OCR Interpretation

The news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1877-1900, February 04, 1899, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of South Carolina; Columbia, SC

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067705/1899-02-04/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

PRISINGS were in
the air and Salis
bury,* the. .capitza,
of Mashonaland,
was in a state bor
dering on panic,
in the month of
Juxe, 1896. The
- Mashonas had;
risen to aid their
former oppres
sors, the Mata
Leie, and from the
13th to the 18th
-of June, and
thence nnward for many terrible days
almost every hour broaght tragic tid
ings. Prospectors, miners and trav
eters, unsuspicions ol danger, were
being slaughtered ia all directions.
Stores and lonely houses were be
seiged, looted and burned, after the
owner3 were slain. *
Judge Vincent, the Chartered Com
pa~y's -active administrator, could
only muster 250 burghers armed with
rbirt eighty riles and one Maxim be
tween them, to protect the 300 women
and children in Salisbury.
Mr. Dan Jadson, chief inspector of
the Chartered Company's Telegraphs,
ani-3 .thea recently gazetted captain
inte Rhoiesia Horse, was one of the
few men who had prophesied that the
Mashoaas would rebel. Though a
yoang man, he was an old pioneer,
hal taken part in two campaigas, and
jnow the country well.
Having friends at the 'Mazoe-a
small settlement centering round the
Alice Mine at the head of the Mazoe
Valley, about twenty-seven miles from
Saisoury-Judson wired to Mr. Salt
house, manager of the Goldields of
Mazoe Company, the news of the
-.murders as it came in.
When, however, early on Wednes
day, the 17th of June, the. inspector
had occasion to wire the Mazoe peo
ple tae terrible list of murder.s end
ing- with the blood-curaling Nortou
massacre, he suggested that their
women folk, at least, had better
come into Salisbury, where a strong I
laager was being cnstructed.
Consequently at midnight a wagon,
or large wagonette, and six mules left
the telegraph ofce in charge of Mr.
J. 0. Blakiston, Captain Judson's
clerk, and Trooper Zimmerman of the
Rhodesia Horse.
It rire the ~next- mring 'Thur
day, the 18th).a telegram was received
from Blakiston announcing his safe
arrival, 'that he had met nothing on
the road, and was ready to leave with
the women as soon as they had break
Jadson then-by wire, of 'course
ordered the Mazoe telegraph office to
be closed, after first instructin
Blakiston, Salthouse, and ihe ihen
with them to start off at once with the
ladies. The inspector passed the next
few hours feverishly anticipating their
On going into the oniee later on, he
*was astonished-believing Mazoo to
have been deserted since morning-to
hear the Mazoc instrument clieking.
Rt cased as hie entered, and Lieuten
ant HTarrison, then in charge of the
Salisbury Telegrap3h, silently handed,
igmthis message:
*".i3:kisto.n to~ Inspector Judson.
Three mnen killed. Alice Mine suir
roundal. Send help at once. Our
on:y cance. Gooj-bye."
*Thre niews-fjfom the Mazoe greatly:
disrarssed .Judge Vincent, for he was
now being harassed on all sides with
* the most piteous appeals for atssist
ance, which, for the most part, he was
-nb to grant. Now, when Judson.
asked im if niothing could be done to
assist the 3Mazoe people, he said he
was afraidl no men could ho spare3l.
After some talk, however,:the inspee
tor was g:'aated permission to take
four inn and these he chose from Pie
memibers of the RThodiesia Horse.
Just before sunset, the little patrol
of one oflicer and four men rode outi
of the town on its forlorn errand.
The-party consisted of Captain Judson
- and Troopers Honey, Guyon, Godfre
*Kin;; and Hendriks; but three miles
*out it was joined by Captain Stamford
Brovu, who was chief paymaster of
the Rhodesia Horse, but not on its4
The~ patrol thea pushed on, and near
the G we.,i -eie unearthed a native,
w>o, when challenged, tied precip
tately. With one brief halt to loosen
ri':ths and allow horses and men a
hasty meal, the patrol rode on. to
3iont Hampdcn. and again halted,
*keeping a sharp look-out the while.
Here. at half-past three in the morn
ing, they were joined by a reinfcree
menit fror Salisbury, consisying of
*Troopers Finch, Pollett, Niebuhr,
* Coword, 2inivaney and King.
