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SULPHUR IN AGRICULTURE
By Geo. D. Coleman Raw sulphur, or brimstone, sulphur tmcombined chemically, is as inert in the soil as so much broken glass, but in its chemical compounds it is very active and is really necessary for fer tility. You will say that in soil anal ysis these is no mention made of sul phur, but that is not the fault of sul phur ; it is that the analyzers do not re cognize its value, and thç usual meth ods of analysis take no account of it and handle the analysis in a way to drive off the sulphur. This is due to the ignorance of the scientific "big wigs" of the facts. All protean com binations either in plants or animals, contain a small but appreciable amount of sulphur. Sulphur is found in hair and feathers, in the ISver of animals and man, and in alfalfa, clover and all of the nitrogen plants, and even in other plants, and it is not there as an impurity, for nature makes no mistakes —it is man, in his assumed superior wisdom, that credits nature with mak ing mistakes and blunders. When men understand that there is intelligence, differing from his, in all of natures processes, he will cease to assume that he known it all, and accept the humil ity of the agnostic. Sulphur is to be found, if searched for, in all fertile soils. Alfalfa, clo-1 ver, and legumes will not grow where sulphur is absolutely absent, and a Soil absolutely devoid of all or any of the very many combinations of sul phur is a sterile soil, and if nothing is i added that contains sulphur in some form, it will remain sterilie. It is also because of its homeopathic quantity that it is ignored. It is now 53 years since my attention was first drawn to sulphur as a neces sary element of fertility. In 1869, when in Messina, Italy, I visited the fertile slopes of Mount Etna and was surprisel at the high average of natural fertility of thes oils, and attributed it to the volcanic ash which was in the soil. I spoke to an intelligent Italian about it and he replied, "Yes ,the vol canic ash has much to do with it there is no doubt, but it is that all this soil has some form or combination of sul phur in it." Later, when I visited the vineyards on the slbpes of Vesuvius and saw the fine grapes and other things grown there, I remembered what the £p)d Italian had told me in Sicily and commenced to study the subject, and my observations and studies led me to THE RE-BUILDING OF L1ANO r m Need of Hotel and Other Buildings Daily Becomes More Urgent-New Electric Light and Power Plant Provid ed For.-Next Is New Hotel m Mb m.ffl EE ffl ffl_s b_ EDffl BE Llano Colony will soon have a new electric light and power plant, a visit ing comrade having advanced the en tire amount for its purchase and erec tion. We now have half the necessary funds for the first brick residence build ing, the elevation and floor plans for which are shown here and about which we have been talking for some time. This building is to be only a part (one of the wings) of our complete hotel arrangement, which will include several such buildings around a central unit which will house the kitchens, din ing rooms, cafeterias, library and read ing rooms. It is estimated that this first brick building would cost $60,000 to have it built by contract. But by building it with our own labor and almost entire ly out of materials from the natural resources on Llano land, the cash out lay is proportionately small. The workers have built all the fine hotels, but few have aspired to live in them, and our object is not only to in spire the desire to do -so, but also to offer the opportunity to the workers. There are many co-operators who are not yet prepared to take up their permanent abode with us in Newllana City, and for these comrades rooms are reserved at $250 each, and the patron may come at any time and occupy the room as long as he desires. This plan offers advantages to those who plan to spend the winter in the South, as by the reservation of a room they can live with us the greater part of three winters—250 days in all—be fore their investment is used up. By living with us, we mean that you will be entitled to eat three meals a day with us. We will not lose anything on this arrangement. Our present hotel rate is $1.00 per day for room and board, and there is no reason for rais ing the price, as food is produced too cheaply to necessitate that — with the wastes and profits of capitalism aUr.L ished.* Any balance cm® a ee-uperaror «m • room reservation may at any time be credited on a full membership appli cation, and we earnestly invite all co operators to visit us at any time they are able to do so and familiarize them selves with our achievements and our aims. If one can spend only a week or two, he will in that short time be able to learn much as to our resourc es and the soundness of our plans and the wonderful possibilities of the co operative efforts of those who produce the wealth of the world but have it taken from them in a thousand forms of profit, interest, aa4 rent. "%s WW maiemkm to explain in the columns of The Llano Colonist, but we are always glad to answer questions —always glad to hear from those who are interested in the progress of our work. And if you have $250 that you can spare—we are sure that it can never be used so effectively as just at present. It is an investment and not a donation that we are asking you to make, and you can apply it on a com plete membership or use it for. vaca tion purposes at any time you please. =CF =CF =0= A wTrnzrw a I a is 7= 7=^ m ¥ 1 ^ Y ^ —n— d=b di The Electric Plant Problem Has Been Solved. The Next Big Thing in the Line of Construction Is The New Hotel, and We Are Half Way Toward Starting It. NOW