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Fundamental Truth While it is true that the systems and institutipns of society arc the result of growth, the efforts of the live men and women of the world are the means by which they grow. Those who think in advance of their tim e are the regen erators of mankind, and there never was so favorable an opportunity as now to initiate this beneficient work— a method for the emancipation of the people from error and superstition, and the reconstruction of 'society on a basis in conformity with the constitution of man. Human conduct is the result of „ force—the effect of a cause. That force is an ever present, conscious de sire to enjoy. It has its origin in love of self and of others; and gives rise to a concern in his and others welfare; The forc e that moves to human con duct is life. Its mode of action is as fol lows: Man pursues those interests that he thinks best satisfy his desires and promote his welfare present and fut ure, and seeks to avoid the evils which he fears will give him pain or misery. This is the general mode of action. Some times however, the intensity of desire may, for the tim e being, over ride all other considerations; for it is a universal law of force that the strong er dominates th e weaker when oppos ing each other. There is no specific purpose appar ent in the action of blind, unconscious force ; but in the action of CON SCIOUS force there is a direct, speci fic purpose — satisfaction of desire— a result sought. The accomplishment of results re quires means, which must be devised by the intellect. Since desire acts in specialties, specific means are needed in each particular case. These require judgment, discrimination, and deter mination to act (will) and freedom of choice when either of several means may be employed. * Innumerable modifications and lim itations attend all cases of action, which demand consideration as they arise. Success or failure depends on the op portunities afforded, the accuracy of the judgment, the abundance and fa cility of resources, the promptness of action, and on the force and persis tence of determination. The character • of the desire deter mines that of the conduct to which it gives rise. Like causes produce like effects. If the desire is to murder, the act (if desire is carriel into effect) is murder. If. the desire is to rescue one from drowning, the energies of the res cuer are directed to that end. There is no moral element in intellect; it is employed as readily and effectively in deeds of evil as in deeds of good. The quality of the stream is that of the LLANO ™ The Trail That Leads to the Co-operative Commonwealth mm SINCE THEWS of Jesus Christ, the human heart has longed for the time when no man's hand would be against the hand of his neighbor, a time when each man's interest would be identical with the best interests of the whole community. The progressive thinker, all down through the march of civilization, has yearned for a bet ter state of society in which to live. For this reason, more than any other, men and wtomen have left their native soils and tak en up the duties and terrible hardships of pioneers, searching for the golden opportun ity. From the East men go West; from the West they go farther West; but the smeary hand of exploitation has always followed close behind, leaving them often drained to the point of poverty. To get away from the tithe-paying system —from rent, interest and profit—men have struggled and fought and planned. Coloniz ation enterprises have come into being in many parts of the world, having as their ob ject the grouping of congenial workers in an effort to eliminate these objectionable phases of human life. Many of them have partly succeeded, only to be wrecked upon the rocks, because of a lack of understanding of each other's motives. After studying most of the former attempts at co-operative colonization, and marking well the rocks and shoals in the stormy "seas, Job Harriman founded a co-operative com munity at Llano, California, on May 1st, 1914. This community operated and pros pered at this location until 1917, when the water ior irrigation purposes proved unequal to the growth of the Colony, and a new and more resourceful location was found in Lou isiana, where they are now located. Founded on three great principles of soci ology—equality of opportunity, equality of income, and equality of ownership, the Llano Colony has proven that men and women can live together in harmony and prosper. This Colony is incorporated under the law as a protection agajnst unscrupulous persons and disgruntled self-seekers. Imagine if you can, a miniature co-operative commonwealth, and you have Llano Colony. Imagine a com munity where all the land, the farms, tools, fountain from whence it flows. Since desire is the source from which all hu man conduct flows, it follows as a neo essary sequence, that the character of the one must be like that of the other. Th e foregoing propositions are self evident to every observing mind; and, if carried to their legitimate conclu sions must call in question the prevail ing theories of moralists; the opinions of jurists (civil and criminal) ; the doo trines of political economists ; the creed of theologians, and the plans of reform ers. Whoever ascribes honor, dignity, merit and authority to these in so far, fails in his appreciation of the dignity, power, and authority of truth. Since he makes no pretence of recognizing NATURAL LAW as the revelator of all truth. In the improvement of public affairs we must deal with the elements of hu man nature. It it absurd to suppose one could construct a watch who is ignor ant of the use of the tools and mater ials he must employ, and of the nature of the force that moves it to action; so it is absurd to expect man to build a social structure with inadequate knowledge of the springs of human ac tion. It is well known that governments, religions ,and codes of