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The people's journal. (Pickens, S.C.) 1891-1903, October 23, 1902, Image 1

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VOL 12.-NO. 36. PICKENS, S. C., THURSDAY, OCTOBER 23, 1902. L
How ecn Montgomery Save]
the Jett Davis Pluntations.
R. R. Wilson in Uctober Bjuccoss.
When, in 1835, Jefferaon Davis,
later president of the Confederacy, lefl
the regular army, his elder brother,
Joseph, gave him Urierlield, a splen
did plantation of two thousand acres
on the Mississippi rivor, a few miles
below Vicksburg, and a number of
slaves. These latter included a grow
ing negro boy called Ben Montgomery,
whom Mr. Davis made his body ser
vant. The lad was unusually intelli
gent, and Mr. Davis saw that in him
were capabihties not common to the
African race. lie taught him to read,
and then to write and soon he became
an admirable assistant. IIe was not
only Jefferson Davis's body servant,
but also his private secretary, book
keeper, and general factotum. Ilis
penmanship was beautiful, and his
plantation bookkeeping, in its simpli
city and accuracy, was the envy and
admiration of the country-side. He
know more or the business of the
D.=vis brothers, ocept themselves,
than anyone else.
After Jefferson Davis entered poli
tics, Ben Montgomery became still
more useful. When the master was
on his long campaign tours, or in Wash
ington, Montgomery had authority to
open letters not marked as private,
and to answer them; lie had power, in
writing answers, to transact any busi
ness necessary for the plantation. By
this time Montgomery had come to
have absolute charge of the Brierlield
estate. lie did not interfere with the
management of the negroes, or with
anything else under the overseei's
purview; but the general business of
the place he transacted without con
sulting anybody except his master.
When Jefferson Davis left Washing
ton, in 1861, after resigning his sr ;t
in the Senate, lie went to Brierlield.
his ;;tate was his sole maintainan. o.
It was cet tain that, during the im
pending struggle, he must be absent
much of the time, and whom should
he leave in charge of the estate? Final
ly Joseph Davis asked, " Why not
Ben Montgomery?" and the sugges
tion was adopted. The usual white
overseers were left in charge of the
farming operations, but to the slave,
Ben Montgomery, was instructed the
financial part of the business, under
the direction of his master. The cotton
crops of 1861 and 1862 were good, and,
although there was some trouble about
marketing the crop of the latter year,
it was finally sent to New Orleans, and
later, warehoused in Liverpool, to be
sold when the money it might bring
would be needed. There were nui,
more than four hundred am fifty bales,
for the South then needed corn and
food supplies more than it did cotton,
and so the land was devoted largely
to food crops. Then, early in 1863,
cane the Emancipation Proclamation
of President Lincoln, and with it to
the South, the equally dangerous Act
of confiscation. This latter was put
into execution, wherever possible, with
great energy. Treasury agents, armed
with all the forms of law, or without
them sometimes, seized all propert,y
belonging to the list of suspects as soon
as it, came undler the protection of the
Union armies.
Then, for the llrat time in his life,
Ben Montgomery asked permission to
visit Richmond.
" Dear Marse Jeff," lie wrote, "1I
want to go to Richmond to see you,
and I want to go right away. There
is something that I want to tell you
that I dat.e riot write, so do p)lease let
me go to Richmond at once."
Mr. Davis could not imagine what
the negro had on his mind, butwrt
him to come, and sent him the neces
sary permit for a slave to travel.
" Marse Jeff," said Ben, when ho
arrived at Richmond and had an op
portunity to talk with his master, "you
know Mr. Lincoln has issued what ho
calls an emancipation proclamation,
and with it another proclamation con
fIscating the propert,y of certain arch
rebels, as lie calls them. Now, they
are going to confiscate your property
just as soon as they get a chance. Sup
pose you andi Master .Joe sell me yoUr
estates, and do it beifore the Yankees
capture our country."
" Why, Ben," Mr. Davis said, "you
are a slave and can't hold property In
Mississippi." .
"That is true," said Ben, " but, you
can set me free.- Make out two sets
of free papers. Give' me one set and
keep one yourself. Then make out a
thirdl paper, which shall say that und(er
certain conditions the free papers are
to be canceled."
The conditions were that the Fed.
orals should capture the city of Vicks.
burg, and the Davis estate which la)
18 miles below.
"Why, Ben, that's an excellent idea
Let me think it over for a day or two,'
Mr'. D)avis said.