Is the Time YOU Can Help Most. Let us Hear From You. Write for more information and tell us what you think of our work. Llano Co-operative Colony Leesville, La. the present conviction of the great val ue of sulphur in agriculture, and jhat some sulphur is needed in soils to main tain fertility. Just as it is found in all protean forms, just so, in its com binations is it protean, or changing. If you don't believe that, look it up in some good encyclopedia, or see what is told about it in Webster's Unabridg ed Dictionary. WhiEs pure sulphur is as inéjrt as broken bottles, it is a perfect Harlequin in its many chemical combinations. Monoxide of sulphur is sulphur and ox ygen ,one atom each; dioxide is sul phur one, oxygen two; and in sulphur ic acid wè find sulphur combined with foiir parts of oxygen and two of hy drogen. This is a compound made by man and is not found in nature. Mod ern manufacturing processes could not go on without it; but it is its combina tion as a gas that it figures most in agriculture. When sulphur is burned in the open air, or in a chamber or ov en, the resulting combination is sul phurous acid gas. This is a pungent gas, penetrating and diffusive, and is the best fungicide, germicide, bleach er, and parasite killer there is. This gas is absorbed by water in large quan tities, exactly what the. point of com plete and possible saturation is has not been lefinately settled, but water that has absorbed large quantities qf it, it ^ forms an equeoils solution that is a powerful fungacide, germacide, bleach er, parasite killer, and will f'ults, eggs, and kill blight in the soil But, while it is ail of this, if not used too abundantly and powerfully, it is the best encourager of the growth of bene ficial bacteria, and especially the bac teria of nitrification. A sufficient quantity and strength to kill the fun gus growths in the soil and destroy the blight in potatoes, tomatoes and blight generally, and act as a germicide, will encourage and stimulate the growth of bacteria that are beneficial and its ef fect upon alfalfa, clover and all the ni trogen-gathering plants is really aston ishing. We have had bulletins from agricul tural colleges and departments, upon the use of suiphur, which spoke entire ly of sulphate of lime, sulphate of am monia, sulphate of potash, etc, etc., annd headed the bulletins "The use of Sulphur"; but the only agricultural collegt that has experimented with raw sulphur' applied to the soill has been the Oregon Experiment Station. Of course, raw sulphur is inert, but it oxydizes in the soil and quickly gets to work, and they found the yield of alfalfa was in creased double, and even trebled. This is not a matter of yesterday, but of several years, and the Reports of the Oregon Station have been widely cir culated; yet, strange to say, on account of the obstinate conservatism of the scientific profession, ihey have not passed the knowledge on, but have preserved, in the main, a dignified si lence that has probably increased their dignity "an' a* that," but seriously im peaches their intelligence and common sense. i ' ' The saturated aqueous solution of sulphurous acid gas is most useful on the farm. It will allay the smarting and itching and swelling of poison oak or Rus Toxicodendron, and a cloth wet in it and applied to a burn or a scald will hasten the healing as it destroys all germs and is a cooling, healing ap plication. It will cure ring worm and scaly leg in chickens and an ounce of it to the quart in the poultry water fountains will hasten moulting and aid young chicks in feathering. When stock get diarrhea, this aqueous solu tion will generally check and cure it, when mixed in their drinking water. The same with diarrhea in chickens. Sprayed upon the perches and poured into the cracks where the red mites hide, it will kill them, as well as bed bugs and other vermin. Few bugs or plant pests can stand the test of being sprayed by it. At the same time it is good for the plants. Where cut worms bother, the ground around the plants should be sprayed with it; if it reaches the worms it is very discouraging to them—and besides it is a great aid to the plants. Poured over a crock of tomatoes, peaches, plums, or other fruit, they will be preserved in perfect condition for months; only when used the fruit must be cooked, as the heat drives off the gas and leaves neither taste nor smell of it. It will preserve eggs and when they are used they will be found in quite as good condition as many of the other methods leave them. In fact, if eggs are fresh when put in the solution, it will leave them in bet ter condition; for the solution kills the germ or "tread," and that is the thing that causes the trouble. There are hun dreds of uses the solution can be used for, if we remember that it is a fungi cide, germicide and disinfectant. It is perfectly harmless. There is much more to be told about the use of sul phur, but space prohibits now. I will speak of it another time. If the animals can reason, what must they think of men?