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Colonel Roosevelt's career has left such a vivid impression upon the people of his time that it is necessary to touch but briefly upon some of the more etriUing phases of his varied, interest ing and "strenuous" life to recall to the public mind full details of his many exploits and experiences. Called to the White House in 1901 after President McKinley had" been assassinated. Colonel Roosevelt, 42 years of age, bec-ame the youngest president the United States has ever had. Three years later he was elected as prisident by the largest popular vote a president has received. Thus Roosevelt, sometimes called a man of destiny, served for seven years as the nation's chief magistrate. In a subsequent decade the fortunes of poli tics did not favor him, for, again a candidate for president—this time lead ing the progressive party which he himself had organized when he differed radically with some of the policies of the republican party in 1912—he went down to defeat, together with the re publican candidate, William Howard Taft. NVoodrow Wilson, democrat, was elected. A few months after his graduation. Roosevelt married Miss Alice Lee, of Boston. She died in 1884, leaving one child, Alice, now the wife of Repre sentative Nicholas Longworth, of Ohio. In 1886 Roosevelt married Miss Edith Kermit Carow, of New York, and to them Ave children were born—Edith, now the wife of Dr. Richard Derby, and four sons, Theodore, jr., Kermit, Archi bald and Quentin. Early Activities. The public career of the man who was to become president began not long after he left college. His profession was law, but the activities that were to come left him no time in which to prac tice it. In 1882, 1883 and 1884 he was elected to the New York state assem bly, where his efforts in behalf of good government and civil service reform attracted attention. When the repub lican national convention of 1884 was held, in Chicago, he was chairman of the New York state delegation. After this experience he dropped out of politics for two years. Going west, he purchased ranches along the Little Missouri river in North Dakota, and divided his time between outdoor sports, particularly hunting, and lit erary work. Here he laid the founda tion for his series of books, "The Win ning of the West," which was published from 1889 to 1896, and of other volumes of kindred character. Returning to New York he became the republican candidate for mayor, in 1886. He was defeated. President Har rison in 1889 appointed him a member of the United States civil service-com mission and President Cleveland con tinued him in this office, which he re signed in 1895 to become New York city's police commissioner. "A thing that attracted me to this office," Roosevelt said at the time he accepted this appointment, "was that it was to be done in the hurly burly, for I don't like cloister life." Honesty was the watchword of this administra tion, and the two years of his occu pancy became memorable through the reforms he inaugurated, attracting the nation's attention while holding a po sition which was obscure in compari son with the events to come. Illicit liq uor traffic, gambling, vice in general— of these evils he purged the city in the face of corrupt political opposition, and tlite reputation l.e established as a reformer won him the personal selec tion by President McKinley as assist ant secretary of the navy, in 1897. A year later the Spanish American war broke out. Organizes Rough Riders. The Roosevelt temperament did not allow the man to retain a deputy cab inet position with war offering some thing more exciting, Leonard Wood, now a major-general in France, was then President MclClnley's physician The Life of Roosevelt Spans A Career of Public Service i, High Type of American. Colonel Roosevelt's enemies agreed with his friends that his life, his char acter and his writings represented a high type of Americanism. Of Dutch ancestry, born in New York city on October 27, 1858, in a house in East Twentieth street, the baby Theo dore was a weakling. He was one of four children who came to Theodore and Martha Bulloc Roosevelt. The mother was of southern Btock and the father northern, a situation which dur ing the early year of Theodore, jun ior's boyhood, was not allowed to in terfere with the family life of these children during the civil war days. So frail that he was not privileged to associate with the other boys in his neighborhood, Roosevelt was tutored privately in New York, and during travels on which his parents took the children abroad. A porch gymnasium at his home provided him with phys ical exercise with which he combatted a troublesome asthma. His father, a glass importer and a man of means, was his constant companion he kept a diary he read so much history and fictional books of adventure that he was known as a bookworm he took boxing lessons he was an amateur naturalist and at the age of 17 he en tered Harvard university. There he was not as prominent as some others in an athletic way, as it is not record ed that he "made" the baseball and football teams, but his puny body had undergone a metamorphosis and before graduation he became one of the cham pion boxers of the college. This re markable physical development was emphasized by something which took place shortly after he left Harvard in 1880. He went to Europe, climbed the Matterhorn, and as a result was elect ed a member of the Alpine Club of