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i Ls 7j2?,3 D.1U7 G33fct3 !. 1871 77; VUFJILOS. The Pueblo Indians of Now Mexico, olive fo 11 uiuéroiis and powerful, at th:; present day inhabit twcnly-six villages, situated principally in the valley of Del Norte, and t he whole population does not exceed ten thou sand. Anciently they composed four nation, speaking as many languages, namely, the Tiros, Teguas, Qucres, and Tagnos, or Tunos; but the vil lages of the latter have gone to ruins and the population has passed away; or if any of them remain, they have, become incorporated with other pue blos. They still Jive in little commu nities, di: tinct fiom the Mexican pop ulation, and arc governed by their own ocal customs and laws. Each village is distinct from the others, and there is no common bond of uni on bel ween their.. Their officers are a governor, a justice of the peace, or alcalde, styled cacique, a fiscal, or constable, to execute the laws and a "council of wise men.'' These are Ihe civil officers, and in addition there is a "war captain," who attends to military affairs. They have been made to embrace Christianity, and worship according to the forms of the Ponían Catholic Church, priests being stationed ia many of the villages. They area quiet and orderly people ami form a met Üoriotis claps oí the population of the Ton i lory. They are industrious and IV;;,. al, and live in harmony with each ot;ier and the surrounding Mex ican population. A few hundred ere:-, of :ind belong to each pueblo. Vv'h. h, f r purposes of cultivation, is parceled out to rcpceliye lamil'es. They raio grain, vegetables and fruits, manufacturo some wine and po,,scss considerable ilecks and herds. 'J'h.y ca!;ivaf.c by means of irrigation. They have rciaiued, in a great, mea sure their aboriginal costume, and ln : .- either in skins, or woolen goods ol'lhrir own manufacture. Their food is simple and wholesome, consisting mainly of beam-, peppers and com inea!, which are prepan d in a manner peculiar to these people. They arc ign. avail and s;t;e;-sii:iot!?,hut brave; an t ia-i.ad of ill' reash:g in numbers a-.Miear 0 be gradually dccrfisiij"-. It i; he l.e.lef of many persons that t.:o r:.:'.U) Indians of ':'.'t".v Mere ico , ;;(! rvi . láimvd from a wild stale and were sailed ia villages by the ÍSpani ,;n 1 .iiu.' Í , to b- ror it is hardly necessary after ti;e proof 0 the cji. fii'iiid in this article. is ideni cal with the o:;e !.'!s found ia xsow 2ie.icr:, cxp;)r.ii!ou oí' the coud .:i:.'.'rs, eus-ioius, iu;:e oí . ami (!:.;'.. bin iitile , oí !.' of M'!co projjor. i";r '..e ccxKi-.ie.sl, lite i'.'p.iiii.-i, 1 became renslblc o!' íhe !: '. l! I , l.'olicy thi.t would con' i !e .0 luirir.Toiiii and eo pet; rí't.l as tiie native inhabitants of iio, in'! aei odiiigly, ialó'JS, the !i;r Ciiarles V. authoried the rr--! ami governors to grant a eet - Mr :! Vii tai In 1 '.:: 1 1 í i'.y of and to each viün.'.e. the mountain pr.' tu; es and ti e waters were made comm:.n to both Spaniards and Indians. The decree of Philip II.. dated june 3ÓÍ7, coa- liriii! d, to tlie various pueblos, or vil lages, eleven hundred varas tquiite oí laud, which was afterward increased 1o a league square. Some of the decree-; i t.iie that the Indians were not to l ave any higher title in the land tha ...e right of possession; and the oni.ia;' " of Philip IV., of March 16th, :,tl. provides that the lands, which t'.i': Pueblo Indians have in any man ner improved by their industry, shall be reserved to tl.ein, but that they shad author have power to sell nor alienate the same. The decree of (he Koyal Audience of Mexico, of Feb ruary -3d, 1781, confirmatory of that r Philip IU., of October 20th, 1503, prohibits the Pueblo Indians selling, renting, leasing, or in any other man ner disposing of their lands, to each other or to third panics, v. ithout the consent of sai-i royal. . audience. Thc.