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Co -op. Professions Without
Works are Worthless Bunk Says the Canadian Co-operator-; "'One type of co -operatoT Canada has produced is probably unique. It is the philosophical one. The "co-op eratOT*' of this type is usually well in formed, talks and writes well on the social and economic value of Co-oper ation, and gives it his blessing. He speaks enthusiastically of the Cooper ative Commonwealth of the future, but - will give no assistance in building it. Instead of supporting the co-operative store he gives his trade to the stores of competition and capitalism. He buttresses with his money and assists in maintaining the competitive systeVn which he so strongly condemns with his tongue and his pen." • That type of co-operator is not only indigenous in Canada, but all other countries wherein co-operation has been started are always troubled with that kind of specimens. There ' is a psychological reason for his exist ence, although the victims of this fail ing will be practically unaware of his failings and shortcomings. It is all a matter of habit, and it is well-known that practical habits are formed and strengthened by repeated acts, while passive impressions (not followed by action) grow weaker by being repeat ed upon us. By going over the theory of co-operation in one's thought, talk ing well of it and drawing fine pictures of it, this, so far from necessarily, leading to form an active habit of co operation in him who thus" indulges himself, may even impel the mind to a contrary course, and render it gradu ally more insensible to active co-opera tion. Just as habits of the body are pro duced by external acts, so habits of the mind are established by the exer tion of inward practical purposes, i.e., by carrying them into act, or acting upon them. The inward principles of attention, industry and self-government can be developed only by exercise. The rule of nature is that active ha bits are formed by exercise, and un less convictions of the mind are acted upon, they will become less and less effective in inducing action while vol uble professions in their favor are spouted. By accustoming ourselves to any course of action, we get an aptness to go on, a facility, readiness, and of ten pleasure in it. The inclinations which rendered us averse to it grow weaker; the difficulties in it, not only the imaginary but the real ones, les sen; the reasons for it offer themselves insistently to our thoughts upon all oc casions, and the least glimpse of them is sufficient to make us go on in a course of action to which we become accustomed. LLANO — The Trail That Leads to the Co-operative Commonwealth SINCE THE DAYS of Jesus Christ, the human heart has longed for the time when no man's hand would be against the hand of his neighbor, a time when each man's interest would be identical with the best interests of the whole community. The progressive thinker, all down through the march of civilization, has yearned for a bet ter state of society in which to live. For this reason, more than any other, men and women have left their native soils and tak en up the duties and terrible hardships of pioneers, searching for the golden opportun ity. From the East men go West; from the West they go farther West; but the smeary hand of exploitation has always followed close behind, leaving them often drained to the point of poverty. To get avtay from the tithe-paying system —from rent, interest and profit—men have struggled and fought and planned. Coloniz ation enterprises have come into being in many parts of the world, having as their ob ject the grouping of congenial workers in an effort to eliminate these objectionable phases of human life. Many of them have partly succeeded, only to be wrecked upon the rocks, because of a lack of understanding of each other's motives. After studying most of the former attempts at co-operative colonization, and marking well the rocks and shoals in the stormy seas, Job Harriman founded a co-operative com munity at Llano, California, on May 1st, 1914. This community operated and pros pered at this location until 1917, when the water for irrigation purposes proved unequal to the growth of the Colony, and a new and more resourceful location was found in Lou isiana, where they are now located. Founded on three great principles of soci ology—equality of opportunity, equality of income, and equality of ownership, the Llano Colony has proven that men and women can live together in harmony and prosper. This Colony is incorporated under the law as a protection against unscrupulous persons and disgruntled self-seekers. Imagine if you can, a miniature co-operative commonwealth, and you have Llano Colony. Imagine a com munity where all the land, the farms, tools, Practical principles grow stronger absolutely in themselves by exercise, as well as relatively with regard to con trary principles, which, by being