London—an organization of men who had performed notable feats of adven ture. and one of "Roosevelt's stauncliest friends. The famous Rough Riders were or ganized by Wood and Roosevelt—a band of lighting men the mention of whose name today suggests immedi ately the word "Roosevelt." They came out of the west—plainsmen, min ers, rough and ready fighters who were natural marksmen, and Wood became their colonel and "Teddy," as he had become familiarly called by the public, their lieutenant-colonel. In company with the regulars of the army they took transports to Cuba, landed Santi ago and were soon engaged in the thick of battle. Among the promotions which this hardy regiment's gallantry brought about were those of Wood to brigadier-general and Roosevelt to colonel—and this title Theodore Roose velt cherished until the end. Some of the Rough Riders formed the military escort when he was elected president a few years later. When Cuba had ^een liberated, Roosevelt returned to New York. A gubernatorial campaign was in swing, with the republican party In need of a capable candidate. Roosevelt was nominated. Van Wyck, his democratic opponent, was defeated. The reforms Roosevelt had favored as assemblyman he now had the opportunity to consum mate, together with others of more im portance, and It was during this admin istration that he is said to have earned the hostility of corporations. When the republican national convention was held in Philadelphia in 1900 his party in New York state demanded, and at tained his nomination for vice presi dent on the ticket with William Mc Kinley. in November of that year this ticket was elected. Sought to Eliminate Him. The policies of McKinley, Roosevelt endeavored to carry out after he suc ceeded the former upon the president's tragic death at the hands of an as sassin. Roosevelt retained his predeces sor's cabinet as his own and he kept in office the ambassadors and ministers whom McKinley had appointed. As much as two years before the presi dential campaign of 1904 republican or ganizations in various states began in dorsing him as their next candidate. It was thus that/'the man of destiny" idea became associated with his life, Ostensibly, Roosevelt, leaving the gov ernorship of New York to become vice president, was moving forward from state politics into national politics, so his political opponents professed pub licly to believe but it was their secret desire to "shelve" the man and elimi rtate him from prominence in their own community, it was said, that prompted these political foes to obtain for him the vice presidential nomination, which he personally did not desire. At the height of his public and polit ical career, during the four years of the term for which he had been elected, Roosevelt accomplished achievements which historians will rank high in the international and industrial progress of the country. They included his influ ential negotiations which, conducted at Portsmouth, N. H., effected peace be tween Russia and Japan maintenance of the Monroe Doctrine at a period when European powers were interested in the affairs of Venezuela the recog nition of Panama as a republic and his treaty with Panama by which the in ter-oceanic canal through that country was put under way and the settlement, through his moral influence in the face of a situation in which there was no adequate federal legislation, of the Pennsylvania coal mine strike. For his part in terminating the Russo-Japanese conflict he was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1906. Four years later, once more a private citizen, he was special ambassador from the United States at the funeral of King Edward VII, of England, Breaks With Taft. A rift in the friendship between Roosevelt and his successor as presi dent, William Howard Taft, led to the. former's announcement of his oppo sition to Mr. Taft's renomination. The ex-president's influence had been large in placing Mr. Taft in the White House. Now his influence was equally strong in preventing Mr. Taft from remaining there. Men who had clashed with the Taft policies quickly rallied to Roose velt's support. Roosevelt assembled what he termed as constructive ideas as opposed to the conservative ones of the socalled republican "Old Guard," characterized them with the descrip tion "Progressive" and organized the progressive party by withdrawing with his followers from the Chicago conven tion in 1912. He became the new party's candidate for president. This split in the republican ranks resulted in Woodrow Wilson's election. One of the most dramatic incidents in Roosevelt's life occurred during this campaign. As he was leaving a hotel in Milwaukee, to go to a meeting hall to make a political address, a man stand ing among the spectators in the street fired a shot which struck the Colonel and smashed a rib. Roosevelt insisted he was not seriously hurt and his auto mobile conveyed him to the hall. There he spoke to an audience which had knowledge of what had happened— sobbing women and grave faced men shaken with emotion by his appear ance under such circumstances. Ex amination of the wound showed it was serious and the candidate was hurried by special train to Chicago for treat ment. Though he speedily recovered the bullet was never removed. The as sassin was sent to an asylum for the insane. Enjoys African Hunt. Roosevelt after leaving the White House devoted his life largely to lit erary work, hunting and exploration. He became