11e talked it over with his brothe:
Joseph. It was Important to then
that t,hey should have the Income o
this estate. if the Federal soldier,
should -capture Vicksburg, about th<
first plroperty they would conflaca't
and plunder would be the Davis estate
But, if this property belonged to
negro, freed before tha capt,ure o
Vicksburg, then, under tihe Emancips
ton 190oelamnation, it would be his, an'
could niot he seized by the Feders
agents. fIe plan.- promised well, an
tire Dil brothers, after consult,at,or
decided to adopt it. Jefferson Davy
loaned to lien, for the purpose of mak
ing tho sale, $10,000. The considera
tion for the estate was $30,000, on 10
years' time, with interest at six per
cent. Knowing there would be some
trouble about the matter, the legal
papers were drawn with exceptional
care. John A. Campbell, who resign
ed his place on the United States su
preme bench when the war began, was
the attorney; at the same time he drew
])en's free papers, with a clause in
each that, under certain conditions,
the free papers should become null and
Returning to Brierfleld, Montgomery
had all the papers promptly recorded
in the proper oflices in Warren County,
Miss. Events speedily showed that lie
acted wisely, for in less than a week
after Vicksburg fell, in July, 1863, an
agent of the United States treasury
department appeared at Brierfield to
take possession of the goods, chattels,
and movables on the plantation, pre
paratory to formal confiscation of the
property by the United States. The
agent traveled in state, escorted by a
troop of cavalry, only to be met by
Montgomery, who mildly asked his
" I have come," said the agent, " to
take possession of all movable goods
and stores on Jefferson Davis' plan
" Mr. Davis owns no plantation in
this section of the country," Mont
gomery rejoined.
" Then to whom does this place be
long?" queried the astonished otlicer.
"These three plantat ions," answer
ed Montgomery, calmly, " consisting
of the Hurricane, Palmyra and Brier
field estates, are my property."
"You don't suppose that I'll be
lieve such a story as that, do you ?"
asked the agent.
" The story that I have told you is
true in every respect," said Mont
gomery. " If you will come into thr
house, I will show you all the papers,
and you can decide upon their legal
The agent was a lawyer, and, when
he looked over the deeds, he saw that
a correct legal transfer had been made.
But lie said, in triumph:
"At the time this sale was made,
you were a slave. You could not hold
real estate in Mississippi."
Thereupon Montgomery, with a
smile, handed the agent his free papers,
ma:le out and legally verified four
made out and legally vet-ified.four days
before the title to tlie real estate was
" Now," said Montgomery, " this
country is under the protection of the
United States, is it not ?"
Why, yes," said the officer, i"
" And, I am entitled to all the rights
and privileges of a citizen of the Unit
ed States, am I not?"
" I suppose you are," was the reluct
ant reply.
" Thenu, sir, under the Em ancipa
tion Proclamation of President Lin
coln, and by virtue of these free papers
madle before that p)roclamation .was
issued, I am a citizen of the United
States, with a:l the rights and privi
leges that any citizen has. You are
especially enjoined by that proclama
tion to see that I and all of my race are
protected in our legal rights, are you
not ?"
" Yes" replied the oficer, who saw
that he was cornered.
" Then I request that you leave my
property untouched, for otherwise I
shall call upon t,he President of the
Unite:i States to know whether or not
this proclamation is more than an enmp
ty form."
The agent and his escort went back
to Vicksburg. Montgomery at once ad
dressed a letter to the commanding of-.
fleer at Vicksburg, setting forth that
lie was a free man of color, -the legal
owner of cert,ain plantations, which
were specified by name; that an Qicler
of the United States had called upoiK
him and endeavored to deprive him of
his property without due process of
law, and lie demanded of the command
ing officer his p'rotection and that of
the United States. Still, the spoil was
too rich to be relinquished by the treas
ury agents without a light, and in
despair, Montgomery decided upon a
great stroke. HIe called upon the
Federal commander at Vicksburg and
asked that a lieutenant and guardI be
put In charge at Brierfield for ten (lays'
t,ime, and also for leave to travel on a
government boat bound for Cincin
nati. Hie had resolved to visit Wash
ington, see President Lincoln, and lay
the case before him personally. Hie
chanced to know Judge Hlolt, then
judge advocate of the army. Whien lie
arrived in Washington, lie at once
went to see him, and asked to be taken
to the president.
"I'm a free man, now judge," he.
said. "You have known me ftur many
years. I want you to take me to Mr.
Lincoln and tell him what my charac
ter is, for I have importan~t businessi
with him."
JdeHolt went with Montgomery
" Mr. President," he said, " this is
Ben Montgomery, who for 30 years,
has been the private secretary of Jef
ferson Davis."
" Private secretary ?" queried- Mr.
r" Yes," said Judge HIolt, " timal s
a what I said. Hie is an .honest, man,
3 and what he says 1s true. lie.wishes
to see. you on impjortant busimess, and
.I will leave you and .hinm to transact
i lt,"-t.and Judge Holt left them alonie.
f. " Well, what can I (10 for you, my.
e friend ?" asked Mr. Lincoln,, aftel-11h.
