him to all classes in France and Kngland. French newspapers tell of his chivalrous attitude toward the fair sex generally, and his kindly, paternal way with chil dren in war racked villages: the Knglish dailies print columns about hia alert, military bearing, and the charm of his native slant This last characteristic draws forth the following letter on "What Sammy Says," which is taken from the London Daily Mail: Sammy is In my ward, and I like him. Ills face he describes as "one of the sort that only a mother could love," but somehow, lantern Jawed and high cheeked as it is, it appeals to me. Even more than his face I .like his conversation. His experiences during the war are, I suppose, much the same as those of other men his mode of relating them is peculiarly lits own. The picturesque imagery with which he adorns his speech may be an old story in "God's country"—to «ne It is a thing of wonder and a joy forever. He came over "the big drink" some months ago. He had a pleasant voy age, saw no "tin fish," and had plenty to eat—"six meals a day, three up and three down." On arrival at the port they got Into "the dinkiest little train ever. Before it started the captain asked for a key to wind it up with. Sammy says that per sonally he Intends to take one home as a charm to hang on his watch chain. They went Into camp, where they spent their time "hiking" about the countryside. The "eats" here were not overgood. They were given tea "which tasted like the last water Noah kept afloat in" and fish "that was never caught but must have given Itself up." However, they made their motto, "Work like Helen B. Happy." and stuck it out bravely. The only thing that really "got their goat" was having to sleep on terra flrma. That, Sammy says, is Latin for "ter ribly hard." The "War Movie." From the Minneapolis Tribune. Speaking about "miles of smiles," ther4 is a pretty good sort of "movie" in progress just now in the late European war zones. In some quarters fear Is ex pressed that'the Hun still hopes to make it "n.iles of wiles," but we may trust to Messrs. Foch, Haig, Pershing. Petain ,and others of that lustrous clan not to !let the enemy go far In that direction. American troops, spick and span in new uniforms and with accouterments pol ished are moving eastward to German soil: on a wide front and below Metz. They] are taking no chances with German treachery. Germans have given way In Brussels to Belgians, who belong there and the colors that King Albert loves are float' lng where the hated standards of the. Hohenzollern marred the scenery so long. General von Falkenhausen, late Hun governor general of Belgium, has skulked* .away to an unknown destination, and Admiral von Tirpitc, evil genius who was most responsible for German submarine piracy and murder, Is a fugitive to Swit zerland. William Hohenzollern, in Holland, alter nates the wearing of his late royal ha blliments with the garb of civilian life. There he waits his spouse—and his fate. Somewhere are the "six uninjured sons," hated, but shielded from the pos sible wrath of revolutionists or mobB. On the flagship Queen Elizabeth, Rear Admiral Beatty. of the British grand fleet, receives the German naval dele gates and tells them, as a stern school master talking to unruly boys, where they get off. Mr. Charles Hapsburg, stripped of kingly insignia, keeps close to his board ing house in Vienna. Grand dukes and lesser fry quit their, easy money haunts in Saxe Coburg and Gotha, Mecklenburg-Schwerin and other German territory. Took No Chances. From the New York Times. That the British naval men have not gained since the signing of the armistice any confidence in the honor of the men who so recently were conducting a ruth less warfare against them was shown plainly enough by the elaborate precau tions taken by Admiral Tyrwhitt while receiving the first flotilla of German submarines to be surrendered. He elimi nated all possibilities either of injury to his own vessels and their crews or of losing by a last piece of characteristic, trickery and desperation the prizes that were coming at last into his hands. Instead, the British admiral met the undersea boats with a force of British, ships of overwhelming strength, and ha compelled the German crews to remain on board, with the engine room staff at their itasts and the others on deck, till they were well within Harwich har bor. Guns had to be pointed fore and aft—necessarily harmless, that is, to the British convoy fleet—and it was not until British officers had examined each sub marine and found it in the good order required by the terms of the surrender that the German crews were allowed to transfer to the destroyers that came along to take them home again. 8oldiering. It makes me tired wheiv men com plain of sleet or mud or wrind or rain. They look out from a cozy room and see the skies enwrapped in gloom, and groan because they may get damp while going for a postage stamp. The soldier has to fight out doors, however hard the wtaer pours/ he cannot sit beside the fire and make a brutal foe expire he cannot be^r a parasol to shield him from the waterfall. The soldier stays outdoors to flght, the weary day, the bitter night he hears his comrades' dying groans, the cold is crawling through his bones. Methinks that when the boys come back from streaming trench and muddy track. they'll look with pity and disdain, on gents who murmur and complain. A roan will say, "Ding bust the sleet! It puts rheumatics in my feet! The weather is the limit nowi confound this climate, anyhow!" And then some sol dier who has slept on battlefields by tempest swept, will say, "A grown-up shouldn't bawl—go home and get your rubber doll." Oh, when the boys come home again, we'll see a lot of man-size men, and they may teach us to forget our tendency to whine and fret. TO MAKE MAN HAPPY. Ruskin. To watch the corn grow, and the blossoms set. to «lraw hard breath over plow share or spade, to read, to think, to lovs, t» hop*, to pray. these are the htngs that ntSva men 4 happy. "r. f-''