accus tomed to submit, do so habitually, and as a matter of course, and thus in ma ny respects a new character may be formed, and new habits erf life acquir ed that nature t has not given us, but leads us to develop them. Stubborn unyielding determination to carry out a righteous conviction im pels the co-operators at Newllano to go on with their self-imposed duty of es tablishing an acknowledgment-compel ling object lesson of complete co-oper ation and of the most advanced man ner of living in every respect. Always leading in the vanguard of human pro gress. Abstemious living, high think ing and a glorious ideal of mutual co operation, universal peace and broth erhood. Comrade Pickett in the psychology meeting on Thursday night, July 21, spoke about his trip to the rice farm, and of the general policy of the Col ony to subordinate temporary inclina tions and personal indulgence to the mor e rapid and efficacious establish ment of the Colony's industries and permanent buildings. Comrade Helene Norgard spoke of the changes that the old home life con fronts. Just as machinery production has revolutionized the economic lif e of the nation, so these changes will also bring corresponding changes in the home life. In the large cities there are alrady*many thousands of families who have quit cooking at home. Husband and wife both go to their work, the children go to school, but the home is nevertheless a real home, where affec tion abides and th e Best human quali ties can be cultivated. Comrade Nor gard read some extracts from a book written by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, a fine writer and a champion of women's advancement, in support of her state- 1 ments. There can be no question that where parasitism is removed from fam ily life, where service is inculcated, and the idea of getting rich at other peo ple's expense is frowned upon and dis couraged, offers a more ideal place for rearing good men and women than Where "laudatory remarks and allu sions are thrown everywhere and' by everybody concerning those fortunate persons who succeed in getting some thing for nothing and concerning those who live easily and where th e gener al and wide-spread tendency is to make man-killers and exploiters loom high in the child's phantasy." Co-operative housekeeping permits of many important savings over the old and industries are all owned by the collectiv ity; where each-works for the other; where each receives the same compensation for a day's work; where no member will accept anything which any other member cannot have on the same terms, if he desires it— in short, imagine a place where the golden rule is the only law imposed upon the com munity, and you are picturing the Llano Co operative Colony. After eight years of work, Llano Colony is rated in the commercial world as worth over $250,000. But Llano's least asset is its com mercial rating. The fullness of life, the joy of living, the satisfaction of working, the security for the future, the healthy environ ment, the opportunity for education, the af fection of your fellowmen—these are prized more, much more, than what the commercial world calls success. This colony now has something like thirty industries, all collectively owned. Among thèse are: apiary, auto garage, building de partment, brick-making plant, blacksmith shop, butcher shop, broom factory, crate making factory, chicken farm, dairy with about 20 milking cows and a herd of thoro bred Holstein heifers, goat ranch, hog ranch, with several hundred Duroc-Jersey hogs, sweet-potato storage houses, dressmaking, grist mill, handle lathes, hotel, hospital, li brary, steam laundry, land clearing, fruit or chards, print shop, peanut butter factory, magazine and weekly ' newspaper, picture show and theater, wagon-making shop, can dy kitchen, shoe shop, harness shop, and many other smaller concerns. Then Llano's farms and gardens provide the bulk of thè living for the colonists, the farmers specializing on sweet potatoes, su gar cane, peanuts, corn, beans, peas, etc., while the gardens provide greens and gar den truck for the table the year around. The system of government is exceedingly simple. Stock 4s sold in the corporation at one dollar a share, and only stock-holders are employed by the Colony. An agreement of employment is entered into between the Colony as an organization and each individ ual. Each member is employed at what he best can do, or which needs most to be done. A board of directors is selected each year by the stockholders, which board in tum system of countless separate family housekeeping arrangements. One large rang e in ^ central kitchen connected with dining room, will do away with a hundred separate family kitchens and permit the engagement of an expert chef and result in a great saving of labor. Women's financial self-support, be ing guaranteed in Llano Colony, makes her mistress of her destiny. There is no necessity of her