I judge had gone -
1l Montgomnery related what had on
l curred. " Mr. ,Davis has been very
', .kind to me," he #ent oii Uamd IF j
s this as much to heln him as to help
myself. This war is neatly over. I
believe that you people will succeed.
What you will do with Master Jeff, I
do not know; but I am going to do my
bust to keep his wife and children from
Mr. Lincoln was deeply moved. "1)o
you mean to tell me," he asked, "that
you have been Mr. Davis' secretary
all these years ?"
"1 (1o not know what you would call
it, Mr. President," the negro replied,
" but for 30 years I have written his
business letters, looked after the affairs
of the plantation, carried largo sums of
money to New Orleans and Cincinnati
for him, and have had his fullest con
fldence in every way. In all his life
he has never spoken to me an unkind
",Do you know of any other such
case as yours, Montgomery?" asked
the president, as he rose and paced
the floor.
" No, sir, I do not," was the reply;
" but, doubtless, there are such cases.
Now, Mr. President, what I want you
to do is this: I want you to give me
a writing directing all military and
civil oflicers to protect me in the pos
session of my property."
The president sat at his desk, and
then and there wrote an order which
enjoined upon all military, naval, and
civil officers the protection of Ben
jamin Montgomery, the owner of three
plantations that were named, and
directed that he be given any assistance
lie might require in furtherance of
these orders. It was signed, " Abra
ham Lincoln." This was about August
1, 1863.
Montgomery went home and at once
showed his letter to the commandar at
Vicksburg, who issued orders that lie
3hould be protected ii the possession
Af his property. The president direct
ad the secretary of the treasury to in
struct agents to let Montgomery alone,
and he was not disturbed. After the
war, he went quietly ahead with his
business. He saved money, and kept
the hands pretty well together, though
Lhey were few. During the years of
reconstruction, Montgomery went oii
with his cotton growing, and attended
closely to business. His credit in
Vicksburg and New Orleans was equal
Lo that of any planter in the country ;
is orders for supplies - were promptly
[illed, and his payments were made at
the promised time.
In 1882, Montgomery felt that he
was getting too.old to i}auago properly
Lhe business of, the estates. So a
Eriendly suit of foreclosure was brought,
md the great mestate, Joseph Davis
!laving been dead some years, revert
3d to Jefferson Davis. He And Mont
onierp settled their accounts, and
bIont.gomery, after that settlement,
which assured him some $200,000, was
he richest colored man in Mississippi.
L'wo years - thereafter he dlied. No
nan, white or black, could have been
noro siCerely mourned. 'Montgom
3ry's funeral was attended by Mr. Davis
nud by all the prominent pianters with
n 20 or 30 miles. In an address at the
grave, Mr. Davis said : " I have had
ii my life many true and faithful
riends, but none more faithful than
was he whom this day we have laid'to
est. .P.. - F
Einny Tink Slavery .Just Grew.
Unp in the Soth -'e y Know
that Grant Owvned Slaves,
Wanted-In 1881 General Henry R.
Jackson, of Savannah, delivered in At
anta the most notable, instructive axd'
sloquient address -that has' beon hoai'd
in Georgia since the civil war. The
mubject was " The Wanderer,'' a slalvo.
ihip that landed on the Georgia coast
Ln 1858. But the whole address was
in historical recital of iauny political.
civonts that led to the civil war and-of
which the generation that has grown
uip since were profoundly ignorant and
still are. It was delivered by.rerltiest of
the Young Men's Library Associatien,
when Henry Grady was its chairman,
and I suppose was published. ind
pamphlet form and could1 be had on
application. But I have sought in
vain to find a copy. I have a news
paper copy, but it has been worn to
the quick and is almost - illegible. I
wrote to Judge Pope BarroW, who is
General Jackson's executor, and ho
can find none among. the 'gen.eral's
papers. Can any veteran furnish me
a copy? I would also be pleased to
obtain a copy of Daniel Webster's
speech at Capon 'Springs; -which waW
suppressed by his publishers and to
which General Jackson makes allusion.
General Jackson was a great ian.
lie won his military laurels in the war
with Mexico. iIe was assistant attor
ney general, under - jhuchanan when
Jeremiah Black was the chief. He
was the vigilant, determined, conscien
t,ious prosecutor of those who owned
and equipped and oflicorod -the- ordj
slave ship that ever landed on the
Georgia . coast. 10 was a .man of
splendid culture'-afra.a poet:of:'Alility
and reputation. Strange it is that this
magnificent address has not boon com.
pliled in the appendix,of 'some Soutkere
history, as a land-mae for the ~rosede
.~ l$,19 sa&>and' mpxt.fijing titouw
young and m'iddle-aged men and, our
graduates frmote ggigska
Ao little of 6tXr' aun~ti1.iltaitory.
