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The people's journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1891-1903, April 03, 1902, Image 1

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It Was H1olnics Not Whitney
The ionor llelongs to ceorgii
und Not Mussuculinsetts.
Henry, P. Moore in Bunny South.
The invention which produced the
greatest revolution known to history in
agriculture, in muanufactuies and in
commerce was that of the cotton gin.
The greatest stimulus to the world's
progress was created by the cotton gin.
England and the continent of Europe
flourished under its influence as they
had never flourished before; the wilds
of America were transformed by it and
a pathless wilderness became, as if by
magic, fields of fruit ruliness, blooiiing
gardens and populous cities that rival
led the proudest capitals of the old
world in wealth, power and iagnili.
cence. The direct result of this siu
ple machine was to rcn der acoiunodity
hitherto but little utilized readily mer
chantable and almost inl a twinkling it
became king of the world's commerce
an(] finance. Hence it becomes a very
important question, who inventcd tihe
cotton gin, and onc that has not re
ceived the consideration from histo.
rians that it deserves.
The great Macaulay appreciated the
marvelous results of the invention and
expatiates at length uplon its benelicial
ef'ects upon the civilization of his time.
But he seems to have trcated with till
wonted neglect its authorship, and ac
cel)ted, contrary to his usual custom,
the coninon version without investiga.
tion. In all the histories of tihe United
States that it has been my privilege to
read, in all the historieb of Georgia,
while noticing the fact that Whitiney's
claim was contested for a period ex
tending more than a generation, neith
er the grounds for the litigation nor
the circumstances attending nor tlhe
name of the unsuccessful claimant, ap
pear in their pages, and although Geor
gia did not escape the charge of in
gratitude in the doubtiful issue of tI le
causes tried In this State, there is no
defensc'set, up.
Eli WVhitney, according to the best
accounts obtainable, produced the first
device for separating lint cotton f rom
the seed. His machine pioved, after
testing it, to be impractical. It con
sisted of a cylinder into which annular
rows ofspikes were driven, revolving
so as to pIn the spikes through inter
vais between wires which formed tihe
breast of 'io gin.
Eli Whitney was born at Westbor
ough, Mass., December 8, 1705. Ile
was a nailsmith by trade and during
the revolutionary war, when nails were
in demand and wages remunerative, he
manage:l to save enough money to
take him through Yale college. Gen
eral Nathaniel Greene, prior to the
war, had been an anchorsmith at Prov
idence, and it is c111ie likely, in the light
of subsequent events, tihat te two had
been thrown together. At any rate, so
it is related, as tile widow of (G4enieral
Greene was returnimg from a visit to
Providence, her old home, to Savann-ah,
she chanced to meet on shipboard
young Whitney, who, ostensibiy, was
coming to Georgia to enter a private
family as tutor. Ile also proposed, it
is sai., to employ his spare tinie in
studying law. Ucr g disapointed in
his expected enigagemenit, lie acceptedl
the invitation of Mrs. Greene to ac-.
comp~any her t~o her iantation-Mul-|
berry grove, a few miles up thle S
vannlah river.
Tlhe plroduction of cotton was then
ill its iinfancy. Tihere was no way of
separating the lint, from the seedl ex
cept b~y hand, whlich was a very tcdlioulsI
p)rocess. A good day's task for a ne
gro was '1 pounds of lint, cottonl. Un
der these circumstances it i~s obvious
cotton growing could not be ver~y Iu
crative. Ihenec it was not engaged in
About this time Colonel Itobert For
sythm~the fathber of ,1lhn Forsythe, the
niotedl iiatesman~, iil Majors Il'end!
toil and Brewer, comuradles of (Gencd
Greene who resided at Augusta, calleud
t'o pay their respects to Mrs. Greene,
anld (luring thle course of conversation
tile fact was mentioned thlat ailf'I
ture would be very prolitable a somne
one WOuIld invent ia maichine for cleani
ing cotton. Thus thle metter was
brought to Wluitney's attent.
Subhsequlently Mrs. Glrereic married
IPhineas Miller, and they, accomlpamed~u
by WVhitney, moved to .ugusta, where
Miller and WVhitney associated w ithi
thenm Captain .James T1oole, the firmu
becoming Miller, Vhitney & 'Toole.