morals wer e es-, tablished before a knowledge of human nature existed or was even suspected. How could life be otherwise than at tended with error? The fact that the world is full of evil anl misery is a con stant and irrefragable proof that the theories, opinions, creeds and dogmas that now prevail ar e not true. "By their fruits ye shall know them." Man has not yet reached his true plane of life. He lives and moves on the selfish, sensuous plane, while his essential nature demands the moral and spiritual plane. Tis dual nature must be harmonized by the supremacy of his moral sentiments and spiritual aspira tions over the selfish and sensuous de sires. If the latter hold s\yay, strife and conflict are inevitable; if the for mer rule, good will, peace and harmony will prevail among mankind. * Dr. E. J. Schellhous. GOOD CHEER Success to you, Bro. Gleeser, in the co-operative enterprise now being es tablished by you and your fellow workers. Yours for co-operation, Th e Villa Grove Co-operative Soci ety. J. W. Snider, Villa Grove, III. Be a booster; boost co-operation in action. and industries are all owned by the collectiv ity; where each works far the other; where each receives the same compensation for a day's work; where no member-vwill accept anything which any other member cannot have on the same terms, if he desires it— in short, imagine a place where the golden rule is the only law imposed upon the com munity, and you are picturing the Llano Co operative Colony.' After eight years of work, Llano Colony is rated in the commercial world as worth over $250,000. But Llano's least asset is its com mercial rating. The fullness of life, the joy of living, the satisfaction of working, the security for the future, the healthy environ ment, the opportunity for education, the af fection of your fellowmen—these are prized more, much more, than what the commercial world calls success. This colony now has something like thirty industries, all collectively owned. Among these are: apiary, auto garage, building de partment, brick-making plant, blacksmith shop, butcher shop, broom factory, crate making factory, chicken farm, dairy with about 20 milking cows and a herd of thoro bred Holstein heifers, goat ranch, hog ranch, with several hundred Duroc-Jersey hogs, sweet-potato storage houses, dressmaking, grist mill, handle lathes, hotel, hospital, li brary, steam laundry, land clearing, fruit or chards, print shop, peanut butter factory, magazine and weekly newspaper, picture àhow and theater, wagon-making shop, can dy kitchen, shoe shop, harness shop,, and many other smaller concerns. Then Llano's fames' and gardens provide the bulk of the living for the colonists, the farmers specializing on sweet potatoes, su gar cane, peanuts, corn, beans, peas, etc., while the gardens provide greens and gar den truck for the table the year around. The system of government is exceedingly simple. Stock is sold in the corporation at one dellar a share, and only stock-holders are employed by the Colony. An agreement of employment is entered into between the Colony as an organization and each individ ual. Each member is employed at what he best can do, or which needs most to be done. A board of directors is selected each year by the stockholders, which board in turn TANGLEFOOT MONEY, BONDS AND BANK CREDIT 'The Feleral Reserve System set up a system of bank Credits that envel oped the country in debt without put ting the necessary corresponding amount of money into circulation to help them pay out when paying time came. The most of the loans made throughout the country were loans of bank credit. If you went to a bank to borrow, your loan was placed to your lredit at the bank and you issued your checks against it. You saw very little 6f the money that your debt was sup posed to represent. It was a system of bookkeeping. The debts were created, but the money did not go into circula tion. When the Federal Reserve Sys tem was ready to contract it simply stopped the issuance of bank credit and you could not borrow from your banks any more. They had no bank credit to loan. It had been stopped by the system. There was about ten times as large an amount in debts due through the Federal Reserve Syhtem as there was money in circulation. It was only a matter of a short time after these debts were called for payment until all the money in the country was drawn into the Federal Reserve Banks, and still, the larger proportion of the debts remained unpaid. The ®nly way the people could get the money with which to pay the debts or to purchase the ne cessities of life was to sell their pro ducts or their property. The banks held the money and they owned the debts. This gave them control 'of the situation so that they could dictate the prices the producers of the nation were to receive for their labor and products. They not only contracted the currency but . deflated everything else the aver age citizen had. Especially did tliey deflate the farming class."—Senator E. F. Ladd. The present monetary system is a sla very system, and it is probably the most insidiously devised system ever contrived by human cunning. Some thirty years ago, I read a book written by a former member of Con gress, entitled "The Purse and the Sword," in which the writer described the modern methods of conquest and enslavement carried on by so-called capital investments at home and abroad. In the foregoing statement of Sena tor E. F. Ladd we can see how billions of money obligations are created with out a dollar of money beinb placed in actual circulation. And yet such obli gations must be paid in money at the demand of the creditor, and courts will enforce such demands or enforce mort gage foreclosures of the property pledg ed for the security of the debt contract ed. That this money is a trap to catch the unwary and trim them to a finish must be evident to anyone who can fig ure at all. Even the ancients in the so called childhood of the rac e realized