The Northern people are equally Igno
rant of tho.' :i -of s lavery and -1
rorIl ca.uses that VQciprtated the, ivil
w. "Most-bi 'tbh have a vague 6dO
that!slavery was born and just gt-em
Mi lh t,he South-came..up out of thn
groiind like the 17-ye -oI e ea
and was our sin and ot.r cutse. Not
one in ten thousand will believe that
the South never impoi ted a slave from
Africa, but got all we had by purchase
I from our Northern brethren. I would
wager a thousand dollars against ten
that not a man under fifty nor a school
boy who lives North of the line knows
or believea that General Grant, their
great military hero and idol, was a
slave owner and lived off of their hire
and their service while he was light
ing us about ours. l,incoln's procla
mation of freedom came in 1863, but
General Grant paid no attention to it.
lie continued to use them as slaves
until January, 1865. (See his biogra
phy by Gneral James Grant % ilson
in Appleton's Encyclopedia.) Geni
oral Grant owned these slaves in St.
Louis, Mo., where lie lived. IIe was
a bad nianager and just before the war
began he moved to Galena and went
to work for his brother in the tanyard.
While there he caught tl'e war fever
and got a good position under Lincoln,
but had lie remained in St. l.ouis
would have greatly preferred one on
our side. So said Mrs. (Grant a few
years ago to a newspaper editor in St.
How many of this generi.tion North
or South know or will holieve that as
late as November, 1s1, Nathaniel
Gordon, master of a New England
slve ship, called the Erie, was con
victed in New York city of carrying on
the slave trade. (See Appleton.) .Lust
think of it and wonder, In 661 our
Northern brethren made war upon uts
because we enslaved the negroei: we
had bought from thenm, but at the same
time they kept on bringing nm>re from
Africa and begging us to buy them.
How many know that Etiglan(, our
mother country, never emancipated
ho slaves until 184:;, when twelve
millions were set free in the East
Indies and one hundred millions of
dollars paid to their owners by act of
parliament? It is only within the last
half century that the importation of
slaves from Africa has generally
ceased. Up to that time evory civilized
country bought. them and ensl:ived
liem. Eughsh statesmen and clergy
men said it was better to bring them
away than to have then] continue in
thoir barbairi.ui and cannibalism. And
it.was brtter.
I believe it was God's providence
that they should ba brought away and
placed in slavery, but the way it was
done was iiihunian and brutal. The
horrors of the middle passage, as the
ocean voyage was called, is the most
awful narrative I ever read aind] re
minds me of )ante's " Inferno."
About half the cargo survived and the
(lead and lying were tumbled into the
sea. The owners said we can affr(l
to lose half and still have a thousand
per cent prolit. Rlev. Jolii Newton,
one of the sweetest poets who ever
wrote a hymn, the author of " Amaz
ing grace, how sweet the sound, .that
savcd a :wretch like ?" " Saviour, Viit
Thy Plantation," "Safely Through
Anothe'r Week," and many others,
was for many years a deck hand on a
slave ship and saw all its horrors. lie
became converted, but soon after be
came captain of a slaver and for four
years pursued_it diligently and nuitigat
ed its-cruelty.' Then lie quit and we:it
to preaching, and says in his autobiog
raphty that it never occurred to him
that t,here was anything wrong or im
moral in the slave trade where it was
humanely conducted. The Saviour
saidl: " Oltences must, needs come,
but woe unto them by whoni they
-In Appleton's long- anid exhaustive
article on slavery it is said that slavery
in some form has existed ever since
human history began. And it appears
to have been undelr the sanction of
Providenice as far- -back as the (lays ofl
Noah and Abraham. The lat,ter hadi a
very groat household and'many scr
'vants,$*hom lie had( bought with his
money. Th'li word slave appears but
twicoin the Bible. It is synonymous
.wit.h -servant mgrid bondsman. Tihiore
has been no time since the Christian
era that the dlominiant, nations have not
owniedl slaves-sometimes the bondage
was hard, 'but as'a general rule the
master found it to his interest to be
kinfl 'to his' slaves. ~As 1Bob Tioombs
saidh 'n his Boston sliecchi " It is iiot
to our.interest to starve our slaves any
more than it, is to starve our horses
andl horned cattle.'' Shortly aift,or the
litt,le cargo that the Wanderer brought
were secretly scatteredl around I saw
some of them at work in a large gar
4en in Columbus, Ga., and1( was told
that they were dlocile andl quickly
learned to dig and to hoe, but that it,
was hard to t,each them to eat, cooked
meat. -'['hey -wanted it raw and
bloodly. -*They were miserable little
runts, " Guinea negroes," with thick
lips and flat noses, but they grew up
into better shape and miadei good ser
vants, and I know were far better off
than in their native jupgies, the,prey
of stronger tribes, and made food for
No, there wvas no si'n in slavery av
~instituted in the South'hiy our fathers
and forefathers, aiid that, is why I
write thi.s letter-perhaps the last .l
shall ovcr write oni this subject.. /I
wish to impress it upop our bgy9 q d
girls, so that they may' be re'ady and'
willing t9 defend thiter So4tberpn ances
iIra from -theoelss.dhmio'of sefer
lng now for the sinis of their fathers.