-c authorities prove two facts if there were no other evidence on these points lirst, that the Spaniards found the Indians already settled in villagT eR and confirmed land to them to con ciliate them; aud second, that said jrants of land were held by right of possession only, the fee-si aiple re maining in the crown of Spain, from which it passed to the government of Mexico, a:id subsequently to the Mexico and State line and Albuquer Uuiied States, bv the treaty of Gua- a distance of about ISO miles, said . , .... , ties to be of good sound spruce or (la.t.pe iimaigo. ; pine timber; the dimensions Jo be six P'spacc permitted, it would be 111-,5 inches thick, not less than six : te.esiing to inquire th'j probable ori-j inches free, and six and one-halt 'j "in of the Pueblo Indians and whence ! fret Bidders will specify where UK. t i I U 1 1 L -A- I v. V un i H " . w -w . - w on this subject one that they are of Aztec origin, raid the other that they are the rennins of aToltcc colony, ac- ' f.ordiii'i to tradition Vrhcn tlm Az-! teca peopled New Mexico they came from the North, or North-west, and only reached their new homes in the valley of the Anahuac, after a period of an hundred and fifty years, halting from time to time, and building vil-1 lages and cultivating the earth. Cas- j í -!... ..., I Kr tl.nt i in Piinliln taneda was ot opinion that the i iieoio Indians came from the North-west. If this were the case some of the mi grating Aztecs must have remained in New Mexico and not moved on with the main body. There is a tradition among them, that they are the people of Montezuma. The survivors of the Pecos people believed that he would return and deliver them from the Spaniards, down to the time they be came extinct, while the Cod of Lagu na is called by his name. All the pu eblos keep up the estufa, because it is said to have been instituted by . a- r 1 .11 Montezuma. A Joincz muían ton lieutenant Simpson that God and the sun were one and the same, liaron Humboldt contended that the Aztec language d i lie red essentially from that of the Pueblo Indians, and Cas-i Hie office of the undersigned until ta.ieda declared that the latter were i n" November 20th, 179, tor the . . , , . ,.,r . I liradmg ot the San .Mian h::tc::-aon oí unknown to the mhaodauts ot Mexi-, ,ho l)cnvcr & (;r(lo í:tVv-ay co, untii liaoa and his companions from a point near tlie town ot Conc bronht iufoi ination of them. The I jos. in the County of Conejos, to a lato Albert Galhitin believed tliem to bo of Toltcc origin. Notvit'.udani! ing tliero are many fac'... in opposi tion to the theory thai the pueblo In dians and I!k; A::iccs belong to the same race, the similitude between their manners and custom';, and their mode of building and living would argue aa identity; and if, upon care ful investigation, ilieir laugtuign shall be found substantially the same, 11k: evidence on the subject would ap pear quite conclusive. Ii2Vi" x'.;ex:co. Iew Mexico is rich in cattle, hor.es, j ..iicep, gold, silver, coioier, iron, and j coal. It hi protuieltvo 1:1 lis moua- bcaletl proposals wi.l bo received lain and vallov re-ions of whet !,t t!ie olliee 01 u e undersigned until ,. . t " ".'