B3eore starting, JTudson addressed
his comarades, pointing out that they
were about to enter what might prove
a veritable death-trap, and that there
* 1t UJ nlo thought of turning back
diter they h'ad onte started. Not a
ean of them. however, shrank from
the mission-, znd descending the rise
on w~hich the farm stands, they crossed
the Tatagora Ri~ver- and proceeded in
sigle ile, Juds~on loading, with Cap
taiu~ Erown a close second.
After covermng half a mile or more,
they enteredl a stretch of tall, dense
grass, in length about 300 yards.
termninating in a perfect jungle. It
was an ideal spot for an ambuscade,
and tuirning in his saddle, Judson
gave the abrupt ogder, "Gallop!"
Still going -in single file they tore
along, the dnly sound being the thun
der of the hoofs of the horses.
Judson dashed through the e
-tremity of the patch about ten yards
ahead of Brown, who was closely fol
lowed by the others. Then he wheeled
his horse round, and raising his gun
covered th thickest clump of grass,
past which Niebuhr and Pollett were
then galloping. As he did so, a
dozen shots rang out in rapid suc
cession; fire and smole burst out of
the grass nor six yards from the two
men, and at the same moment both of
them were on the ground, horses and
all. In the same instant Judson
caught sight of the natives crouching
ir. Cae gra d a fired la n.1.--rZIhar,ed
barrels, felling two of them. This
alone prevented a volley being fired
on Honey and Coward, the latter of
whom was thrown by his horse-who
was frightened at the sudden dis
charge-right in front of the 'enemy.
Two horses were killed outright;
Pollett was badly shaken and Niebuhr
severely wounded, his hand having
been shattered by slugs. Brown,
Hendriks, Coward and Honey then
opened a hot fire on the enemy to en
gage their attention, while, with great
difficulty, Judscn got the wounded
man to his horse behind him, Pollett
clambering up behind Hendriks.
Then they fired a volley into the
rebels at forty yards, and again started
off at a gallop. Niebahr'i wounded
and useless arm hanging limply over
Juson's shoulder, and saturating the
front of the latfer's tunic with blood.
Before they bad galloped many
hundred yards, a large party of the
enemy was seen running parallel with
them along the mountain side to cut
them of. Judson at once halted his
detachment and poured volley after
volley into the enemy, the Martinis at
300 yards range doing good execution
among the natives and forcing them
to retire.
Ouce more the party 3tarted for
ward, but this time at a gentler can
ter, emptying their rifles gs tbey rode,
and keeping up a running fight. On
approaching thick clumps of grass
which swarmed with. concealed na
tives, they dislodged them.by .fring
volleys into them as they aavanced,
and then rashed- p the dangerous
spots at a tyng gallop. .
Judson gave orders that, in the
event of any more getting weunded,
and 'the survivors being unable-to
iry them, they were to stick to
gether and endeavor to secure a
position on one of the kopjes, where
thea would I able- to Lad thsi n
at least while the ammuniti6n lasted.
Judson decided, and so informed
his comrades, that if they were unable
to discover their friends alive, they
were to fight their way to the tele
graph office and inform the. Salisbury
authorities of their plight. They
would then Maager up as best they
could, the iact of their having no food
and bat little ammunition left forcing
all to realize that such a proceeding
though the only one possibite under
the circumstanees-could be but a
prelimijnary to certain death.
Just as they were 'heading for the1
telegraph oSice, they heard a great
shout of mingled triumpa and despair,
and looking round they beheld, stand
ing up and waving to them from with
in an improvised laiger on a small
kopje nea.r the Alice Mine, ;the men
and woman they had fought~ their
way so gallantly to rescue. But for
that shout the pair-ol might have rid
den past. so hidden was the-laager by
masses of the enemy. Through these
bloo-thirst.y savages the relief force
now shot a pathwray for themselves
and whilst unde: a hail of lead, but.
~till firing volley after volfey, they
cae up the slope at a gallop, and in
a minuto rescuers and rescued were
Thus Dan Judson's patrQl had bad
to ight their way in under. a contin
nous, heavy, close-range fire 'from
dense cover, for a..distance of eight
railes. But the besieged had also a
terrible e:pt,rience to relate.
When on the Thursday it was de
cided that all the Mazee people should!
proceed to Salisbury, a party. of the
men, as before re!ated, started on.
ahead, taking with them fourteen na-,
tive carriers anid a cart drawn by two
donkeys to carry their provisions.