- .4 'Mortheorn friend writes :" D)o
please lot up on the negro. We up
here are tired of. him':~ Give .us 'hiore
of your'leasantpie.ttros of dome,stic
life, etc., but let the neogro go dead."
-.Ao dhoes,.nOt .know.thiat .the negtb
and., whsit. is to becomo o~f him is a
qu,bation of trenoradlous moment'alh
n e'ani.t tist be written ribout.E .'.ut,
I will refraini as long as it, is p,rudent.
-dg.oWj WOtl. ike to hire a man t,o
cuss the black rascal who came int
my back yard the other night and stol
my grind stone. For five years I hav
let every darkoy grind his ax wh
wanted to, and now I can't grind n
own. The fact is I have no ax t
grind, for they stole that first.
B1LL Am'.
One Mountaineer WIto Driike
a Lot and( Anotier not at all
Both Are Re1)tl)licansm3.
Mr. Jas. A. lloyt, Jr., in The Stato:
( Rr:EN v I .1.:, Oct. 8.---' Martin
from the Creek " is a character whose
eccentricIties have been so long known
around Greenville that his fame, like
the prophet's honor, is not so great
hereabouts. Martin is proud of his
record as a Republican and as a con
3umer of corn liquor.
The writer met Martin on the street
yesterday--it being the first time he
tad had that pleasure for many months,
d a good deal of whiskey can be con
mmned in a few months by one whose
apacity is good. This was about what
was said:
(( Well, Martin, how are you? They
bell mle you've quit drinking and comie
>vcr to the I )emocrats !"
" Who told you that? Name the
nan Il'd like to confront hin!''
'' I t isn't so?''
Certainly not. lRut I have about
Iuit drinking. I'm ettmll' old and
,ight or ten drinks a day sots mec up
)retty high."
Knowing that Martin claims to have
mt estimate of the qiuantity of whiskey
to has dlunk during his lifetime, a
alculation kept by his good wife, the
vriter asked for the latest ligures:
'' Four hundred and eighty-one bar
'lc at 45 gallons a barrels," said Mar
in. "t How much does that come
It wa's !lgured out. that according to
his estimate "( \Iartin from the
reek " has laid away 20,745 gallons
f whiskey, good, better and best-- for
lartin says noue of it is bad. If the
alculation is carried out it will be t;cen
hat in order to have consumed this
nich whiskey in his 70 or 75 years
lartin must have averaged several
tints a (lay. This is by no means im
w saiblc, and lartin's claim to being
a liviing monument to liquor " is not
( preposterous (after all. The temt
,cranlce alvo'ce could figure out a
Ine lesson frmnt the anount of money
,hIis qIuantity of hiquor represents.
While Al:artilt las "'about" (uit drink
ng," he says Telddy is all right. aun(d
iure to be elected---hio is a Itepul ican
still, it seemts, though he will take
vliekey that coies from cither a lie
ublican or Democratic 'still.
"-.lollNNil nII 11. nH s.'
Juohun iB'iers is another Greenville
sharacter, but quito (n the opposite
inc from " Martin from the (hek."
)ohnnie, like Martin, 1s a Iepublicali,
nt his pl ido is in two other things,
i1s record as at member of the llaup
,on legion and his religion.
Iiuiers is a native of Germany an(1
erved, l believe, in the German ar:my.
At any rate he cane to this country
n time(t to light for South Carolina in
he War for S,uthern Inilpencence.