contributing editor to the Outlook In 110),- continuing this for five yap*, aqd.lj^er fteld editorial posi tions with the Metropolitan and ttn Kansas City Star. From 1882 to 19lt he published about BO volumes of works covering the wide range of'naval his tory, hunting, biography, the Rough Riders. Americanism, Nationalism, con servation of womanhood and childhood, animals, explanation, the world war and America's participation in it, and his autobiography. His hunts for big game and his zest for exploration took him into the American West, the heart of Africa and the wilderness of Brazil. Upon his return from hia African journey—a return during which ha made triumphant entries into European capitals and was received by nations' rulers, including the emperor of Ger many—he arrived in New Vork to ex perience what was generally conceded to be the greatest ovation an American private citizen was ever accorded by the people of his country. This was in 1910. At the head of an exploring party in South America in 1014 he dis covered and folldwed for GOO miles a Madeira river tributary which the Bra zilian government subsequently nampd in his honor. Reo, Theodore. This was the famous "River of Doulu"—so called because in many quarters considered authoritative, it was questioned wheth er Roosevelt was the first man to ex plore the stream. During this journey the president contracted a jungle fever whic*h was held indirectly responsible for the abscesses which developed ma lignantly and required several opera tions at the Roosevelt hospital in New York city, in 1918. Theodore Roosevelt, besides being a prolific writer, lectured and made speeches extensively, not only in his own country but in England, Spain. South America and other parts of the world. The facility with which he made political enemies and followers made him" a marked man for both the bitter and friendly attention of car toonists and pargraphers. Quaint and picturesque phrases were coined liber ally by him and by other concerning him. "Speak softly and use the big stick," "weasel words," "pussyfoot." "mollycoddle" and "my hat Is In the ring," were some of the Rooseveltian expressions which attained wide pub licity. One Eye Blinded. The strenuous physical activities in which Roosevelt engaged at the White House Included boxing. It was not until about eight years after he left the White House that it was disclosed that, during one of these bouts, which he welcomed as a means of keeping him In fighting trim, a blow landed by a sparring opponent injured one of the Colonel's eyes. Later blindness of this eye developed. In the later years of his life two court suits, in which he figured in one as plaintiff and in the other as defendant, winning both, kept Roosevelt before the public eye. During the presidential campaign of 1912 a Michigan editor' charged him with intoxication. Roose velt instituted a suit for libel and mar shalled a notable host of witnesses to testify regarding his private life and habits. Their testimony was so over whelming that the charge was with drawn in open court and the Jury brought in a nominal verdict of six cents, in favor of thif^ex'-presldent. William Barnes, jr., of Albany, N. Y., accused Roosevelt in 1914 of uttering libel in a statement asserting that the "rottenness" of the New York state government was due directly to the dominance of Tammany Hall In poli tics, aided by Mr. Barnes and his fol lowers. At Syracuse, N. Y., in 1915, the jury's verdict acquitted Roose velt. Urged Preparedness. When the European war began. Roosevelt vigorously advocated a policy of national preparedness, urging uni versal military training for the nation's youth. In speeches throughout the country and in his magazine and news paper writings he Criticized, in this re spect, the policies of Woodrow Wilson during Mr. Wilson's first term as presi dent. Mr. Roosevelt, it has been said, was keenly disappointed when he did not re ceive the republican nomination for president in 1916. At the same time, however, he refused to follow the ad vice of some of his staunchest follow ers that he again head the progressive party ticket. Instead he prevailed upon the progressive party to make Charles Evans Hughes the republican candi date, its own choice. He campaigned for Mr. Hughes. With the reelection of Mr. Wilson, and America's entry Into the world war soon after, Roosevelt supported the president and bitterly as sailed the pro-Germans, pacifists and other type of men who attempted to delay speeding up the war. Tried to Farm Army. With the United States a belligerent, Roosevelt endeavored to obtain the consent of the war department to es tablish an army division which he was anxious to take to France. This di vision was to have included many of the Rough Riders who were his as sociates in the campaign in Cuba, and younger men of the same strenuous habits. The necessary permission for the formation of such a force was not forth coming even though Roosevelt expressed w'llngness to accompany it as a subordinate officer. One of Roosevelt's participations in public affairs took him to Washing ton in January, 1918, when he con ferred with United States Senatoi George E. Chamberlain, of Oregon and other members of congress wht were critical of the administration' methods of prosecuting the wa Roosevelt on this occasion announce his support of the proposal that a. wa cabinet be organized to take over th conduct of the war. Only four ships have been