They p)urchlasedl hvo tracts of~ land oni
Rtocky creek, is 1l ichmond County,
fromi Thonias aied Mary Glascock, Sep
tember 23, 1s)7, now knowni as the
P hinizy place, nnd established their
gin factory. A paftent, had1( been issued
to Ei' Whjituey March 14, 17 il, signed
by GleorgeNa'lshingtonl, P residenit ; 10l
mund11( Iaidl~ph, Secretary of State,
and WVipm liradflord, Acttorney Gen
eral. iubsequently Whlitney returned
to ('ynnecticut, leaving his partner,
MIijr, to look after his interests in
the' Southi, while hc established the
ynitney Arms Co., at, Whiitneyville,
Ionln. Toole seemed to have dhrolped
out of tbe concern, for we hieiar no
more about him. Whitney died at New
Hanven January 8, J1825, leaving a large
estate. A hands~lfomel monunenlt, wvas
crectedl to hisu memory, which was uin.
veiledl with elahorate exclises, thel
dlistiniginshedl U nitedl Slatecs 8enato',
Charles Sumner, dleliverinig thie-elogy,
Ilodgen lohes, the inventor of thc
saw gin, the same that is in use at
the present (day, anid for which 110 subl)
stitute has ever been found, was
Scotchman by birth, but whien guit
young lhe went with hlis father to hivi
at. Cork, Irnlan(I, when thn nlhIn
llolmes acquired a bleach-greeni al
engaged in the manufacture of line
tobert Holmes wished Ilodgen
marry controry to his incinations, co
sequently he left home and Bet out f4
the New Woi I. Ile finally settled
Augusta, where lie purchased fro
Thomas and Ann (umnuing one acre
land in the city fronting on Iteynold
Houston and Bay streets, March 2
180.1, as shown by the records of Ric:
mond County. His will, duly attest<
and recorded, shows that lie also owi
ed several pieces of country properi
and somec, negroes. Ile married Eliz;
beth Iill, of Columbia County, (orgi;
Ile died in 1804 , leaving a widow an
one daughter, Margaret. McCleai
Holmes, who married Dr. Williar
Cloud, cf Chester, S. C. From thi
marriage there sprang the following
Mrs. J. It. Aiken, Mrs. Samuel Di
base, Mrs. Elis Earle, Mrs. I. j
Boyleston, Mrs. William Calhour
Miss E. it. Cloud-names that wil
be recognized as among the mos
prominent in that aristocratic Statt
Mr. John Iill, of Macon, brother o
Mrs. ilodgen Holmes, was the grand
father of Airs. Senator A. 0. Bacon.
On May 12, 170, letters patent wer
issued to llotigen Ifolmes, signed b;
George W1a1lungton, President; Tiio
thy 'ickering, Secretary of State, anm
Charles Lee, Attorney General, "for i
new and useful improvement, to-wit
ew machineiy called'thd cotton gill.'
Tle improvement consisted of " tli
cylinder, from 8 to 1-f inches in dianie
ter, alld 6 feet lon, with onc row o
tecth to 1 inch, which runs oil tw(
"d'eolns etc. It was attested b'
V. Urquhart and Scaborn .Jones, bol
well-known citizens of 1 lchmon<
County, promitient in the Revolution
ary period, and men whose numerou
descendants btandi high in the affairE
of the State to this day. This patent i
still in C::istenec and is in the posse's
sion of Mrs. S. A. Doylest.m.
Ilodgen Iolmes, having received li
early training in his father's linen I'ac
tory, it is but nattural that he shoul
have acquired a taste for textile man
ufacturing, anil that the knowledge ac
(juired from the manipulatlon of tin
liber or flax should have suggested tin
idea of the saw gi, tihe maclinie which
fullilled the South's greatest retin:rc
ment. It is equally natural that W nit
ney, schooled im the calling of nakim
nails for a livelihmo d, sh'ould havo hi
upon the device of spikes driven il
the cylinder instead of teeth or revolv
img SaWs.
The patent oflice at Washington wa:
destroyed by lire in 1836 and all th1
models an 1 diawings lost, including
Whituey's. But for it certified copy o
the original specification on file at thl
tnited States court house in Savan
111111, there would be 1.0 data concern
ing themi in existence. The pateni
ollice authorities appropriatled $100,
000 toward the recovery of the origi
nals, but failed to obtain Whitney's
It, in 18-11 there was filed, ilstead
an entire!y different set of specifica
tions, difTering completely from th
original and shiowiig tihe colillellt,
workings of at saw gin. The draughit$
man that executed the substitute(
copy was evidently ignorant, of tlh
modus operandi of the gin for lie pu
the crank o1 the brush shaft, instea
of the cylinder shaft.
There were twenty-seven suit
brought by Miller and Whitney in thi
Unlit~ed States court at, Savannah fo:
in frilngemenit, of patenlt,, in most o
which they were unsuccessful. Amon,
the defendants arc found the failmha
names in the early histoiy of Georgia
Ignatius Few and William Few, Ai
thur Fort, and .John Powell. Ilohne
was not a p)arty to any of the litigr
Lion, all hou1gh a certified copy of hi
patent was introduced as evidence
and1( what the defense mainily relic
upfoni was1 the fact, that Iholmes, nc
Wlutney, invenitedl the saw "in. Whil
ney wrote from New I Iaycn to ,iosita
Stebbins, asking his dlepositionis to th
effect, that fourtecen. years blefore '' h
(Whitney) repeatedly toli him that hi
originally contemplated mlaking
whole row of teeth from one pilate C
piece of sheet iron.'' W fhitney writc
in the-same letter: . " I have a set,
the most, dlepravedh villians to comba
and~ I might as wvell go to hll in scorem
of happiness as appjly to a G eorg
court for justice."