being a household drudge. • It rests entirely with hefself what her conditions are to be provided she will accept the responsibility for herself that her self-reliance demands and calls for. As for th e children, they are recog nized as being individuals, possessed of a legitimate selfhood to be recognized and respected. On their part they are expected and taught to perform their duty in respecting the inviolability^ of their playmates and all other human beings, i.e., as fellow beings that must not be harmed or subjected to violence under any consideration. Children are no burden to the parents at Llano Col ony. Their support and training and the calling forth of their native powers in active constructive expression is re garded a duty that we owe to human ity and the ideal that we have embrac ed, the establishment of the co-opera tive.commonwealth., based on reciproc ity and mutual respect and goodwill; offering the greatest possible opportun ity for individual aptitudes and choice and producing and yielding the largest Production and satisfaction for the ef fort put forth and required. AU a matter of being reasonable and making use of available, ascertained and de monstrated knowledge. We must liberate ourselves from all kinds of mental prisons, in which we have immured ourselves. We must be come fearless and discard every pre judice, credulous belief and animosity that precludes us from being honest with our own selves now, to practice the Golden Rule now, to co-operate now. To-dav is the day of salvation, and we can be saved from all ills that afflict us only by giving up all the er roneous misconceptions thrt prompt us to perverted indulgence of cur apoe t'tes ?nd to violations of the principle of reciprocity' in d°alin°- with ou - fel low men. All the ills of mankind are self-inflicted and will continue to af flict us until we change our convictions concerning ourselves. People talk considerably about their conscience, but most of them fail to know that the word involves the pos sesion of pcrurate. demonstrated and demonstrable knowledge. Now, beliefs and opinions ar e not knowledee at all', and many people who think they are •-nnscientious are merely opinionated. The knowledge that matters most is the kind that enables us to control and modify the things at hand, that have to do with our livelihood, our righteous relationship with all other human be ings here and now, and with due regard selects a general manager. He selects his I foremen for the various industries, and each is selected carefully according to his ability to do the work and to direct his men. Each manager is given a free hand to run his department, always with the supervision of the manager and board of directors, in order that his actions may not be contrary to the collective welfare. New industries are started from time to time as necessity demands. The object of Llano's industries is to provide the Colony with what it needs, rather than to make a profit by selling the products. Production for use is our slogan. Thus to make its own food, clothing and shelter, to provide as far as possible every convenience and comfort is the final object. To get as nearly as pos sible to the source of wealth, the Colony will raise sheep for wool; cotton Can be raised, and the colonists can weave their own cloth and make their clothing. The Colony's timber lands are now fur nishing hardwood and pine for its buildings, its brick plant makes the necessary brick and can make tiling, hollow tile, etc., for its own homes. The farm and gardens of the Colony have provided the tables with most of the good things which nature offers. Thus the three important problems are easily solved. The Colony now owns about 5000 acres of land, some of it of very fair character, varying from bottom land to rolling land and timber land. It intends to purchase a total of 20,000 acres, because the colonists realize that the movement is destined to grow to large proportions, several small commun ities probably will be settled on the land. When the day's work is done at 4:30, each colonist has an equal opportunity to improve himself along many lines, such as music, vocal training, languages, science, agriculture, orchestra work, dancing, and other diversions. Many of these classes are well attended, and all the colonists realize the fact that to keep progressive they must advance in knowledge. A radical in pol itics and a conservative in everything else is out. of place in this community. Llano's school system is as progressive as th® co-operative colony. The children are ! THE AGES-LONG WEAKNESS OF LABOR • By George D. Coleman T The histories and encyclopedias were written and preserved by the master class. They suppressed much and mis stated more. Hence we know little of the great slave rebellions before the time of Christ. Ward's Ancient Lowly throws more light upon these times than any other work. The ten years slave