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vVater for Milk Cooling.
Success in butter making depends)
very Inrgeiy on tlie uniount of wntet
available and its quality, both as to
purity and temperature. Where mill
has to be shipped to the city, or to the
creamery or bottling plant, it must,
immediately after being drawn, be
cooled to a temperature as near fiO
degrees ns possible. The fanner who
has a large supply of ice will find no
trouble in obtaining these results, but
most farmers have no ice in sufficient
quantities to enable them to cool the
milk twice a day throughtout the en
tire milking seaHon. In the northern
climates the farmers have below them
n source of water supply that is sel
dom fully utilized. Twenty feet below
the surface of the ground begins the
zone of thermal equilibrium. Tills
.one extends down to about 80 feet, in
depth. This means that there is n
layer of about CO feet of earth that
has a uniform temperature through
out the year. This temperature de
creases as we go north and increases
as we go south. In Manitoba the tern
pernture is nbout 40 degrees, in north
ern Wisconsin about 4f., in northern
Illinois around 50, and a little south
of that about degrees. The writer
tested the wnte-r at one Illinois cream
fry and found it to have a tempera
ture of 50 degrees. This water was
being used in the cooling of milk. It
will thus be seen that a farmer who
has a well from ao to 40 feet deep
has reached well into the zone of ther
mal equilibrium. If the water is
drawn from the bottom of the well
instead of from the surface, the far
mer has a fair substitute for ice. ICv
ery farmer should have a windmill, or
some other mechanical power for the
raising of water. In such a case ho
can pump a steady stream of water
into the vat in which his cans are
placed and the milk will be quickly
reduced from its temperature of over
:)0 degrees to about 50 degrees. This
supply of cold water is too often not
utilized. It is no uncommon sight in
traveling through the country to see a
can of milk sitting in a tub of water
beside the wel' curb. The tub has
been tilled with surface water from
the well and has been quickly raised
in temperature by the heat escaping
from the can. It is not surprising that
in such milk, lactic acid ferments de
velop rapidly, and that the milk keeps
for but a short time. Such milk, in
stead of having a temperature of HO
degrees, will bo found to have a tem
perature nearer 70, which is a tem
perature admirably adapted to the
multiplication of bacteria.
Retain the Humus:.
What is known as humus in the
soil is vegetable matter in the process
of decay. Some of this vegetable mat
ter decays in a few weeks, while oth
ers require several years to cliange
their form. This mass of vegetable
matter in tho soil adds bulk to it,
which bulk both helps to let in the
air and to retain moisture. The de
caying vegetable matter holds more
moisture than tho soil particles, and
it has been shown that soil rich in
humus has a larger per cent of moix
ture at all times of year than does
soil out of which ihe humus has been
exhausted. Humus is destroyed not
only by this natural tendency to (lo
ony, but by its exposure to the sun,
when it has been turned up by the
plow. It is also destroyed by quick
lime, which in doing so liberates the
plant food. For this reason tho appli
cation of fresh lime to soil is fre
quently destructive in its results. Tho
loss of humus in the soil weakens it
in regard to its ability to resist drouth
and to produce crops. Augustus .Mi
hill, Adams Co.. 111.
Breeds of Cows
ihe Color of But
In Canada there is a movement in
favor of central curing stations for
r.reeds ut cot ..re noted for tho
variations in the color of their butter
Tho breed that produce tho highest
color of butter is tin- Guernsey, n
breed that originated on tho Island ot
Guernsey in tho Uritish Channel. This
breed may come to be extensively
bred and used on account of the high
color it gives the butter. Moreover,
the c.ipr of the butter from this breei
is high even in winter and on drj
feeds. If there conies a time who:
butter contains only the color natur
ally found in it. doubtless Guemsc:
cows will bo at a premium. Next t
the Guernsey stands the Jersey, who.,
butter is also yellow, yet not so ye!
low as that of the Guernsey. Durham
cows produce sometimes a fairly col
ored butter, but at. other times am'
with other individuals the butter is
nearly white. Ayrshire and Hoi
steins produce a butter that is yellow
only in the summer time and on greeu
feeds. In tho winter It is nearly i
white. In the butler mad'j from our j
native cows there are all gradations
of color. This is due to the fact oi ,
their mlxed-up origin. The old Devon 1
breed, which was the foundatioi. j
stock- in some localities on the eastern
coast, gave milk that was ery richly j
colored, while many of the other anl- i
mals gave nearly white mill;. . T'.i. '
result is that tlioir descendants giv
milk that has no particular charac
terlstic as to color. Adelberi Shadl.t r
ger, Booue Co.. Mo
Acid Strength of Vinegar.