—Henry George. GLARING CONTRAST IN TWO CAPITAL TRIALS (By The Federated Pres«) Dedham, Mass. — The speedy ac quittal of Caleb Loring Cunningham, the aged land owner, who admitted he shot in the back and killed a working map trespassing on his vast estate, in the very court room where Nicola Sac co and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were found guijty of murder in the first de gree on attenuated circumstantial evi dence, puts a period to a glaring con trast in the history of capital trials. Cunningham was arrested on the night of Jail. 5, 1921, after the body of John Johnson, a Quincy laborer, was found on his grounds. Johnson, a preliminary hearing. revealed, had been unemployed for some time. That af ternoon he had left his wife and young children to get kindling wood in the neighboring forest, the property of Cunningham. Finding him in the act of "poaching" pieces of wood, the land owner fired a rifle and killed him. The "gentleman farmer," as the New England papers like to refer to the 68-year-old defendent, was not put on the stand in his own defense. In stead he availed himself of the privi lege accorded in murder cases to ad dress the jury after the close of attor neys' arguments. He read a long state ment, in which he claimed that he shot Johnson because he "feared for his life," and that there was "no murder in his heart." The jury accepted the plea of self defense despite the fact that the fatal bullet entered the body of the victim in the small of the back. Mrs. Johnson and her two children are destitute as the acquitted slayer goes back to his estates. STATISTICAL EXPERT WARNS EXPLOITERS (By The Federated Press) Milwaukee. — A Warning to employ ers , to desist from their "open shop" campaign unless they wish to be anni hilated, was sounded by Roger W. Babson, business statistical expert, in his bulletin of Jan. 31, read to the Federated Trades council by Frank J. Weber, its general secretary. The bul letin, headed Time to Think about La bor, declares: 'Employers the country have been swinging the tomahawk for the past 18 months. The days for such activ ity are now drawing to a close. It is time to think and reason." RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT BOOSTS CO-OPERATION (By The Federated Pre»») New York. — The approval by Pre mier Lenin of the Russian government, of the concession to a group of Amer ican Industrial Workers of the World, headed by William D. Haywood, means, according to H. S. Calvert, who is in charge of the organization work here for the Kuznets Basin project, that official sanction has been given to the greatest industrialization scheme ever proposed. v The project is to de velop that vast region on a co-opera tive plan in which every worker will have a voice, and which will be man aged by engineers, technicians and in dustrial scientists. HARDING'S APPOINTEE SQUANDERS PEOPLE'S WEALTH (By The Federated Pre»») Washington. — Balked in his plan to secure control of Alaska's re sources through congressional action. Secretary of the Interior Fall has irçade a sudden flank movement and has se cured from Secretary of the Navy Den by an offer of full control of the navy coal lands in the territory, to be leased by Fall to private interests. The logical bidders for such a lease are the Guggenheims, who dominate the metal mining industry of Alaska and who made the desperate attempt at the Cunningham coal claims with the aid of former Secretary Ballinger, in Taft's day. Fall recently expressed his deep sympathy with Ballinger and the Gug genheims in that affair. A TRAITOROUS EDUCATOR OPPOSES ENLIGHTENMENT (By The Fedèrated Press) Worcester, Mass.—Wallace W. At wood, president of Clark University, turned out the lights to adjourn forci bly a lecture by Scott Nearing, after the Socialist educator had declared that business men and bankers control col lege boards of trustees. President At woöd resorted to this form of direct action when his verbal interruption of Prof. Nearing's talk was greeted with hisses by some in the audience. "I have spoken in many American colleges," Prof. Nearing said, in a statement after this incident, "but this is the first time that any American col lege has seen fit to demonstrate pub licly the truth of my statement about business control of colleges." "The Capitalist than any other man. * ' with him is selfishness and i mainliy his ignorance. He know nothing of the history of f< ism and the French Revolution. seems never to have studied the cause of the present state in Russia. He seems to be ignorant of the fact that the unsettled condition of affairs in this country today is in the main due to the over-reaching of his class in the last two or three generations. He seems unable to grasp the fact that he is in the minority, and that the major ity are moving on into a new social, political and industrial order. "The labor problem will never be solved by a soldier with a gun. * * The time has come when we must stop, and face and solve the labor problem where we are, with everybody present. * * Something should be done, and done at once * * for the common use of all man. * * ' * * Another thing we should look into is the length of the working day. * * I think that eight hours is even longer than is necessary. I cannot see why the employer should rob the em ployes of the major portion of the ben efit arising from the introduction of machinery. I cannot see why, if a ma chine can do the work of ten or twenty men, a man should be compelled to work at that machine as many hours as he did formerly when his output was one-tenth or one-twentieth as much. * * " * * As for wages—nothing can be solved by wages. A high minimum wage will do no good. If other condi tions were to remain unchanged, a minimum wage of twenty dollars a day would be of benefit to the working classes for no longer period than it would take the landlords to raise the rent and the middlemen in food dis tribution to increase the prices of food. " * * I think the time has come when men of wealth must recognize that it is not a private possession. It nevér was and never can be. Wealth is the fruit of labor, and it belongs to la bor. * * "It is time to quit our hypocritical piety in the form of 'charity' and to begin to be just in our dealings with Subscription Rates: "The Llano Colonist" weekly, for one year, $1.50; Canada, $2.00; Other foreign coun tries, $2.50..