WV. B3. Scabrook, president of t~l
South Carolina Agricultural Society,i
a wvork onl cottonl, puiblishied in 1sf
sp~eaks of a Ilohmnes saw giln used by3 Ca
tailn ,James Kincaid on Miill creek, ne(1
WVinnisboro, Fairfield County, Sou
Carolina, in 1 7tf5, and says "' it is r*
ported to have been the first saw gi
used in that State.'' It is related tih
Ilmes and1 Kmaicaid were fast friend
bo0th being Scotchimen by birth. (
one~ occai~on Kincaid chanced to vis
l lamburg, olpOpite1 Augusta, whore
tradIed, and1( where lhe met, IIoilm<(
llolmes mdullced himi to take his g
home1) with him1 and test its merits ai
at theme 1,ime cati mitoniinlg him
lie careful lest the secret of the nr
chianiism he discovered and uitili ed
othbers. When thie gmn was set up
K in)caid's mlill and11 tested it, was fo0u
to work saLtisfac.toilily. Shortly af
wards K incat h iall busiinless in (Ch
lestoni and~ left, the miiill key wifh Ii
wife with the inijunlct ion to let no0 0
enter It. (h)n his return, to his gri
conisterniationi, lhe learnmed thait, a you
mani on hiorschack had asked for a1
obtained pcrmissioni to inispect the ni
andl had( spenlt some1 time iln(X11 xaill
the new macline. 11(c relized
stantly that the young miani was
other than Eli Whiitecy and that
damage wrought, up)on hiimself and1(
friend was irreparable.
T1hie old mill , alnd with it thme 'ill
destroyed in 18(15 by Shelrman's arm
Th'fe shnm ft of the~ giln was senit to
-conn to he nyhihits ,at te fist S
Id fair held after the war, and was in
n. some way lost.
to There is a story told of Whitney's
a- gin Uhat emanates from Wilkes Coun
>r ty, Georgia, amid which bais a strik.
n lingr esemblance to the foregoing, li
in 1793 lhineas Miller purchased a plan
>f tation on Upton creek, nine miles south
, east fron Vashington, on which there
), in a line water power, and aet up one
i- of the Whitney gins. Many witnesses
d Iwere attracted thither to witness the
i- )erformance of the wonderful ma
Y chille, b(it only women Were admitted,
- as a patent had not been granted.
t. Nathan L yon donned a suit of his
(I wife's8 clothes, grained admlittanel and
y being a tolerably fair mechanic, con
n structed a ginl on the saie principles
1 as Whitney's. Miller did at one time
own the lIarnett place on Upton creek
on which he operated a gin, but the
latter part of the story of Lyons' dis
lguising as a Womiai, etc., appear to be
I apocryphal inasmuch as there is no
t allusion in Illy of tile corresponidence
. or court records to aiy such occur
f rence. The story about some one
- breaking iinto Whitiey's gin sOlips and
stealing his models seenis equally with
out f oundal.ion Ior same Ieaisoi.
As to the oft-repeated charge that
. Whitney was badly treated at the
I South, and especially so by (G Corgia,
let us, inl. good conscience, see what
foundation exists for the allegation .
Wliitney soll his patelt right, to tie1
State of Sot1h Carolina for ;5)11,000 ;
from North Carolina and Teniiessee
lie recived about :;0,0( and .-10,- 1
000, respectvely, through arralnge- I
,lments imaic with the governments of
those States, making a total of .i90,
I 00o which lie made from the invention
in a few years and carried North with
him. l1e came South wit hout a dollar.
In Georgia Miller and Whitney re- i
served tle right of property in their i
gill, at first receiving two-thirds of the
net proceeds, the expcuse being divid
ed equally between the patentee and
the ginners. But, as Governor .lames
.Jacksoni *ays inl a message to the (Gor- I
gl L hcgislature, November :3, 18m,
they found a defect iu the law under 1
which their patent was obtained anid
consequently they determinied to sell
the machinery together with their
rights vested i them for $500 cach,
and for a license to build and operate
one at the ginner's expense, they
charge- :100. Jiut finding that tle
law was generally understood and that
they could obtain uo redress in the
courts they concluded to reduce tle
price to $200. Governor ,1ackson fur
thur says :" I am informed from
other sources that gins have been
erected by qther person who have not
taken Miller and Whitney's machine
for a modlel, but which in some small I
degree resembles it, and ill improve
enitcs far- surpass it, for it has bben
asseited that Alder and Whitney's didI
not on trial answer the intended piur
pose ; the rights of these improve
ments, however, it appears by. the
present act, meiged in tle rights of
the patentees, who it is supposed, on
tle lowest calculation, will make by it
ill the two States (Georgia aind South
Carolina) $100,000.'" The act referred
to was passed by Congress, doubtless,
for the special purpose of shutting out.