.' ,' "' noon, December 10, iM'ni Kir the ;:ra ra.uvs, iino wines, Iruits, ami vege- aing ofthc Xew Mexico r.::ionsion .. bles ot all Kiuds. It ft climaio is the 'the Denver and Rio C ran do I'ailwtiv. dryost and most healthful in the Ciií- :e.-l t-.tat.ns nnd ! m;..,...i i .ui.ht lcuiiiiivaui'! nv.a wonaerf.i; v ... ....... t. . 1 1 t , .... CU 13 tin try u graim be;-inr.d a 'rio.; of í I aniiqua ii.;a '! I .. ... I .no iii-e- t huerca (;) jiw. hist Ofh 1 . . j 81,(1 i,':oit:r' ! ;co has raiii oad li the v.)U of the ! -Vow C-tPlTcv .oiiimiinica'ion v; touiUry tlie or:; oí ;.t begins and i a-i i'íi;,;;ríaat ravi "- of !''; can':1 :is rapid -.!'.; 1. top f: !o jday fuiu :ivlO- l'-í.'alcrs in I:.:ra;v; i'o, t-i oves, tm- v.-are, etc, throughou! the T;';'; : ud tho PaifiiaKdle of Ti -is v. 1 ory t ..i' do well to bear iu mind that O. I,. I'oughton, of Las Vegas, Las the h'rgcst slock in i'his line of any house m Southern Colorado and Kcw Mex- ico. líe is nrei-arcil to do a v..h!í. sale business v-th ti;;? e(o;:l; on hand, Retail dealers can suio'v thenv-i.vcs at his store, without goLig í:or man i.rir- v cuas. FOR CROS.S-TIICS. Colorado Si'itixtis, Colorado, ) October '2.3, li'-J. Sealed proposals will be root ved n't the ollice of the inidersrined until noon, November loth, 187;), for fur- i nisbinir one hundred and sixty thous and (160.000) cross ties for the graded road bed of the Denver .t líio (.raudo Kailway between Alamosa and the of good sound spruce or )ine limber; Notice is hereby, liven that the mi the' dimensions to bo six (?) iuches ilcrsigned has been appointed admin- thick, uot less than six (C, Uu-iw Cwo and six and one-half ((!) feet Ion", j fscd, 1J tho Honorable PiohaUt Bidderf will specify whether theyjiro- Court, in Kiid for the county of San pose to deliver along ihe irraded road Míí"el. All jiersons indebted to yaid bed or along the line of the construct-1 tc tire hereby notified to make im cd road between Veta Pass and Ala-1 mediate settlement, and all persons mosa, and in the latter case at what station. Payments in cash on month ly estima I Forms of proposal and contract cr had upon application to the undei igued. A suíl ;. nt in demnifying bond will be required in each case. II. F. Wia ranKC, 11-15 Treasurer. Colorado Sruixos, Colorado, October 20i h, 1870. SEALPT) PHOTON i,c ,v;n 1. ''i-'1" lovli ,llfi 10,1 ,'ork rininlu'í t citli i f .i ,?. V',in l,,;,IC"!nn(. half niile thwice cast ft(ihtv nvls. tin t,r( eciveuat the ofhee oí the under-! noriii mhiv miif. thum-o c,i.-t eisriuv vols. signed until noon November S'-'th 1WTO r.,i. 1, i i i " i 18Í), tor lurnishmg six hundred and lortv thousand (lilO.OOO) cross lies for the graded road bed of the D.-nyer ft lijo Craude Uaihvay between the New in cash on monthly estimates. Form of proposal and contract can be had i upon application to the undersigned. A sufficient indemnifying bond will k. 1 :.. ....i. .... uu tliu"t:" 1U 'iir-e. tí. F. i:iti:kk', Treasurer. 11-29. COLORADO SiM.lNi'S, COLORADO. 1 October 29, 187'J. Sealed proposals will be received at the office of the undersigned until noou, November 21), 1879, for furnish- "'n olA IIUUUIUU lili Jul IV 1 1 lio, I ill I . ... , , (640,000) cross ties for Ihe graded road bed oí the Denver fc líio C ramie Itailway between the juuetion of the San Jaun and New Mexico lines near Conejos and the Animas river, a dis tance of about one hundred and sixty miles; said tics to be of good sound spruce orpine timber; the dimensions six 6 inches thick, not less than six 6 inches face, and six and one half 6l feet long. Didders will specify where they propose to deliver. Pay ments iu cash on monthly estimates. Forms of proposal and contract can be had upon application to the undersign ed. A sufficient indemnifying bond will be required in each case. 11-29 If. F. WKiTintEC, Treas. f FOB UltADK. COLOIIADO Sri!tX(i.S, COI.OKADO ) October '2óth, 1879. s Sealed proposals will be received at point on the "jan .litan I livor, near tin mouth of the Piedras, a distance of about one hundred and twenty-six j r in! toe f!'lin 1 vt ií c 1 if 1 00 1 rf u ' L . ...... u.