delivered the three great government fabricate shipbuilding plants, Charles Pies, direct) general of the emergency fleet corpon tion, testified before the Senate con meree committee. Three came from tl Hog Island, yard, and the fourth from tl plant at Port Kfwark, N. J., which sbou have delivered 124.. vessels by laet1 De cember T. wa*- N }o NE WTANNING AGENT. Sar. Francisco (by mail)—Snow •ush, a "species of chaparral hereto re considered worthless and which ows in impenetrable density in rned over sections of-California 'na nu! foresta, may soon .be used in •rg* quantities jfrtr'-tanninir leather. A-Mierlmeats conducted py the' Uni 580 Hun Officers to Be Indicted, By Newell Dwlght MI Ills. The ciopnirtmonts of justice in Belgium and France have now announced that they have drawn up indictments against 580 German officers and soldiers, with specifications as to the crimes, with names of the witnesses, and often with pho tographs taken after the Germans had fled from the bloody scenes. The mem bers of tho allied conference are to be asked to authorize the return of these criminals to the .scenes where they broke every law of man and God. that they may be tried by established courts, defended by their attorneys: and, if guilty, punished. Many Americans are asking upon what kind of testimony the trial can proceed. They do not seem to realize that when the Germans fled northward from one end of a blazing town, leaving their victims behind them, that the French, Belgians. British and Americans, coming in from the south, immediately photographed the mutilated bodies, called the witnesses, prepared the affidavits, sifted the proofs, and sent back to the department of justice the names of these German officers and soldiers. Little wonder that there are Germans now feast ing in Berlin and Munich whose faces blanched when they read this announce ment. and who by day and by night, henceforth, will be pursued by fear. Millions of our people have never had an opportunity of listening to the wit nesses giving their testimony as to these crimes, and therefore do not fully understand the procedure that will be adopted. Take, therefore, the town of Gerbeviiler, and General Klauss. as the German officer, and in thought set up the judgment seat. In August. 1914, Gerbeviiler was a town of 3.140 women and children, with a few old men. On the 2Cth of August the Germans were forced *o retreat toward the Rhine. General Klauss and his 20,000 men reached Gerbe viiler on the morning of a late August day. General Klauss promptly installed himself in the house of the old mayor. He ordered his officers to search the houses for concealed weapons and soldiers. These officer^ returned at 11 o'clock to the mayor's house, and reported that they found no weapons, and no soldiers, save one. but they had found 13 old men, in addition to the mayor ayd the secre tary to tho mayor. In the presence of the wife of the secretary and the two daughters of the mayor, all of whom are living. General Klauss commanded his colonel to line up these 13 old men and shoot them, and hardly had the Germans iled from the village that they had first looted and then burned than Prefect Mirinan and certain French officers dashed into the ruined town, and photo graphed the bodies of those 13 old men as they lay upon the grass. Standing upon that spot Lawrence Chamberlain, the writer on finance, and Leon Dabo, the artist, and myself listened to ail these witnesses with the photographs In our hands. Most thrilling was the testimony of Sister Julie, whose statements, with those of her associates, were clear, precise, and damning to the Germans. In the affidavits that these witnesses signed I found detailed testimony as to the following crimes: First, Sister Julie saw Eugenie Perrin arrested, struck, out-' raged, with clothing soaked in oil, and burned alive. Second, a Red Cross am bulance driver named Francois was tortured and then killed by another German officer. Third, a young French girl who was helping Sister Julie as a Red Cross nurse In her hospital was shot by the Germans. Fourth, the Germans took a baker and threw him alive into, his oven, from which his remains were *aken after the Germans had fled. Fifth, they pinned the oldest man of the village. Monsieur Barthelemy to the ground by thrusting a bayonet through his right eye. All these eM'nts will have the support in detail of one of the most splendid women I have ever seen, who was an eye witness to these crimes, some of which will be recounted in detail by as many as 20 witnesses who saw these murders. The names of these German officers are known, the affidavits filed, the photo graphs preserved, and for the safety of the world these criminals must be taken back to the scene of their crimes, and there tried and there executed. There must not be one law for a murderous burglar, and another law for a murderous German officer. Society will never be safe so long as these murderers go unhung! Sea, Contraband and Blockade. From the London Times. To illustrate the teaching of the wur, we may refer to contraband. So ignorant were English statesmen of the conditions of modern warfare that in 1307 England deliberately proposed the abolition of contraband, and at The Hague induced 25 states to vote with her in favor of a resolution to that effect. The moment we were face to face with the realities of war it was seen to be suicidal te take such a course, or to attempt to confine contraband to the narrow