Holmes' claim and establishing Whit.
niCy'a rights to the use of the saw cylin
(er instead of the spike cylinder
s which lie invented. This accounts for
Sllolmes iniot engaging in Iitigation.
II is claim had been ouitlawedl by spi
fcial legi'slation aind it,.would( have been
r' Ni) woiider that liolmies died a
heart-brokemi, miortilied and hit erly
dlisappoinlted man. I Ic had1 lived to~
a see (lie fruits of his toil and genius
enatchied from him amid converted t~o
another's uses, Ile had lived to see
Is wvonderful inveiition revolutiomv.
Iinz (lie world, buit, all the honor, the
t- glory and1( the emioluiimnts given to
- his hlated ivial. II is name should a
pear high up oii the roll of famie to
(c gelbher with Watts, F~ulton, Arkwright,
ei I)raper, Mairconi and all (lie great, ini
e~ veultors n bio have contributecd to science
aL and iiech- tic arts, thuns p)romioting (lie
'r worl's progress, for lie bestowed upon01
i ankimd (lie inestimabile ble::iigs of
'Iia epochal laboi -saving dlevice, simiple,
rt but (lie more uisel biecauise of its sim
hi plicity. An hiiIis seryices to G;eorgia
a~ were eveii more direct a 141 beneficial
t.han to thei worlid at large, for (lhe im
eo mediate el'heet, of his invent ion was to
ni irustrate (lie decsignms of AMiller andi
V, Whitney, who hlad determiined t Qmno
p- nopoh ze (lie gmning ini this State anit
rr- were prevenitedl fromi carrying out their
hl odious scheme by (lie pirolonged, conI
C- t~lmuouls and uinaainig lawsuits that
ni ens~ued as a result, of the attempit.
it, The hoiior of the wvorhd's renowned
s, invent(ion shiouldt be accredlited to
i (ieorgia andi not to Alassachlusetts.
it, The ashes of I lodgeniI lines repose
ic in an unikiiown grave ini the city of
s. Augusta.
"il Twety-four heirs striving for (lie
to p~roperty of a deceased relative, ini New
0- York State, found that, thie estate,
Y lien settled, wias worth ius, andi each
" in time reciivedll :: 1- :; cenits.
no The Woi i' s Greatest
at """""""""
nU Cure for lalfaria X
a ,Fte all formns of MalarIal poisOn..U
. h'n Lake .Johnmton's Chill an dlPever
Ill- 'fonic. A ta it of Ma ululriai puoion
110 iin y( ir loodii mensi midsery an
h.it alariail poisonin g. 'rho antiilgoto
ICosts 50 Cents If It Cures.
ArbitrnrV I 'wer the It utor ai(
t ti A hlighty I)l a- ti l Trade all
Mlark. w
11l. I lnry Wattersion, editer of the of
Louisville Courier-.Journal, 11111( e a il
speech several nighits ago before the Ili
Virginia I)emocratic club at the Metro. w
politan hotel inl Waslhingtoii, ). (., th
i1u(d spoke as follows: at
", There is no drop of blood inl my d1
veins which is not Virginia blood. Al- N
though for purposes of imly owi, having w
I deep design beneath them, I chose cr
his capital of the nation for my birth- il
Alace, lly earliest Vision of Paradise It]
ie very datwi of all my conceptions e.
A* honor and duty anid glory- -nest led
mion1g yoditer hills acC8 the il 'oto.
uIe; and wheni I go hence, ily ashes S
;1hall repose upon the host lli of Kell.
uicky--Virginia's lirst born an1d fiairest
laughter. There seenms, therefore,
101i litless in my sittmlg amn ouVl . A
tA nyhow, being a I.eit uckian 'and
L Democrat, I am1 glad to be here ;ml 'I
miu will not, I hope, think Ime 11s11-11
g aliy consequeitial irs and grIn-es,
fI achd that I feel very muchl aII hine.
" We are Democrats. We love oulr I
oIltrv. Our hearts beat true to its huii
lstitliiols. We woni reseel tle tii
0VerIlelnt from the hands of tlose el
vio arc converting it into a gov-erin- p
nent of the trust , for the triusts and
)y thlie trusts, and restore it to the t
ilnnds of those who will have some re- vyv
,ard for tle rights of the people. V
st The liepuiblicanl party. 1.4 a syndli
ated party. Arbitraiy power is its 2
niotor, the( athlmi.ghty dollar1 its trade
tiark. If it be not checked in tte gait to
t is oing, it will in the end surely W;
tlexicanize the republic. en
"4 ()nce again in the White Ilouse (
ve have the iman on horseback. Af m;
ecting the simplicitly of Lte cowboy, T\I
e conceaIs beneath thie. self-cofidence ii
lid Eileer mallners of the brolcho
.uister, the senitilmw'its and aillbitionls, eI
I not the talents, of a )iaz. To him, IM
little tliiig like treating anl adilliratl a
>f th - navy, wearing04 the lailrel leaves tl
)f imperishable relowil, as if lie weie of
t bbIlly in at1 Im1s, now to be dawdled V
nd now to be spanked, is merely an fe
idress aflair beguin and ended dlur- te
ng ofl-moments between brea!fast fr
md luncheon. To him the reprimand- -
ng of tie lioufenan-generat of the m
irmny, grown1 gray in the tighting of the it
)attles of his Conlltry becomes nll amu1,1s8- ki
ig horse play, meant to relax Lis el
1u1scles and illustrate his high-migh ti.