-. (mi.uii r1..niin..i,VI. and form of bid can be seen at the oí tico of d. A. Mv.liifirk, Chioi'Eno;i:i . eer, South Pueblo. Colorado, on ai.i after November l.'ilh. UTO. i'aymeiü.- i n tn Tliníln litni:li'' l coicli llui íic- ' tímate of the engine er in charge of the work, and within twenty days af ter the close of each month. Con tractors are requested to examine the line before bidding. A suitable in demnifying bond will be required in j each case. : 11-20 II. F. Wkiti::;i:c, Treasurer. ! ! Colorado Sphixhs, (Colorado, ? I October 81, 187Ü. S I from a point near the town of Cone- jos, to the crossing oi't::e uranite anee ol IO; I, lii.til it. n.iTfiH , n .. 1. X 'wi a (;i--. a i , '.out ,")7 i:ii'e.-. Th fious, ar.tt form of bid eat ieen at iin oince 01 ... ... .i!".!i;'::', t iUn rCA,.n i'C .'. U' - ürineer, Soit Pueblo, Coi'M-ado.t.n ! on I t í'l at. "f.wt,)' , ' .. ! " l.! ; '") !.-. ! It I M l (11..'. U'ot I . '.'I i', t (.1 meats to 1m m;,do iio:íh'ly in cash on the estimate ot :!io oagineer in di:rg of the work, and witiaa twenty days alter Tlie ctü;:e or eat.n iuov.i n. Loa- traetars rrc retjuehl::d to ox.'.'.;iii:e the liuo before b:ú lin Si;nl!i:t: (!":aiifying bond w (wh e;'.-e. V2-10 11. F. Trrr:-. 'iu red i uro C OI.OI ro s 'l.i.vr: Co (.Viol. 1 fj'i, WO. Sealed proposal; vr;-l b lvccivou at the office of the Riüi.-ivb'r.otl 1 it? til noon, December '20, .l-'f:), i,v tho gra ding of the Saa Juaa M.v.tensioa of the Denver l-i Ilio tirando Puilwav from ti point on the Saa .uan river near the mouth of thePio.Las to the Ani mas river, a distan c of about 18 miles The profile spi ci!i( Mii-ais and form of bid can be seen at ( ii;? cilice of.!. A. McMurtrie, Chid' Hiir; nicer. Soi.lh ! Pueblo, Colorado, on ami after Dec ember 15, lyyf. Paym;uis to be made monthly ia cash on ! lie estimate of the engineer in charge of the work, and within twenty days after the close of each ma1h. Contractors are requesf f d to examiiic the line before bithlinii. A suitable indoinnifyiug bond will be rcouired ia cat. li case. 12-20. I. P. Wkitiuiec, Treasurer, Aámmfet ratnr's UtiVí?' istrator ot the estate ol .1. iir i: lie haying claims against saul estate art! notified to present them within the next sixty clays. L. L. llowisox, Administrator. Las Vegas, X. M.; Nov. (5, 1879. 89ni3 Notice IS HKItEnY (1VKX THAT 1 CLAIM. KOK irriiiiií itii ii)8c-, tliü loilowiiiji dt-ici tbei liind t. ,tlt i'l'fll tlil.lio i l r till ml 1'fli trils Foittl'i nuil one lmnitrcil y;inl w est ot ihe house ! tiK'niw mhhi'i one hii'.t'niii, thence wet eighty voiln, tliencc xoufli eighty voiU, Uienco west ..htv rods to i.ia.c oF i-,bi?h,nio)i. ontuining WO ti:.rt. limroor Said laml belni? i"1""-- ' ;;!!;rc,f"mh fork wf ,ho ''.HiJl-liK!1'1 ' o.-oiier'ai i"o-w4t TnECtRRKXCYtimT.OX. Xotwlthstiiüiilns lie Incl Unit Iliiiiis.iinK .i'oiii lf))lo lire tit ))i-osfHt worrjlu OiciliM lvti :il most lo ücmh over tli i cxmi qiu siiois wn 'i t lie extent of noídiü'tiii thi'ir Iniíluf.