Hlis admiration for "1 Mart '' (ary, un
ier whom he served, is uinbounded,
)tit lie admUits his gener-al had 01ne fault,
-he wotuldl " cuss,"
For a long time .Johnnic IHeiers was
hcueral delivery clerk in t,he postofice,
mad in those Clays ho knew everybody
ni this section aind cycrybiody knew
im. Being a itepublican lie lost his
job somie years ago under a D)emocrat,ic
idministrat.ion, iand has nIot had the
easicat, sort, of time since and1( lis
bollth lias 1)een bad. Kniowing these
fats someIi of t,he llpublicans must
have wantt.ed to help himu along, for
Johnnie told me ani incidlent, this mnorni
inlg that seems to prove it. In his
D)utch-EFnglish hie said that he haCd
beeni offered a position of Sonme sort in
t government, distillery, and his reply
o0 t,he letter from Columbia wits seine
thing like this:
You may kniow that for four yeai s I
was a Confederate soldier and1( fotghit
the Yankees. Since that time I 've
beeni a solier of the Cross and1( fight.
ing the dlevil. I can't go over to the
tievil's side no0w and have anything to
dlo with making whiskey. I dlon't
want your job.
Yours truly,
.JolJNN I I BEiIClm.
That,'s the refusal as close as it cani
be reculled from Johinnic's recitatl in
his broken E'nglish.
The Great Coali Strikce 1i4 Near
The great anithratc coal strike in
Pennsylvania has been virtually end
edI, unless the i)nneA -organization
Ahall refuse to, adicept tyc terms of ar
bitration, ana,hoir..[decision will be
nPcl) y a5 ciOnvenitlii on Monday,
26t'h i ni. Thebitrators were chose
by Pr lsident oevelt, andl this coi.
ii4(n will. 'adjusL the dliffereice be.
ig Geminers and operators.
Mrn and Mrs. .J. Terrell Smnith, o
Williston, 8. 0., who Cdonated th
fundls for the erectioii of the Smiti
Ilomoe at Connie Max well Orphanag
visited the place Jlast week, which wa
Mr. Smnith's fIrst visIt to the orphaun
A great (deal more cot,n is b)e1m
shipped to Chaileston than formier1
Charlest.on will have a gala week i
o SO;TR CAlmoi,1N,s's
c SitNAT1OtS,
0 It ia Till \' Who 1101(s t he
Seat of John C. Callholln.
Mr. A. 8. Sally, Jr., in The 8tat,:
In the late Senatorial camiIuVn in this
State it Was quite cotmmon tio hear it
said of so and so that lie was " hnt lit
to Occupy the seat of .Johu C. (ai
houn." Now, as a matter of fact , as
well as of congratula' ion, One seat now
occupied by Senator McL,aurin is not
the seat that Calhoun filled. Senator
Tillman holds the seat that Mr. Cal
houn so ably filled for so many years.
When tho first Congress of the
Unitod Statcs met in 1789 South Caro
lina was repto- ented in the Smnate by
Messrs. Ralph Izardl and Pierce But
ler. Senator Izard's term was for six
years, ending March 3, 1795. Senator
Butler's for four years, ending March
3, 1793. In 1792 the Legislature re
ilected Senator Butler for a six years'
tern, but he resigned in 1796, and
John Iiunter was elected to fill out the
term. In November, 1798, Senator
limiter resigned and Gov. Charles
l'inckney was elected to fill out the
term, which expired March 3, 1799.
At the same time Mr. Pinckney was
elected for the full term of six years,
beginning March 4, 1799. IIe resign
ed in 1801 and Gen. Thomas Sumter
was elected to till out the term,
in 180 i Gen. Sumtcr was re-elected
for the full tern, beginning March 4,
1805, but he resigned in 1810 and
.loln Taylor was elected to fill out the
term, endilng AMarch :3, 1811, and also
for the full term, beginning March 4,
181. Senator Taylor resigned in
18It;, and\ William Smith was elected t
to till out. the tern and also foi' the full t
terml, beginnig March 4,1817. j
li 1822 l'ohert Y. Ilayne was elect
ed to succeed Seit')r Smith for the c
1lnl term, bhginning March 4, 1823, J
aill n I 28 Senator llayne was re- t
elected for a te coind tein, Ieginnmlg r
Marh1 I, 1 b82, lut lie resigned in 1832 1
and .ohn C. Calhoun was elected to
fill out his tertn, Mr. tallhouun resign- h
ing Ihe otlice of Vice I'resideul, to go t
oi the Iloor of the Senate. In 1834 e1
Senator (Calhourn was re-electel for a
full termi of six years, endi,ng Mlarch J
3, 18-t I, and in 18,10 he was re-elete< w
for a thu-d term, le.inning March 'I, t
1841 , but he resigned in 1812 and I1
Judilg!e I)uiel Elliott IIuger was elect.- 11
ed to liil out the term, hut Mr. Cal.. c.
houn's premence in thi Seuat e was soom
nced<lu(, and in 1815 Senator lucer re- J
signed and il\r. Calhoun was returnted Ii
to his oll seat.. In 1841; he was re- S
elected for a fourth term, enling ai
March 3, I15:. lie died \ratch il3, I
18. (, an1d (I' rnorr ''ablruotk IappImt- (,
ad Ilin. F. 11. 1Ihnorte t.o the vacancy
so created.