nes5, whilst warning lesser otlicers of in
he army to obey orders an11d say noth- I
" As these tiings go forward, par
akiug somewhat of the character of
eats to divert and blinds to hoodwink
mblic opinlion,1 at htil Ifl army11 re
)rgli ,lZl~~ 1 5.1 - ,L
>rganlization ik prepared and urg-ed
p)i (Colges,r'-U i which it it becomes a
aw, will make the power of the l'resi- vi
lent ab3olu1te, a'd which it is not1 too
nuch to say ought to be entitled ' An ol
tet to make the 'resident of the ited k
itates a iilitary dictator.' Iecause
,he reprimanded liitenant-genieral
mswering the summons of a conitt ee
>f Congress-as was his duty ex
)rcsse an opinion adverse to thlis bill
It is proposed to retire him from ihe
scryice0. Ta'Iken illn conctionI with
some1 othler malltt~rs of more 0or less
iniister suggestion, these are menailces
to tile capitol ,land look at thle lIcpubli
:ans ill Coiigress. Tbhc trail oif the
trade martik is over the lleui. Ol)d hiighI
Lariff C danices the canl-can ill the 110118e a
whilst 01ld ship sub1 sidty does the regu- u
thing for tthe sylihi it es. Notitung for"
theo peole. Aml, 11ot conitcnt, withc
their arbitrar'y poweV(r ill the W' inito
Ilouse and1( thelir mcenar111y power' in"
Conigress, thle leaders of this party of
lFederaIlisml andl false pretens5ion wlIuhl
r'ip open1 1l'andtora's box to lilch thence
thel black , piratllical flag of neogro (dom)
ina~tionl- -the ciqlultly disrepiutable atul
blloody sthirt, oh sectional algitaitioni
11md, il ord~er to mai~ke sulre 01' tie next
11louse they are plrotposing0 to briniig for
wardl anhothe(r l"orce hill to smiute theg
Sotiih, t~o blight the North , and to con1
vert aI 12a1) Leeminag wvitii love ndl
pceul inIt~o a lai reekm l wiiiiithatea
and11 stritf. .Such is the bain~et to)
which thie exit of AlcI(miley, the staltes
n11m, and th11 le ad(1vent, of I loosevel t,, the
llou)lgh I ideor, ha~s iulvi tell us8.
" 1 am11 somlethlinlg of a jinlgo mnyselfC.
I a Ibeiev'e ini thle expam11Iihng gr'eatlness V
and1( glory of liy comit11ry. I never' see
the 11lag f12lug abo)0ve tile dom111 on
yonlder caIpitol tha~t iiy heartt dhoes not '
Lthrloh withi the prloudl, gild tlhough1t
tha~t, my1 eyes do0 not, 1i11 with huappjy ex- 1
cani I'/ciize.
"' ( odl bless thle lag, anud ( sod bless '
thlie boys thait tight b eneathli it. I wroublI '
carrfy it illviolate, and1( I woublI keep
11hem1 spotless. A lil with this inl view,
I wa~dt to kniow what is goinig on1 aiwayV
out. yonder across thle mu tlt i twhot 111,
the mlysterious waves of the 1'acilic(1
sea., 1 wanlt other witnesses thanti( self
see0k ing pol i telanls and1( self-exploiting
soldiers to comle here ami1( tell me.( J
refuse Lti ol mny tonigue, I retfuse to)
rest contentot. Andil, if I am told by a
w hi ipp ersnapperICI ill shouler0 straps
coiunltry'~, iiy replly to him ha 1111l e a sa
il tile fac0.
" 'riends(1, brot huers, I )emocrats, let
us h~I ave d~onie wVit issension101. 1 't ius
turn ill bac' iks oni the ipast, ouri eyes t.o
till fut 11re, callinug aigainst 'thlese things
is mhy comr11ade, 110 maitter whlat ho
thiinks or' ever thloughit about silver 01'
gold. II who wIould (deny me a pla5ce
by Is side to lighlt themi miuist be eithe.
vervy nerlvere or very blind. Let n18
ross no bridges till we come to them,
ut Ilrea(y we can see far enougi
icad to take our reckoning.