About 11. a. m. they left the rough
laager of logs and boulders which had:
beeni constructed the previons .day,
but had not gone above, three miles
when their carriers led them into am-!
bush. Cass and Dickenson were
lone to death on the grass with as
segais and knobkerries, whereupon
the rest turned the eart round and
jumped in, but had not proceeded far
when Faull, who was diving, was
shot through the stomach br~a native
conceled in the grass not foar yards
from him. Almost at th-e same mot
m"t one donkey was-killed and the
othr wounaded. and the men, -aban
donig 'the cart, then ran for their
Teev met the wvazonette containiig
the th-ee l.idies ana .tmried it ba,ck:
Tinally shootingm for-W tlhey were
woth at fifty of sixty niativ'es who
chased them and fired bs th.ey ran,
theyv regained thie shelter .s tihkager.
AndJ thnoeocurred a st~range,thing,
which for h.erois-m is not~o bdexcelled
in the annals of war. .A amessage had
to be wired to Salisbury or relief, but
who in the face of certain death would
vor.nteer to take it? -
Then Blakiston, who was a tele
graph cle'k, but not: an operator,
voluteered-to take the message if
Rout. edg.:. 'who, was an operator,
would accompany him to transmit it.
The two men' knew it was certain
death, too-and yet they went.
Bakiston was wounded in the foot
before he reached the telegaph oface,
but: sent his message-and his good
caught sig: of them on their return,
when they were some 1700 yards dis
tant. They saw Blakiston fail on the
road, man and horse, riddled with
bullets. Routledge ran for cover into
the bush, but was never seen again.
After the arrival of the relief, the
enemy for a time practically ceased fir
ing, though the watchers knew they
remained concealed in their vicinity.
For the promised reward of $50), a
singularly plucky Cape boy named
Hendritz was induced to ride to Salis
bury with a dispatch asking for a re
inforcement of forty men and one
Maxim gun.
On the Gwebi Flats he met Inspec
tor Nesbit o[ the police, with a patrol
consisting of Troopers Ogilvie, Har
bord, McGregor, Byron, Edmonds,
Arnot, A. Nesbit, Berry, Van Staacn,
Zimmerman, McGeer and Jacos
thirteen men in all.
The- iIspector el'ecteO to- pro-cec: at
once to the Mazoe, winot v.t:ug
for further reinforcements, and partly
on account of the darkness, and Part
ly owing to the enemy making sure ot
them on the retara joarney, they
rea::hed the Mazoe without fighting.
The party now numbered thirty
men and three women; and after the
new arrivals bad f!d and rested their
horsn= all hands set about preparing
for their departure.
Judson had the two sides, and to an
extent the back of the wrgoaette
armored with sheet-iron, which -as
was observed at the- time-fitted so
well, that it seemed to have been
made for the purpose. The mules had
all been shot or lost, so six men were
dismounted, and the six troop horses
inspanned in their p'aee, thonch they
had never beea in harness before.
The order of march was an advance
guard of five mounted men and eight
on foot, and then a rear guard ol
seren mounted and eight footmen. A
start was made before noon.
The thick bushes and konjes were
alive with thousands upon tnoasands
of the enemy oficered by experienced
Matabele, and armed with Lee-Met
ford, Martinis and elephaat ganq,
crammed with pa-leo and every vari
ety of slog.
Mounted natives never cea-ei to
hatass the rear guard, and pressed it
so close that at one point a halt bad
to 'be made, and volley after volley
'ired to drite them back. A ie%v min
utes .aftertards' Lieutenant McG-eer
feil, - and his horse bolted, but was.
pluckily ridden after and recaptured
by Hendriks. Then two oL the patrol
had their horses shot dead under
then. Jadson and Stamford-Brown
rar back to see McGeer, and found
hir. lifeless, with several bullets
th-ough hie-head. All this -while the
mr fhmyf ihh. f-aei-remained hid
den, the grass edging the roadside be
ing from eight to nine feet high. In
tis dense cover the natives squatted,
and took pot-shots at the patrol, who
had only tashes and pufs of smoke to
aim at in return.
About a mile from the Tatagora
Drift, where the road winds between
the. foot of a large kopje and the river,
annihilation seemed certain. The
bla.ks were swarmed to witIr.n three
yards of the road, and bullets seemed
to rain upon the horses from every
uarter. Here one of the leaders of
the team was shot through the head,
but not killed, and kept its place. Im
mediately after, however, the orT-side
wheeler fell mortally wounded, and
while Brown and Salth ouse were strug
gling to cut him loose, the near wheeler
was killed and almost fell on Salthouise.