Alr. I:Imlore died 11aty 211th f"ollowy
ini:, and (1i1vernor Seabirook aip1oint.edi "
[lon. Robert W. liartiwell to th(. t(
vacancy. In D)eetbt'er following the e
Legislature elected lion. Robert arn- t
well I lett to till out the term, but, i
Senator ihett served ut,it a little over e
a year aal re,igned. ioveInor M lcans
appointed l[i. William 1". I )eSaussure ti
to the 'acancy, aui wheii the I,cu isla
ture met ;cuattr I )lSaussure was
elected to fill ot, the term. At the
sane time .1itIge losila J. l"vans was u
electedl as Senaitoi lh:Saiussure's siue- (e
cessor for the lull term, beginningi
March ', I1853 Seinaitr l'Cvanis died I
May h , 1858, and ( lover'nor Al lston ap1- a
pointed Arthur 1'. ilaytne to the
vacancy so creatted.
The Ilaegislatmoe, in I )ecembhor fol -
lowing, elect.ed ,bunes (Chestinut, .Jru.,
to till out the term , end inag M arch 't,
1859, and lor the full terma, b,e.itnnin'g
MNarch -1, 1 85'., aind ondling MIarch ;t,
18t;5. Seinator Chestrmtii reti red from t
the Seuiate November 10, 181,0.
Friom that (lat.e until Julne 25, 1 8t;8,
the State was nmot represented ini the
Senate of the Un aitedl States, but, i
I1808 Tihomtas .J. ltobertson was electedl 1
Senator for t,he te rmn, begin amntg March
'I, 18W5, and enidinig M ach 4I, 187, I.
in 1870 lie was re-elect.ed for the full
termt, exp)irinig March 3, 1877. Th'le
LIegislat,ure elected G'm. M. C. liutler
to succeed Senator Itobertsoni, and by
the smiue body lie was re-elected in
1882 tand in 1888, retiring M arch 4I,
1895, ini favor of 11. lI. Tillmiani, the
priesent repiresentative of the D emnoc
racy of South Carolina, wvho hadt de
feated himi before the L egislat,uro in
It will be seen that 119 Senators have
occupjied this seat mtade so famous by
J ohna C. Calhoun in t,hi 15 years t,hat,
lie occupiedl it. It is also worthy of
niote that Mr. Latimer, whetn lie will
have takeni his seat, will be the I19th
Senat,or t,o hiavc occutpiedl the seat, of
lzardl and1 Gaillard and Preston andI
McD)utile andi Hampton. slut, the Cal
houn seat possesses onie ilvantauge that,
the other does not. 1i, has never beu,n
occupied by ani alien knave. No one
but a native bor.n South Carolinan has
succeedled Calhoun, while the other
seat, reserved for a Sout,h Carolinian,
has been occuipiedl by a Sawyer and a
P'att,crson, carpetbaggers who iNere
" among us, but nOo us."
TliEa SEA'r 1HE1) nii 3t'laAislN.
Mr. Izard, who secured the six
years' term in 1779, was succeeded
i March 4, 1795, by ,Jacob Read, and
y Senator Read was, in turn, defeated
i for re-election in 1800 by. Johm E4wing
a Coltoun. . Senator. Colhoun,.is:. p.opus,
a larly supposed to have hecon. of' .ti
. same family as-John Calhoun, but.he
,was not,. Hie spelled his8 name diffe'rert.
ly and his family came to South Caro
huma from " Fawny, County - Tyroneo,
g and1 Kingdom of . 1reland.'' John C.
'Calhoun's ....grAnidfather came frote
Couty Doif gal to Pennsylvah Is
ni ;1731, and his father, P'atrick Calhoun
camne t.n sinth Camna4 frmm virgim
in 1750. The two families might have
come of the same stock originally,
.Jol C. Calhotm, however, married
the daughter of John Ewing Colhoun.
sI.ivm v O\'Fu 21 YEARS.
The latter died October 20, 1802.
anl ex-Senator Pierce Butler was
"I.Ectedl by the Legislature to fill out
iNs teri. Senator Butler resigned in
1'I t4, mai'l the Legislature elected John
(ailarn to fill out the term. Senator
Gaillard was re-elected in 1800, in
>812, in i;1, and in 1824, but died
P()rary' 21, 1 2;, and Governor
appointed ILon. William
airper to the vacancy so created.