selects a general manager. He selects his foremen for the various industries, and each is selected carefully açcording to his ability to do the work and to direct his men. Each manager is given a free hand to run his department, always with the supervision of the manager and board of directors, in order that his actions may not be contrary to the collective welfare. New industries are started from time to time as necessity demands. The object of Llano's industries is to provide the Colony with what it needs, rather than to make a profit by selling the products. Production for use is our slogan. Thus to make its own food, clothing and shelter, to provide as far as possible every convenience and comfort is the final object. To get as nearly as pos sible to the source of wealth, the Colony will raise sheep for wool; cotton can be.raised, and the colonists can weave their own cldfh and make their clothing. The Colony's timber lands are now fur nishing hardwood and pine for its building's, its brick plant makes the necessary brick and can make tiling, hollow tile, etc., for its own homes. The farm and gardens of the Colony have provided the tables with most of the good things which nature offers. Thus the three important problems are easily solved. ") The Colony now owns about 5000 acres of land, some of it of very fair character, varying from bottom land to rolling land and timber land. It intends to purchase a total of 20,000 acres, because the colonists realise that the movement is destined to grow to large proportions, several small commun ities probably will be settled on the land. When the day's work is done at 4:30, each colonist has an equal* opportunity to" improve himself along many lines, such as music, vocal training, languages, science, agriculture, orchestra work, dancing, and other diversions. Many of these classes are well attended, and all the colonists realize the fact that to keep progressive they must advance in knowledge. A radical in pol itics and a conservative in everything else is out of place in this community. Llano's school system is as' progressive as the co-operative colony. The children are that usury was a dishonest practice for the ruination of the borrowers. Aristotle, the leading philosopher and* thinker of ancient Greece opposed usury, because as he said, money be ing barren metals, the propagation or breeding of an increase of money from themselves were utter impossibilities. Plato, Plutarch, both the Catos, Cic ero and Seneca of Greece and Rome objected to it on the same ground. Both the old and new testament of the Bible condem the exaction of inter est on money loans, and the Christian churches denounced it in strong terms up to the middle of the seventeenth cen tury. And usury stands condemned be cause it demands a mathematical im possibility of the debtors, and then strips them of all their property because of their inability to perform a natural impossibility. The financial efpire of world is based on an impudent fraud. At the beginning of the American civil war the public debt of the U. S. amounted to about $90,000,000. In 1865 when this war came to a close the national debt had mounted to $2,680, 647,869. In the U- S. Treasury's re port of 1891, page 3. it is shown that at that time since 1865, that is in 26 years, the government paid $9,680,000, 000 on the original war debt contract-, ed. In seven years time from ' 1 8é5 to : 1869 the Wall street bankers made a clear profit of one billion dollars out of their bond purchases ijrom the gov ernment and the common people Jiaid the freight. And bank credit was active as well all the time and ever since, plucking the common people in approved style of their flim-flam and confidence swindle. Just turn this over in your mini and see if you don't catch on Jo the "sucker" game the financiers have put over on you. TRICKY EMPLOYERS VIOLATE CONTRACT (By The Federated Press) New York. — Ten thousand mem bers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America have left their benches in jacket, knee pants, and children's clothing shops to force the employers to live up to their contract which requires them to handle all-un ion products. Forty thousand more workers—these in the men's clothing trade—probably will be called out within a few days to assist in the drive for registration of all "contractors" and to eliminate the "social shop." This move was made necessary, A. C. W. officials said, because about one half the employers here are not living up to the terms of the contract made after the lockout of a year ago. Subscription Rates: "The Llano Colonist" weekly, for one year, $1.50; Canada, $2.00 ; Other foreign coun- j tries, $2.50.. not driven to learn. The subjects are ar ranged so as to draw oht of the child the best that is in him. With this in view, diver sified industrial trades are placed at his dis posal. He may thus gain an insight into a world of endeavor and can choose that which most nearly fits in with his natural ability. The school has its own cafeteria now, where foods more especially 'adaptable to growing children are prepared by the domestic sci ence class. Music, singing, languages, bot any, agriculture, Esperanto, are among the subjects offered to Llano's children; and there are many opportunities for obtaining a real education, in addition to those pro vided by the regular state course of study, making them a thinking, alert, self-reliant group of future builders of a co-operative commonwealth. Equal wages are paid to men, women and children. The theory of this is that each colonist owes to the community his best en deavors, whether he be learned lawyer, hus ky farmer, or little school child. They give to the whole the best they can, and in re turn receive the bes! — v -ther can offer. Hospital and doctor are provided when sickness comes, and there are no charges for such social services. Funerals are conducted along the same lines. There is no need for insurance