Next Jacobs and.Tan Staden were
shot dead, the latter falling with the
side 'of heis 'head .completely blown
away. Arnot was cut off from his
c'mrade, but eventually escaped. Hen
driks in the advance guard was shot
right through the jaws and mouth,
and -was ordered to aband'on the con
voy and save himself. Ogilviti was
shot and severely injured; and Barton,
receiving a terrible,:wound -right
through the"face&-nst ,managed to
lamber into the wagon, an.d fell bleed
ing amnong the borr i women.
Still the a'goniz..d procession forged
slowly ahead, and still the four re
maimnng horses painfuly dragged the
wagon ette, blood pouriug fromn the
ncse and mouth of the -ou.nded leader.
The advatice guard now made a se
ries of charges on the ainbuses ahend,
and so diverted some of the-fire frotn
the wagonette. -At the end of that
terrible valley, a ruse de guerre was
attempted,.the advance guard riding
forward and cheering wildly as if they
sighted advancing relief. The cheer
ig was taken up by the rest-and the
ruse succeeded.
The firing slackened of perceptibly,
ad soon ceased altogether; and be
fore they reached the Gwebi River all
pursuit was abaudoned.
With one halt, varied by a false
alarm that the natives were again in
sight, they toiled painfally over the
intervening seventeen miles, reaching
Saisbury Laager,about, ten o'clock.
Thiey received an indecribable ova
tion, it .beinug reported tha: dl were
killed. The attack on the Alice Mine
andthe reliefs had lastevj, with but
ittle intermissica, more than sixly
Inspector Nesbit-possibly because
he was connected with a force more
nearly allied to"th~e regular forces
was given a Victoria Cross. but he was
the only meinber of th4t gallant little
band whose servi'6es tydre recognized
by governraent. .Captainx Dan Jndt.on.
the Qrganizer, leader.and moving spirit
of the most heroic Expedition in colo
ial annals-despite the strenuone
recommendations of Judge Vincent
received-nothing! - But his heroic
feat of arms is not like -todbe forgot-:
ten by the people of the veldt side,
and will be remembered by most Eng
lishmen who know tlie story.-Wide
World Magazine.
The elephant beetle~.of Venezela~ is
the biggest of its species. An average
secmen of this inseet, when full
DI'emors for Piq FoaA.
An agricnItural paper PI%gests the
fo'loving as ai.Is to digestioa for the
Pig Pea:
!:aust: A mixture of six pounds of
saIlt to a bushel of wood aslies. -
Sec ond: To sit bushels <- charcoal
brok( n ine ada six voundr of salt,
one bnshel wheat shorts aba 1 1-4
pounis of copperas dissolved in a
pail cf water.
Ti:d: One bnshel of w.aod ashes,
four p:awls of~charcoal,si. pounds of
salt rnd 1 1-4 pounds of cApperas dis
solved in a pail of water.
One or the other of the:i should bo
kept :n an o-en box-bk; protected
fro. -h veat her - ini eve, y pig pen
and wiire tue aniia _m. help them
selver.-Ncw York Week!'y Witnes.
I-nnurin- Fruit Treet li Wiater.
.Uaiures applied to trees when their
bads ire dormant, its iu Ain,e, are
smre to Jargely inrrease wood growth
the following year, especial on yo-ug,
vigorous trees. Even w un examitna
tion of the bads show%s thi:t - the t!ee
Vill bos 4ota freely nextsring, itis not
safe to apply now much rkh i manure.
as it X-ill make so mnh :-ap that the
blossc m wili be drowned 'nt and not
set its L:uir. This is oft-h the reason
w-hy f::iiit mails to set whe there are
plenth of blossoms. On",7 old tree
can bE thus manured with ce:tain y
that. the nanura will heip the fruit
yiel. And even who 1 nx nring old
tre s, iotash and pho-ipha-e in avai -
able f4rn are b tre: that. st:V]e mau
urc or othtr fertiizers ric.h in nitro
:-i~rr Goin: Dry Too LonT.
If tlero is any ea elesa in mi'l
in- it .s apt t. oc :tic whep heifers aro
mi ke.. a:1er their first dalf. Tinr
teats are small, and it is slow, hard
work to draw th last drops from tho
udder, as shonld always be doe
Besid:s, the heifer tha calved last
spring proba:Iy gives Jnaly a sna'l
miles, et the best, and tie:e is grea
tenaptztion to dry her oD, as the milk
shbe -i-es scarcely payhe -troable o'
milI ing. But that is ;lot ~the main
point. Keeping the belfer fip to her
upnal flow of Lailk is alt i.-po:tant for
lhe owa fture value :a a cow. When
a lei-er is aloved to go dry two,
three <;r four m>nths,the cow is after
wards extremely liable zo stop further
milk p.oduction at ab -Ut the same
J - .utter.