" There will be but one test of a
emocrat in 1i0- -toe the line- -to(
'0 line, saying to arbitrary Power and
)Solutism, thou shalt go no fuirthler;
0, too, are inl the expansion hiisness
it our expansion is for the religioil
the consititutioni no less than for
to religion of Christ and Ilim cruci
ld; ir expalnsion means apece, not
r; the honor, not, the degradationi of
e ag; and just as surely as ,Jeffer
in wrote the Dleclaration of Indepen
mee an1d .11kson f.ouliglt the battle of
ew Orleans to resist despotism shall
u maike a new I'ourthi of .iul ati
lebrate anIot ter fighth of . ianary
resistintg this tinrighteous scheme
abolli thIe constitltion aiti Mxi
nize the goverlnme1t.'
V0 Wmolk-en Will) 11,n4 Pase,
I Mlstrried Icmit in Ne-w Yoik
incl VirgininI.
)ne of the strangest coincideciees in
mam life took plate last week when
iewspaIpers atnnouniced the dis
very of the fact that i person slp
5(3d to be a married man in New
rk proved to be a wo nian when dead,
1 at, tle same Lilie just such a re
lationi was made about a woman in
A person who was known in Canai
igua, N. Y., for live yieairs as William
lowa rd diedc suddeily, an1(d finl au1i
py showed thiat, the supposed man
N a woman. It Howard, who was
ktloyed 14 ' ft-Ill afrm lu(, went, to
.adlaigua l five years ago 'with ia wo
inl, Iwho Vas I'nown as Mrs. lloward.
vo chiIrei lwer e borin to tle sup
sed wife.
h'lle deldl woman worked for flrmii
. inl tle eig111horhood, anl those
>st intimately 111iuinted with the
iily never had the slightest suspicion
A she was not a mani . The cause
lie woman's death is a mystery. On
cdnesday night, she took two tablets
r a throat afltction, anid was dead in
n minutes. 'hle Imledicile was sen t,
m Wellsville, N. V., where relativ es
side. Thei authorities are completely
ystieied Is to al! matters toluching
ion the womani 's life. They (to not
iow her right name. Two ien,
tiiing to be half-brothers, attieided
e funeral, but refused to divulIge any
formation. Ani inquest was to be
Id, and soeilO h glt Ialy be thrown
>on1 I Ie stranige c*.13re.
The little mIanufacturiig town of
LtricI., across the river' from I'eters
uig. Va., was tile scenle of the other
ra'ige a.(ni mysterious occurrence,
here George (ireen, a citizei knowi
( very imaii, wOnnui11i and chlub inl the
itiy ts at 1m, turned out to be i
111111. He was seventy-two) years
(, ad141 for forty-one years 111d been
Iown to lie world a4 Ohe hilsbilild (if
airy (reen, and he had-,11.0 mingled wit'h
ell, conisiluied a iman's ch)ily ration of
hacco, aul Worn hoots, trouisers, s1s
-,nders, an11d al the akppiarel of a m:n11.
he womali vhio was deceived siito
arr'ymlg an~othier womnan , hel ieviing
3r to be ai manl , sacri iced the best5
airs of her Ii Fe rat her than1 ( diulgt
34 s'cre1t wh.'ic t(he I 3obiject, oif her af.
tion b015teggec ie r toi keep un3know:
Ithle woirld.
It Lwas a liathbet ic scene1( to see the deC
JL~id womi~iatI weeping3 by the formi o
er loved onie who in life was kno1(w
Sher husband313(, GeCorge Grteen. h-'o
nrty- live yoar's Mr s. G reeni bas carrieI
1p11 1her he art the secriet and( I n3ee
yen b~y inltimiation madle known the
ect thiat, one( whom 81he mar13riedt for
an was1 a1 wVoman111. Andl this secrect
ohl halve been buried with the( form
III no(t stranigers behien (ca111ed( to pierfor m1
ot last (llices for the dead35. Mr's,
reenii deply deploiI~res the( fact tha3t1
3r sorrow(iI has beenl exploite (beI (for(
WVheni asked wvhy idhe d id nlot prepare1
I body for 11m3rial , he( sa1id she ( stru1g.
ed w ith hiersel1Ff for aii time, liut conlhl
t. galther coutlrage~ to prepare13' the bodiyi
one( 811( loved (o decarly. and1( thal
ter the men had1311 o tfered thiejirS '. servce
IC ne(ceplte(d them an hul turned~ t he b13
ver to be1 att(lede by themIi.
'' A ftler a courtip j, e3xtenllihng o3v(3
few moniithus,'' shle sa11, "' ( :(or3gI
reen~i ami( I, theni Mris. Mariuy liitil
(ems1 ago4, theO ceremonyfl', bling p1er3
irmied1 a1(cor~lhng to the Cathiolic fai thI
SFew dlays afte3r the( marr1'ig(, ( lrec1
')lh iI me( hewas noct a1 man~l and iml
1lored11( me not. to <h vilge the fact, hu
v(e with him and114 lot each3l he a help11 tI
hie (other33. When(1 the ( se3ct wats re(
(caI(e( to 1me4 1 was almos~it oIvercom34
vith1 astoniishmrnentI, but promiised (irce
lhat, hiis retl iu(est w(3d be I grante~'1i an 31
inie( that tlino3 we I ave3 livedl togeth<
.1 bro'ther1 :and( sist(3r."'