limits prescribed by old treaties, or as defined by text writers, with only the experience of the Napoleonic wars to guide them. Each new phase of hostili ties called for an expansion of contraband. It is not merely that chemistry can extract from apparently innocuous matters munitions of war. It was found to be impossible to say what articles might not be directly serviceable in the main tenance of an army or the prosecution of hostilities. The test as to when provi sions are contraband was obviously Inapt when an army Includes the bulk of the male population of a country. The distinction between absolute or relative or accidental contraband, which looked well on paper, proved untenable In prac tice. Take again the complaint that the freedom of the seas has been violated, the rights of neutrals impaired, by vessels being brought Into port to be searched instead of the search being carried out, as of old, at sea. What was practicable in case of small-vessels, with 'Ight, movable cargo. Is out of the question as to the ocean liner laden with many hundreds of tons of locomotives, heavy machin ery. or cunningly camouflaged contraband. If practicable, search in the old fashion wtiuld be perilous to the belligerent vessel, exposed, as it would be, to the attacks of U-boats in the vicinity. Not the "perfidy" or "tyranny" of the British fleet, but modern conditions of trade and warfare necessitated these changes. The same might be said of the so called "blockade," the literal ad herence to the old rules of blockade such as was practiced by Colllngwood would have been dangerous, impracticable, or useless. There cannot be a doubt that further changes affecting maritime warfare are impending. The U-boat at one time in this war was a most formidable weapon, and may in the next be still more destructive. The air service, already important, may one day count for almost as much as the army or navy. Developed as a vehicle of commerce, the airship may carry no inconsiderable bulk of merchandise, contraband in cluded, under conditions which elude search, and to- which present rules have ,no application. Since the conference at Paris in 1912 of "La Comite Juridique International de l'Aviatlon," advances have been made which, If continued, will revolutionize warfare. In their report just published the civil aerial transport committee pictures at an early date airships with 30 tons of disposable load and traveling at the rate of 60 miles an hour, with marked advantage over steamers on sea routes, and numerous commercial aircraft readily convertible to military usei The conditions of trade in time of war may in a few years be transformed as much as they were nearly a century ago by the Introduction of steam navigation. "Freedom of the seas" can no longer be considered apart from the difficult and pressing question of "freedom of the Air." It is rarely appreciated—and yet the British point of view is not understood jinless it is realized—that the pressure exercised upon Germany has not been due to any single measure, but a series of measures directed to one end. Not merely orders in council as to neutral vessels, but the Imposing of conditions as to the supply of coal, liberal treatment of neutrals whose ships or cargoes were detained or requisitioned, "black lists," reasonable agreements with neutrals as supplies of necessaries on conditions—these and many other measures were selected according as circumstances made the so called commercial blockade a formidable weapon of attack. Never before was Its "hitting power" shown as in this war. Doubtless neutrals have experienced much inconvenience by rea son of them. But would the United States have refrained in a life and death struggle from using any of.such measures? One other consideration weighs much with those who look to the future interests of England, and which makes them reluctant to bind themselves too Vlosely. It may be safe to frame rules to which honorable adversaries will generally conform. But what is to happen if they think it right to talk of "free dom of the seas" and yet commit foul crimes? To describe in a sentence the main British position, it is as follows: Readi ness to continue as heretofore freedom of the sea in times of peace which has been carried out by England—for example, as to admission of foreign vessels to the coasting trade—more than by any other important commercial country, md to agree to the conversion into a mare liberum of any sea now treated as mare clausum a strong conviction, greatly strengthened and hardened by the essons of this war, to maintain the minimum of safety for our people and em tire. and to be no party to any agreement conflicting or tampering therewith. belief that the conditions of warfare are so changing that we must be careful protect ourselves against perils ahead. Readiness to consider any changes at forward by neutrals consistent with these essentials. Desire to cooperate rendering impossible the hideous crimes committed at sea. Readiness, so nr as is compatible with safety in the full sense, to promote any practicable eheme for a league of nations. In short, a firm resolution as to essentials and open mind as to secondary matters. versity of California show the outcast undergrowth to have a tanning con tent of 17 per cent according to R. F. Mammatt, in charge of information for the United States-'forest servloe. A San Francipco tannery is making a practical experiment with the snow brush. Mammatt said.