in the Col ony for the dependents receive their support just the same, even if the father be remov ed from them. Social life is made by those who live to gether, The great objection to living on the land is the isolation which accompanies it. Here in Llano, the farmers and the industrial workers live close to the center where danc es, entertainments, picture shows, and all manner of good times can be had for the making. , No rent is charged for the houses, and any building can be used for meetings with out cost. Men work in whatever industry they are best fitted for. Sometimes they are moved around to different work as is deemed neces sary, but the fact is conceded that each worker works best at something that he likes to do and has fitted himself for. But when it is remembered that each is working for the whole, and the whole is working for the in MENTAL DEFORMITY FOR NEW YORK CHILDREN (By The Federated Pre«) New York. The complete report of a committee of New York public school teachers and principals which has been "investigating" the histories in use in the local schools, has been presented to the board of education. Briefly, it declares that school histor ies must not tell the whole truth, but must permit the pupil to know only such facts, presented in such a way as to create certain opinions and at titudes. Several weeks ago Th e Fed erated Press presented quotations ffom an advance summary of the report. Her e are some more gems: "Strictly speaking, the textbook writ er is not a historian." "It is for the teacher to determine what material is needed. It is for the textbook writer to furnish it." "The textbook must' contain no state ment in derogation or in disparagement of the achievements of American he roes. It must not question the sincer ity of the aims and purposes of the founders of the republicc or of those who have euided its destinies." Textbooks must not say that smug gling had become so common in the colonies before the American revolu tion that it was almost respectable; but they must point out that smuggling was part of the resistance to unjust and tyrannous laws. The "Boston Tea Party" must be called "a violent act," but shouild be described as "a concrete exemplifica INSTALLMENT MEMBERS ATTENTION Llano Colony has need of several trained helpers in the following lines of work, who can now join us. Installment members arc called in to take their places when their services are needed in the Colony. The following are now asked to communicate with the general manager at once: TANNER, BRICKMEN, DAIRYMAN, SHOE REPAIR ER. FARMERS, TEAMSTERS. Applicants must be willing to pioneer a little; and they should be anxious to learn to co-opërate. WRITE TO THE GENERAL MANAGER LLANO CO-OPERATIVE COLONY NEWLLANO, VIA LEESVILLE, LA. tion of th e spirit of resistance animated the people." No should mention the fact that the 1 erahsts called Jefferson an at And particularly, no mention shou made of the fact that the militia refused to cross the Canadian The children are not entitled to know that Alexander Hamilton called the peo ple "a great beast," or that Samuel Adams was the first American political boss, and that he escaped across the fields from Lexington just before the battle." The childish mind, the report dé clares, is not qualified to receive any facts which would enable it to form its own conclusions, but must b e stuffed with romantic and vainglorious half truths with particular intent to make it believe that America is perfect and that all political, social and industrial progress has here reached its highest and final goal. Each Soul is the ARBITER of its own destiny. Send Us Your Sub To-day Miami Valley Socialist Mead and Longworth Sts. Dayton, Ohio. Joseph W. Sharts, Editor Free Sample copies. Sub Rates: One Year—$1.00 Six Mo.— .50 Three Mo.— .25 Owned and controlled by the Socialist Party of Dayton, O. dividual, no one refuses to do what is alloted to him. Women all find lots of work to do. They feed the men at the hotel, wash and iron for them at the laundry, make dresses and over alls and shirts at the sewing department, at tend store, office, etc., wherever their ser vices can be utilized to best advantage. * On special occasions such as harvesting, or planting, all the school children are glad to go to the fields and help. It is the com mon food store—and ail will help to save the harvest. Men, women, and children will forsake their regular work to help where they can. This is because they are actuated by an ideal. They believe in co-operation with each other. Some co-operators think co-op eration means that others have to co-operate with them, that their lot may be bettered. Llano co-operators realize that each must sacrifice their personal interests and amalga mate with the collectivity. This is the very ideal which has made Llano a signal success in the co-operative field, when other like communities have disintegrated. Men and women will laugh at hardships and pioneering when they are propelled by a brilliantly-visible ideal. Such an ideal is Llano's—to show to the world*that humans can co-eperate together to build a veritable paradise in which to live, where love and af fection are the predominant personal rela tionships and where the consideration of the other fellows' welfare is not hidden by per sonal greed. In such a community greed, selfishness and jealousy cannot survive long. If you are interested in such a commun ity and such an ideal and would like to learn how to get into practical application and de monstration of that ideal, write for more particulars. Ask for "Co-operation in Ac tion," which goes more into the detail of Colony life and is illustrated by pictures, showing the colonists at work. The Colony has its express and freight agency, and hopes to have its own postoffice At present address all communications to: Llano Co-operative Colony, Newllana, La., (via Leesville). THE LLANO CO-OPERATIVE COLONY NEWLLANO VIA LEESVILLE. LA.