In .sumo of our states tho pure foot',
laws regulate the strength of vinegar,
and it is quite generally required tha'
cider vinegar shall have at least 4.5
per cent of acetic acid. It is assumed
that if the vinegar does not come up
to this requirement the product ha
been adulterated by the adding of
water. Yet it is a fact that can be
demonstrated that some of the cider
made from apples will not produce
vinegar that has the required amount
of acetic acid. This seems never to
have been considered by the legis
lators. If partly ripe apples are used
or if the apples have passed beyond
their prime they sometimes do not con
tain enough sugar to produce 4.5 per
cent of acetic acid in the vinegar. V:
do not say that the law should be
changed, but warn farmers to use
fully matured apples. It is also Uk
part of wisdom to avoid the soakim;
of the pomace with water and squeez
ing it a second time to get out more
of the juice. It is true that if th-.
vinegar is to lie used at home tlili
may make no difference, but It may
If the vinegar is to be sold on th?
market. If cider has been made frov.i
unripe apples or toakod pomace th
water content may be reduced b.v
giving it an opportunity to ovaporat.i
a certain per cent of water while it
Is undergoing tho chemical changes
required to make it into vinegar.
ORCHID RAISERS SING PRAI9E. I
Rare Specimen Sought for Years Is J
Found In Tibet.
Great excitement lias hern caused
among orchid collectors by the in for- (
mat Ion that, a rat e specimen whose
habitat for nearly fifty years has been
sought in ain has been rediscovered.
There came to London in 1S57, from
India, a miscellaneous stock of or
chids. They were duly sold at auc
tion, and some of thein wero bought '
by a Mr. Falrlie of Liverpool. In bio
possession they bloomed, and one of
thorn was recognized as a variety pre
viously unknown and of singular beau- !
ty. It was named after Its owner
Cyprlpodlum Falriennum. The Indian ,
collection couiained several other
I ' S 'I'll.' I
You take no
b'i In ft hfir
tifxn from in:
O 1 IM'V mi s in -turned
It I Clllfff lit
e l Tlil dmi
l.ln l .-.1111 liar
ill III I'd
1.1 i'Ctl ,
i Sinil f. . i
ii.' I-,. M-f- I i"t pr.
M....II,.,- Siiulill,. .V ItkM-
Cii.. Ili:i-Hl l itrlniiT St., Denver. Coin.
Useless Work of Inspection.
Much ut the work bolt: 5
don.' by tho Illinois Dairy
and Food Commission Is wasted
effort. Men are sent around to th
various creameries and make elaboi
ate reports of everything connected
with the creameries. These reports
arc published annually, and that Is all
there is to it. Xo prosecutions are
undertaken, and we fail to see where
anything comes of tho work", except
that tho officials find some way to
narn their salaries. There could be
but one reason for having tho Dairy
and Food Commission Inspect the
dairies, and that is to prevent mi
healthful conditions existing. Tho
more making and publishing of a re
port does not affect the situation at
Wlo.t native liiaml on i li Tibet hot (lot
has been i 'ilisi-iivoied. after bclni;
list fifty .ears.
specimens of the same plant and
keen was the competition that ensued
fcr their possession. But most of tho
purchasers simply wasted their money,
the plants did not flourish. The origi
nal stock dwindled and died. For
many years there has been only a:
specimen in existence among or.ild
collectors, mid a diminutive one at
that. Hut its possession has been suf
ficient to confer additional distinction
on its distinguished owner. Sir Trovoi
Lawrence, president of the Royal Hor
ticultural Society. Tho aim of every
orchid enthusiast is to get hold of an
orchid that nobody else has. Sir
Trevor lias several times boon offered
big sums for his puny Fairieanum.
but nothing could induce him to part
The Tibet expedition, which sought
to open up the Forbidden Land to the
trade of India, brought back speci
mens of pretty nearly everything that
could be obtained In that grim region.
One member of the mission who was
a botanist discovered a lot of orchids,
which were sent to Calcutta. From
thence two of them wove dispatched
to Kew Gardens. Ono of them has
just flowered and experts have pro
nounced It tho long sought and redis
Close to tho principal cntranco to
old Kirk Braddan (Eng.) churchyard
is a stone which probably not ono In
a thousand of the thousands cf visi
tors who assemble there Sunday by
Sunday ever notice. It has engraved
upon it the following curious intima
tion: "Hero unlerlyeth the body f
the Rev. Mr. Patrick Thompson, min
ister of God's Word forty years, at
present vicar of Kirk Braddan. aged
Klxty-soven, Anno 1(578, deceased An.
.ifS'J." The reverend gentleman had
hi 5 tombstone erected eleven years
Vffore he died. The Incident, how
ever, is not so uncommon as would u
that appear. There is erected a stone
) i Onchnn (I. O. M.) churohyard to
day, snored to the memory 0f a man
vho Is still alive.