-s, their ami homes their .nay in liu ir laiinlie, thcrt'ui e still tlioiHiiniU uiinil tti. Hssimts olMimri. li:ml ioil.iiiir, iniclliiruiit men Hiurlri(.' into ihe.reut ArkaiiHiis Viiiley, the Garden ti the West, where t lie Atchison, 'l'uekii A Suntii te. liailrui'.o ul-ti-.ra them their clioire of i'iiNI,(ino act en tit XUv linc-t hn ining lanils in the wurlii ti t uhno-t then owii jirtces. It jon ilo not believe it, write to the umtersipnod, who will tell you where on can &et 1 cheap land exploring ticket, unil how, at a moderate expense, juii can ce for youi oel and be convinced. W. V. WIHTK, ilcncral Pasttngcr and Tiikr Agrnt, 'Id.iekA. l.tiiu. muí Transporiafioii Co. SANTA FE tO PRESC0TT. Shortet, Quickest and Cheapen route to Arizona. Rnnninir ft through daily coitvcyinee for M-nirers Kxpress, Bint mull from Suits t'V, N. M. to l're.scott Arizona in I'nttr ilnys. The r.liovt est nivl qulclvcst lotite to 1'ort Winjtate and Kurt Defiance, X. M , and ('ami Apache, Mormon Settlements on 1itllo Colorado ltiver, i.ani) Verde, Molmra, and the mining dt-tvletd of Globe. Tombstone, mid t'rescott Arizona. K. A. FISK, Santa Fc, Attorney & Mn'gr. Las Vegas & Las Crucos nr. . iiSjijidVM Via Aufon Chico, G'alJiitNx Spniiyx. Sania llosa, Puerto tie, L: na, ort nm nry , lloswcll, Lincoln. Fori iitan'o it, South Fork ual Tu larosa. I Carries Ph.-pergers and Express on j ir-asouable Tor:. -. j lVfr;t ;r. I - AX!)- I Í 1 Ií?í V í VV-l LLxl r.y t i", ':::!:!. s. Vi'ootti:n i 1 PB THOUSAND. id their I.u:,V.)iir VnrJ, vt the rliiniiii.ji Hill ra ti Ai C) "Lc-;,ve your orders al the store r-f T. lioiaero l!ro"í.. ; fc'on. T;' T? f T T.1 v 7 rv - a "p- n . i. i!vt,tiX. i. Cv Jxi 1Il.N X, Í.AS VKGAii, X. M. All ,. . r.i! f, is -( i ii)v:.iod in 0iff!itlro, r'narl-iia.üii.-.! t-uiui-iry. oc-itwtt' 'ípí ipí"5 f ffj s'í CA fVff n Tí n ? This House tins hcen ne.vly romi i.-ihetl llivdiiKlioiit. ltooias well vi nlilatci ii-.nl r.heer liil. Lveiytliinj; connected with the e.it;iblih H' .; clean, coniioi lubic and iinruotivi'. -HE TABLE INVITING. The patronage of the traveling pub lic is invited. JUDGE S. A. UÜBI3ELL, Prov, Lat Vrgatt N. M. ? EX CI I ANC E t 11 N G V. 1 HOTEL, "HOTEL. EXCHANGE HOTEL. A?ÍD United States Fokaqk Ah-:xcy United States Fon age Ackncv LAS VKUA8, XKW MKXICO. LAS VtUAS. NKW Mi:lv,l) This hotel has been newly relitted itud oilers Sl'PRRTOTl ADVAX'TAtiKS SVPKEIOR ADVA NT A (KS FOU THE ACCOMMODATION EOll THE ACCOM MOO AT iON OK OF OV OF TITK TlfAVKUXG I'LIU.iC. T11K TliAVKt.lMi t'l 15UC. xm 'rui': BiLLiAR' KOOM Ut, lilLLiAh. :oo.u E- THE MILLIARD !.':.(. M has! i'i-t-'-'ass Tl.les, n VÍIE BAR tiik B.r, Til iC Z 11 X II K U L li tub r...t 'J 'Hli V.Mi is: always supplied v. '.th the very is always supplied with the very i;::pt liqiiofh, ctcap.s. etc, urs?! i.iQtiOus, r'HAKS, rrc, I;:íST LlQt)0i:5, CICAUS, ETC., !' VA) CORitAL FEED COllKAL AND TJVKitYSTAllLF, .TTAC.rn UViMY -TAHiiK A'JTAC;. j ton ..mm: i :')!: a 1. k i t ::.- o . T :;t .. ivirlf- I . . se!:--, Ohnrb-' ív,ail V-?s '. . t at ." ' -'- vv eu ':)-. i . j-M- or. i'ror. ' : : i,-'. 6. ih 3 .- ' .1 !. r ' . : 1 j .' : . 1 vji to- The itloet improved ít:.i jr -r-T ri Ti 7 IJACiilNE,?. I cut Vo fcttvA ft rttAMC UrAP:'.'A:; f: o, kiilvlal ; !C3 ju'i(.t.-! irciy ::t :u ! i i -.1. V. A. I'.';,s. AsKi. í.o.; Vejes, - - 2ic u- : AT '11113 CHICAGO SIIOSIKG CHOP, !:jrs ::1! Uluils cr ULACK.'íMn Í, WAi-(- AM) CASMJlAtiU Wi.üK, .'.mili.? a .UüiíSKsiroHU has ua ciiiiul in tlie Itrtl'liOl'V . Mew If pis. -IEMi2g''- i h3 Ü m. Mi -A 3í D- irrices -I X- líf ew Hesñco KAUT LAS VKiJAS, Op o -lle 1 i-ovTiic. ,V SL.ii;'-ni;rc.