rebellion of Eunus is unknown to the average historian, and the histories of Rome are silent. For ten years an ar my, at one time of 200,000 soldiers, de feated the armies of Rome; yet the master class historians omit to mention it. Even the rebellion of Spartacus, of 73 B. C. is so lightly mentioned that no idea of its importance is conveyed. All. this is the master-class side of the question. Exactly what the end, aim, and con structive intention of the leaders of the rebellion were, we do not know, and right there lies the whole story of the weakness and ages-long slavery and subjection of labor, to the yoke of the master class. Labor ever lacks vision, has no ideas, but accepts the philoso phy and system of the master class, rebels against its evils, and seeks only to modify its most flagrant ills. Sup pose the paid spy and assassin had not treacherously stabbed Spartacus and he had defeated Crassus and marched tri umphant into a conquered Rome? What effect would it have had upon the history of the world? I judge but very little. Spartacus might have been made king, and some of the most fla grant ills mught have been abolished, but the old system would have remain ed unaltered. There were none, then, who conceived of an equitable system of society, and the whole intellectual material of the time was in a state of ignorant chaos. It was equally so in 1 776, when that radical POLITICAL document, the De claration of Independence, was pro claimed. No man except Benjamin Franklin ever uttered anything of an economic significance., Jefferson's ideas were all political and never verg to the rights and the well-being of fu ture generations. The whole problem of human well being is up to us, not to anybody else. In the first place it is an individual problem, and next it is the problem of an aggregation of individuals. The problem of the group is solved when the individual members are determin ed to act right toward one another, treat each other with common cour tesy and give to each other a square deal. The operation and co-ordina tion of th e different industries is only a matter of good judgment that knowl edge and experience supply. not driven to learn. The subjects are ar ranged so as to draw out of the child the best that is in him. With this in view, diver sified industrial trades are placed at his dis posal* He may thus gain an insight into a world of endeavor and can choose that which most nearly fits in with his natural ability. The school has its own cafeteria now, where foods more especially adaptable to groWing children are prepared by the domestic sci ence class. Music, singing, languages, bot any, agriculture, Esperanto, are among the subjects offered to Llano's children; and there are many opportunities for obtaining a real education, in addition to those pro vided by the regular state course of study, making them a thinking, alert, self-reliant group of futurt builders of a co-operative I commortwealth. * Equal wages are paid to men, women and children. The theory of this is that each colonist owes to the community his best en deavors, whether he be learned lawyer, hus ky farmer, or little school child. They give to the whole the best they can, and in re turn receive the bes: -ther can offer. f^ospital and doctor are provided when sickness comes, and there are no charges for such social services. Funerals are conducted along the same lines. There is no need for insurance in the Col ony for the dependents receive their support just the same, even if the father be remov ed from them. Social life is made by those who live to gether. The great objection to living on the land is the isolation which accompanies it. Here in Llano, the farmers and the industrial workers live close to the center where danc es, entertainments, picture shows, and all manner of good times can be had for the making. No rent is charged for the houses, and any building can be used for meetings with out cost. Men work in whatever industry they are • best fitted for. Sometimes they are moved around to different work as is deemed neces sary, but the fact is conceded that each worker works best at something that he likes to do and has fitted himself for. But when it is remembered that each is working for the whole, and the whole is working for the' in ed upon the economic. Even Thomas Paine, as great a radical as he was, seemed to have little or no economic ! ideas. The real basic ideas, the prac tical foundation stones of a new form j of society, were as unknown as some dark star wandering in the depths of space. And so it is with Labor and labor or ganizations to-day; they have no vis ion, no grasp of the economic "power and possibilities they have in their hands. We see several million organ ized employes of corporations, the rail roads for example, who maintain the track?, despatch trains, collect fares, and freights and carry on all the mul tiform work and turn over hundreds of