AIrs. ( lr((en wepjt, bitterly when sh
e(31lec(ted( that the t wo(r1bI 3ow know
lie se3cre(t shie hald 5(3 lon~g guiarde3
'1.. has been33 the sacr3iilee( oF my life,
he( said, " bucit 1 I3 bliev(e 1 am hiapp
iow for t1( he sacrilice."' She speaks
or33 com11pan3in'5 memo11ry as8 tender
1s Onily a1 womnii (can3 speak (IF a lov
2nc. Standin1 g 1by the hier, she plae1(
hier hand upon1 G;reeni's .brdsw anid Ha
"11 am niot alfraidl to put my haind
hum, ie waIs the1( nobiles(t 0ou1 tl:
(ver Ii ved(. IIe ha3s worked h
through his life, and3( hias been1111 al I h
to (c11eer me1(. No 1man, (enn1 say lie ev
wroniged him, ie was a Christi,
and1( 1 belicyc lie is now with Chrisi
Ihere the womain broke down.
coutld 81peak no further, aind tun
awaly. Weening as if tier heart wmm
The World's Grt
lor all forms of fever take .J()I
It is 100 times holler thait quinli
u1ne caniiot do inl 10 days. it's i
fooble cures made by quinine.
COSTS 50 1
She is a large woman with in1
gent, refined feattiiies, and no 1m1or
fecting sicene vis ever witnessedI I
her weeping at the coli, deml-I fori
the wollianl whonii the world knelv
her hiusibatul. (Groeen at lay 111oc
with imen anid engaged in pursuits
civersiolis coillion to thei.
MimoketI, but neldom chowetI, and
not achhleteel to (1rm1k.
Mr. (rCeenll was askeI if her I
han11d had Itl av worn 1111l appa
She promptly responded, 11 Yes,
Ivlen isked if hulianu Cold her
11C said it WaIt 11a matter they In
discu118ssed, and thilaL o wird refer
to the fact was eve spokeil 1.
tiemii alter he revealed to her the 1r
She said that afte. she founil she
been deceived she con sitered it
OII affair and therefore, m4t
known to no 011, hearin g all her
row alone. She wonld 'not. w1oni
for the world and after pledginhg hl
kept sacred ly the pledge.
The membeirs of the faiily Ii
here with ( Ireen did not know
(ruti, ntor would they believe it wV
they were told that their " '
(eorge "1 Wias aI Wonan. Air. ,1
Aforiarity, her niece, wlho Iwas I
after the death 01 Ier father,
raised by her, and looked to her
father. (reen, dIirinlg her illi
See1ned IiCrable when her coipair
was not present, and the woImianl I
ilosit over'one Iitl latigui(e from IN
ing at the b. d14ide. (; re'Un ha wi
all the property to AIirs. (reeni, wI
sIe s1y. eOiisi~t maIIIiI' or 'I Ia ai
plailationi near laeighi, N. ('.
''hiosie who at fir'st- 1sridI, I
pity the woiani, aid recogn ize
n0ob1lity of the eharacter Alc 1111 1 4
iml carryng unitold a lirriw, becam
gave happiniesi to alithlier. lier1 eo
is Cet Molelided by every ole low,
tRhose who dlI .ed t ffer sulggest
agamilit hier, are repentanIt. The
hi. indeed, one that cannot he 'it)
by aiy to whos4e notice it has ei
1lhysiciansm fall to give coielnive
planaitioli. ( )II Ihysiciani, howe
Vho4 has been interested inl the
detrihed it t a on1e ill which the wo
had t(e ensibihuei (if a m1iani1. lit
leves that whatever there ii ni.
u in expressions (f IftIeatlres Is
to lio faet of ibitual aissocial.
with men and the mlental aittitml(
the persion who assimles the role
manRI. It i.4 a Case theU study o)f w'
aiilnyl are interested 11, aniid a r
stifct1oty explanat ion of this. rIM
able sensa8ttion mII le Ifourii outi h
For Infants and Children.
The KiNd You Have Alwys Bol
Bears the -
ISignature g
OPvieE AN)) Woilxi, Nori A liiiIwrIA
EOors4, Ijaih, lncts aunt Bull
Hard ware.
All Corresponidee giveni prompl
Middle-Man's Prof
The11 Mel 'hil~ l'iano or liindergai
Organ dIrect, to tib buyer from
Itory. WriVllto me I you ih to b81A)h
O)gan or l'hint), for. eican save
money1i~. I travelI Saumth (Ca-ol ina,
woulId he pleasedi to callI and shiow
liy Planois anti O rgan8. A positail
will bring m1 LI) you.