Senator ('aillard served for over 21
year-s-the longe4t tne that any Sena
tor from tlhk State has ever served,
Senator Al. U. Iutler coluin" next
with 18 years. Over half of the time
that, Senator Gail lard was in the
Senate he was president pro ten of
that body, and it is said thatlon one oc
casion he acted as President of the
United States for one (lay. Ills suc
cessor, Senator Harper, served until
the meeting of the Legislature in Nov
vember, 1820, when ex-Senator Wil
liam Smith was elected to fill out the
In 1830 Governor Stephen 1). Miller
was elected by the Legislature to suc
feed Senator Smith on March -1hli, fol
owing. Senator Miller resigned in
1b33 and the Legislature elected Wil
iam C. Preston to fill out the term.
4euator Preston was re-elected in
.80 for a second term, but resigned
a 1842, and the Legislature elected
x-Governor George McDullie to till
>ut the term and also for the new
orm, beginning March 4, 18-13. Sena
or McDutile resigned in 184(i and the
.ogilature elected Judge A. P'. But
3r to fill out the term. Senator Iiutler
ras re-elected in 1848 and in 1854, but
led May '25, 18b7. Ex-Governor
ames II. Ha?mmond was elected by
t0 Legislature to fill out the term, but
tired from the Senate November- 10,
in 18(18 the Legislature . elected
'rederick A. Sawyer to fill out the
rm, beginning March 4,' 1807, and
iding March 3, 187:. Sawyer was
icceeded on March 4-,.1873- by John
,'atterson.. In. 1879. Patterson, the
orst specimen thiit ever occupied the
le seat, 'gave plae? - td the great:de''
an that ever filled, it,. ,. ioral "Wade
aip,ton. Senator Hampton was re-.
eeted in 188-1 and served until March
, tSl, when he was succeeded by
hn L. M. Irby, who had defeited'.
im belfoiu "Ilie le gislature .in:;1890.
nuator lrby ret.ire< March 3, 1807,
id was succeeded by Judge 'Joseph
f. l:arle, who had received the Demo-.
ratic nomination in the primaries the
minnmor before. Senator E3arle died a
i'jrt time after taking his seat, and
overnor 1;llerbo appointed John L,
lel,aurin to fill the vacancy.. Sena
)r Mel.aurin was nominated for
lection by the Legislature to fill out
1e term, and the Legislature eon
rned the action of the primary by
ecting Mr. Ncl.aurin Senator. And
ow Senator Mclaurin will give way
Mr. I,atiiner.
All:i,icIJNA:\I, f'i II 'iCit'il'C,s O TIIIC
NION.--The onion! is one of .the most
((eIul of the coimnion vegetables not
uly as an applliser, but for its medic
il (quahItles, ltaten just before bed
tue,' it is sid to induce alcep, and
Iso toI lbe a good remedy for a cold,
most app)etising way to prepare
hem is to slice the mild, white ones
its) thin~ sluces or chop fine, season
mill with salt and pepper ; then butter.
wo thin slices of lightbre'ad 'and --
lreadE ai generous laycr of the chopped
'1on1 between. 10ate~n in this . way.
lhey aro0 very enljoyab)le.
For (feel) cold mI throat oi' laings,
lake a poultice by baking in the oven.
uiL soft, mxash fine and put into the.
oultice bag and( apply as hot as ehn
e borne. This has been knowri to
vert pneumionila, and1( in a few-ceases
o give relief when physicians' reme
lies had failed. If the patient Is suf-'
ering very greatly there may not; b6
imne to bake the ouions, in which
:ase, chop thiem as fine as possible and
iceat as hot as can be borne and apply
mmedliately. T1hie object of banking is
o retain the strength of the onion.
l'hic juice of the baked onions pi.essed.
mut and sweetenedl is also an excellet
remedy, although not a very palatable
An excellent remedy for earache is
miade in tihe following manner : split a 6
hirge onion, and take out --the contial
part, into this cavity, put a roll of ,leaf
tobacco, then tie the parts together
again andl bake either in' the stove or.
thie liot, ashes, whichever may be the :
miost convenient, and when cool prass
out the juice and bottle. When need
edl drop) a few drops Into the ear, and
you will find t,bat it will give speedy re
lief. - ' - ,. -
Joseph Bauch, of Wallersville, Pa.,
adlvertised for a wife an,d-feceived re
pules from all over the country. Wish
ing 'to share his prosperity. with 9thQr
lonely bacheois', he'dIettritat.numi
boer of the leitter-amokig-iestriends1
They correspond,ed,witti t igriter andI
as a result fiye weddilngs wilt soon take'
place. -Bluch found hIs'afiinity in ea*
South Caroliba woman 'with a bank ac~
- Er Inf4nta an Ohfldren.
ein s %the Yo noAwy

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