millions of net profits to the owners, of whom not one in pne thousand know how to do the simplest thing of this work, and many whot have never seen the properties from which this organ ized labor makes these profits and pro vides their income. And yet this Sim ple Simon-minded Labor cannot con ceive the idea that they could do all these things for themselves and dis pensewith the idle owning class. Pro pose it in their Unions and they will be come frantic defenders of the system that claims and enslaves them. Slaves, not alone economically but intellectual ly,or the little intellect they have is as much a bond slave,,, as the chattel bought and sold on the slave block.. T!ie only idea they can encompass is the ? i.'ke. Even the slight ad\ance to attempt political action is barred in the American Federation of Labor. Possessing numbers, productive power, with the mechanical and technical skill, "-rrajs WANTED Llano Colony has need of several trained helpers in the following lines of work, who can now join us. Installment members are called in to take their places when their services are needed in the Colony, The following are now asked to communicate with the general manager at once: SHOE-REPAIRER, DAIRYMAN BRICKLAYERS, TEAMSTERS Applicants must be willing to pioneer a little; and they should be anxious to ler.rn to co-operate. WRITE TO THE GENERAL MANAGER LLANO CO-OPERATIVE COLONY NEWLLANO, VIA LEESVILLE, LA. and all the elements that wealth of the land, th^r are powerful bull tied to a stake by a i rope he could snap like a cobweb, j mind is the cause of his bondage. Pro pose to these powerful Unions an unity of labor, an unity of action, and the , new concept of economic government and you would be cast out as a Bolshe vic and be liable under the law of criminal syndicalism, whatever that is. Until Labor ceases to think the thots of the master class, but thinks the thots of its own class, it will be the economic slave of the master class. The slavery of labor is more cf the mind than the body. When its mind is free, its body will be free. When it uses its productive power for itself, and reserves that cap ital to use for further production, the occupation of the owning class will be gone forever. WORK AND STARVE New York. — The wage reductions against which the railroad shopmen are striking bring the earnings of great numbers of workers below the level of a minimum living Standard, the re search department, National Council of Churches of Christ in America dé clarés. "It is perfectly patent that the wage reductions ordered would have this ef fect," says the report. "It is also clear however grave the crisis, that any ef fort to enforce as mandatory the decis ion of the board will be contrary to the law as expressly interpreted at the time of its passage and will be regarded by the men as a breach of faith." dividual, no one refuses to do what is alloted to him. Women all find lots of work to do. They feed the men at the hotel, wash and iron for them at the laundry, make dresses and over alls and shirts at the sewing department, at tend store, office, etc., wherever their ser vices can be utilized to best advantage. On special occasions such as harvesting,, or planting, all the school children are gladi to go to the fields-and help. It is the com mon food store—and all will help to save the harvest. Men, women, and children will forsake their regular work to help where they can. This is because they are actuated by an ideal. They believe ift co-operation with each other. Some co-operators think co-op eration means that others have to co-operate with them,, that their lot may be bettered. Llano co-operators realize that each must sacrifice their personal interests and amalga mate with the collectivity. This is the very ideal which has made Llano a signal success in the co-operative field, when other like communities have disintegrated. Men and women will laugh at hardships and pioneering when they are propelled by a brilliantly-visible ideal. Such an ideal is Llano's—to show to the world that humans, can co-operate together to build a veritable paradise in which to livefwhere love and af fection are the predominant personal rela tionships and t where the consideration of the other fellows' welfare is not hidden by per «onal greed. In such a community greed, selfishness and jealousy cannot survive long. If you are interested in such a commun ity and such an ideal and would like to learn how to get into practical application and de monstration of that ideal, write for more particulars Ask for "Co-operation in Ac tion, which goes more into the detail of Colony hfe and is illustrated by pictures, showing the colonists at work. The Colony has its express and freight agency, and hopes to have its own postoffice At present address all communications to : Llano Co-operative Colony, Newllane, La,', (via Leesvilfe). THE LLANO CO-OPERATIVE COLONY NEWLLANO VIA LEESVILLE, LA.