Tin: c. w. i aii: rouNieii wokk ;.
Mi'tin .vi MkMn. ."IJltiiDi-d Bt'i oi'lltHKR. t'lt"
I nc n'i'l 'liito 'I a nil rirtnl niofi, te
Tin: ( oi.ou.vnn ti-:t .v awni.vo co
1 1 ti hi ii kn. rump Kuril 1 1 ore, I; hm-t.
l'.:'l l.fiwri'tico Itivor. Coloniilfi
Wx J. H, WILSON STOCK SADDLES
AHk your I'uiirr t tlnin 'I Mho pn (itlnr.
llunhwire X Iron Co.. I.Mli Sr Wnr-P. Denver.
QTftVF IMITAtl. "f p..,v known milk
0 I U I L ' n' . In no in rniip.'. Ofu. A.
I'll, ii-ii 1 l 1 m -n--. I Join "r. i'lH'lie 7;j.
AMERICAN HOUSE i';;',::,,1;;:::;
lift 2 iirri'.iiy I tf i in llio Wi-it A in.-i-lo in lUi.
BROWN PALACE HOTEL nVri"!.
Kiiropciin nliui. Sl.iV) unil mtmirri.
Oxford H ot el
l)i'itvr. Ono Mod. fr un 1'nlmi Dimmi.
J Iri-i'.i'iinf. r. II. Mr.
WHOLESALE GROCCRS l' 7'.,
Otoe Brands of Canned Goods
1 In- I. . Hosier .V 1 1 1 1 1 .Uit. 1,,.. lleiMcr
i hi: AiiM.smoM. ti icm-.k co..
NognoiiM lutu.i. I .M ti ITCti aiiimIh m. Ubivht
I ha Colorado Saddlery Co,
V. ii. .iilf Mn ii 'ii. t
Sllllillub "f i I
a "i l"n.-
II "1- ' I ' ' inn Iv ll III
Jllll "l 111 U'.Ji II VI. I. . Ill' ItilO ll"l'H.
IN hmimiimI 1Si;. iiMi-m, uiiMst and mum
th'iriiunli I': i '"I'M ml... Nv I'ui-iHi ii. ! it mt
lixtniin. A si-iitim-i- ixistiiiii.s Iti-an'iiinliln
inllli'ii. C'lii.-ns In M.iMkUiM'iniiu. Shun liiiinl
nun i i'ii'hniiii.i . .-""ini i'U iiitniiKiinii' iic".
rlnl iiinl iIoihtIpiIm' -al:ilnji u- . I I'm fn
icrm njii'iiH cjit.
t. .tirvni n i...i.i.r.
juu j-iiui-i -iirisi Mini; ii.'innr. 1
W. L. Douglas
W. L. Douglas $4.00 Cilt Edge Lino
cannot bo oquallocl at any price.
i . r.fianiiniioii
111 .lniy ti. 1876.
w.L.anum as makes and sells
MORE MEM' 3 SS.GO SHOES THAU
ANY OTHER MANUFACTURER
i Mfl find REWARD to anyone who cm
(.. glU,UUU dltprovo this Statement.
W. t.. Donjlus $.1.50 ftliors linve tiy their ex
cellent style, cany fitting, anil superior s enrlni;
qualltlct, achieved the luruct tale oi any $J.50
flhoo In the world. They are Just as good bjj
those that cost you $5.0U to 57.00 the onlv
dIKerence Is the price. W I could tuke you Into
my factory at Brockton, Mnua., the largest In
tho world under ono roof innkln ineiru fine
hoes, and show you the cure with which every
pislr of Douglas shoes Is mode, you would realize
why W. I.. Doup.las $3.50 shoe are the best
shoes produced In the world.
If I could show you the difference between tho
shoes made In my factory iind those of other
makes, you would understand why Douglas
$3.50 shoes cost more to make, why they hold
their shiipe, fit better, wear longer, and are of
greattr Intrlnolc vuhio than any other 5J.50
hoe on the mnrkee io-dny.
W. L. Douqfaa Strong Motto Shoes for
Man, $2. BO, $2.00. Bays' School &
Orean ShooB,$it.60, $2, 1.76, $1. BO
CAUTION. Ii.Mst upon h:iviii "VV.L.Iiong.
slino". Tiik-i n nuhst It ut r. Xono genuine
without his i. iin unit prlro utmnpod on bottom.
iVANTF.D, A h-ii doalnr Inoviiry turn wliern
. I.. JjnueU si mo imt Fold. 1'nll lino ol
lumples Hont fro fur Inspoi'tJnn upon request.
fast Color Eyelets used; thei will not wear brapjL
Write for JUuitrnti'il 'kU& i.i.'L.Jfid
Y. I.. DOLUUAS, li ocktoji, iilktt.