L. A. McCOR~D,
1 ' ut1, - - Souith (Car<
So.h00 Graduiales. IReceivyen from I
Iphieahtions daily for booikkeepierst an
r lntgraphemrs. Ilool'.keepingi Shorl
Tle~graphy taught. ID-fers. 10 All
buisinesus meni and balikers. W.rite f<
I'loue Address A. C. imlwt'oi,
Sor L.lW, A ILNOI,D, Vice- l'rns.. A hiun
I. - ______________
Allorney aIt Law.
d Pickens. S. C,
Im 1sionsi charged. Borrower p ayi
lie cust of perfectingi loani. For ii110
I| JNO, It. P'AL~MEgit&
,atest Fever Medicine.
INNON'S (IilTars and V11I.VER 'ONIC.
te and does in a siniglo day what slow u
31slendid cures are inl strikingcontrast to The
How the Fariter Can Save Money
1117- o Ih i ditor of T e People'sJournal:
1.11 lie following comuiitnication issued
11 oby the Assistant Agriculturist of Ulen
Bett son Agricultural college is of so much
ited value to the farmers of this State on ac
anlid count of the present high price of all
slhe feed products for farm animals and
w s stock, that I have determined to got you
to publish this as an advertisemnt for
u hich our compatywillhcar thr -
As some of the products ma u i
. - the ration ats made by Mr. Conno - ay
I is not be available to various planters, I
ver suggest that any planter write to Mr.
'Cng Connor and state what food products
Voet are available to him, both rough forage
ith and coneitrated food, and Mr. Connor
will take pleasuie In makin up a ration
h o iuit, his need" as he has done In this
it Yours trul
hii General Manager The Bouthern Cotton
-slf oiI Company.
,in. Cheap Rations for Horses and
the Mules,
iit I o Hd iI or ol i The Pleolple's Journal
ohl Farmers from various aection s of the
)Orn1 State have been writing asking about
the advisability of feeding horses and
Cmules oil cotton see( meal and hulls and
1 also aisking for a cheaper ration than
e.4, corn.
1lon1 The following prices are given in a
i iI- letter from Scranton, 8. U. : Corn, $40
mt.. per ton; oats, $.5 per ton: wheat bran,
lied $25 per ton; cotton seed meal, $25 per
ich ton; rice meal, $22 per ton. Of course
Ic0ornl a11(1 oats are out of the question as
a food for hi(orse's an1(d 1uules at the above
priCe, Ho sohinctlig cheaper must be
loW looked for.
the The analysis showH thit rice meal has
>w 11 abouIt the saime coltosition as corn ineal
ke it and we have found that it Is juist as good
Itrse for feeding pigs. We have fed it to
ai,41 lirses with good resilts. I think we
riei safre in Rk) ing that it may be used in
ins p11a(e of corn pound for loiunid.
(115CS I f no hay or fodder is used in the
m ration in di hulls are resorted to as rough
n. ness some nitrogenous food suich as bran
-x- or cotton seed mteal must, he used to
ver, supply proteini. lulis may be fed witl
ase out any ftirther fear of i nju ry to the ani
anmal. Should they refuse to eat the hulls
a little corn meal or bran sprinkled over
the surrface will tempt them.
A good cheap rationi may be made up
t~eas follows:
1011 Si X poids of rico costing G.fl oentu;
le 01' four pounds tIof wheat bran costing 6.0
Of n cents; two iou of cotton seed ieal,
hith ctii iig 2 5 cents ; ten pounds of Cotton
Ht)r d 1e .hulls, Costing 1.0 cents ; total cost
of ratioi per lly 17.1.
Ihe above is for a horse or mulo of
1,000 poun ds in live weight.
It is evident that a ration illade up of
corn and fodder ai(n conitainling the same
amount of digestible matter as the above
SIT tioll would cotst much more than the
The North Ca: olina ex periment station
hils fed cottol seed meal and hulls to
horses with good results, hut the x )cri
b ments alolg this line have not ben Ox
te'sive e(iougli to say that cotton seed
ipmeall can be fed inl ul21 im ited qIuantities
.(M fto - any length of timie w ithout, injury to
the aiinial.
""-- Numbers of farmers, however, have
rlported that they have fedl cotton seed
O09 meal to iiutles and10 hiorses witih good
[NY U. M. CoNNI~u,
..... Aost. Agrmi't. '. C. F',xperiimental t3ta
-~: STOP
Anid let 11s show you
OurC newV Spring lines
r tenm
Strap Sandalds, and Co.
IlintI loinl Slippers, in all
IlthIers and( lasts.
PCride &
Nhttloay ii i hor
A Ni )asotN--Se~coiid lInhl nI'biay
yotit ~ n ta li 1 n o anld the fourtih
Slo A~iisuii~.''lirol Mondlay in Feobruary,
Nh 'siottil n 11no ut firs nduay
W~fttr 1 ,A ---eoondi Moiiday in Marc1
No co th secondl Mondal~y after thie foutrthl Mon
actual li ii Juneit, anti the six th Monilly after
rmation ti o ourth Monditay in Stembeiil~r.
ON n ritro nnily >11 a iaarch, third
, .'.N hoiiii lftrt ftuh Monda i oOIy nl June, and

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