The prime cause of mo,ftles is the
use of -oo cold water in washing the
batter and the manner in which it is
introdE,ced into the chnrn. By using
too col.. water the outside of the but
ter graales becomes crusted or hard
ened 'ike, the shell of an egg, while
the inside is soft. Now, when this
mass i worked together these little
she.ls remiain in the same condition,
no a:nnt of working or temper
itg sail, or even dist ibution of salt
when adtded, will ch'ange the condi
tions. They do not work up, conse
quentle do not take salt, hence the
fine, threadlike streaks in the butter.
The.nanner in which the water is
intr-ouced into the churn is respon
sile for the large mottles or seeming
lnmt:s of white butter throughout the
n:asa. In the majority of ci eameries
thronzi:oat Whe country the water is
pu~m; ed <lirectly into 1he churn. either
through a hose or a pipe. Now,when
the water st:ikes the butter these
g-aua!es become hard and solid as in
the first case, only that the:e hard
granu'es are not broken downa at all,
and the large mottles are the result.
The wash water sh uld be teimpered
to within two or three degrees of the
chn to:.ui:erature.
One of the most imnportant winter
wo:ks oa1 the fa:m is t.>open the paths
after eatch snowfaii. Where the path
lies aero a places that usually drift
fnil of snow much~ of the work of
keepinz- the path open may be a' ided
by remov.inIg the obstruction to the
wind which causrs the drift. Most
generally a drifting snow remains
several days, so that the path will
dr~it full every night, even though no
fresh :uow has fallen. In opening
roads a teamt of steady, stout o:en
hi.ched to a sleigh, or sometimes to a
stoae sled, will ma:ze a broad path bet
ter thtan horse< could do it. We have
often seen, when a boy, most of thbe
catt e in the neighuborhood brought
ont to follow after an ox team and
sledi. By the time those had been
dris en t wice over the roa-i, it was con
sdered safe for sleigh vehic:es drawn
by horses. A flock of sheep driven
after all else will compact the snow
best of all. But if snow drifts into
the t. acks thus imde, it will often be
pilea nearly as high as the loose snow
n either side. It may be all right so
long as the cold weather lasts, but let
a thacw comne, and this solid snow must
be abandaned, and a new track made
in the loose snow on one side of what
has been used during the winter.
- U:Hizlng Farm Mtanures.
It is generally understood that all
fertiliziug elements must dissolve be
fore they becomec plant food. Henice
the more thoronghly decomposed they
become in thbe corupost heap, the more
quickly rains and dews will dissolve
theni after they are applied to the
soa~iv.M plan of earing for farm
mannrues is to m1ake three bins by
pacing ..osts -eight-feet apart and sid
ig' up w ith boards. The size of these
bi's ill1 be determined by the ai'onnt
o. waste~ to be con verted into fertilizer.
Luord mno the first and senond bins
three teet nigh. The third bin I make
rer thian the others, as it must ho:d
. atire nutpu of cmmt until it is
To prevent waste of the liqid
manures by leaching, spread a' thick
layer of dry muek, peat or,- 'h sodI
over the bottom of the bin:-xzis will
act as an abso:bent. If this is too
much trouble put in a layer of coarse
grass or straw instead. Bin No. 1 is
to receive all fresh manures, night
sl.ps from the hoase, asues.dvoppings
fron poultry house- and pig pe is, cl
shoes, bones and trash of all kinds.
Make bii No. 1 a general dumping
gr,>un for everything .,at can possibly
ue utilized, sach as dish water and
wash water, unless you have hogs aad
prefer to give this Ust to them. 'ee
that the stable manure and rnbbish
are tho ongbly mixed ii bin No. 1.
By thus i.corpmorating all the trash
with the stable manure you prevent
its beating too rapidiy, or burnin.
Sprinkle lime, or better, sulphate of
potash over all. This will has:eu de
compositio:. Neep all the b.us that
cout ;iu anything covered wi h str:rr,
earth or coarse gass to prevent the
amUoniia escapiung.
Fyrk over contents of bin No. 1 a
lit:le every three or four days to
thoroughly mix coarse with fine and
in three or four days after bin No. I
is full fork it all over into bin No. 2,
then proceed to till bin No. 1 again.
When bin No. 1 is fill this time,
empty bin No. 2 into bin No. ?, aLid
repeat the process with bin No. 1.
Eve-y laut t:at grows ia garden or
field has a taste for food pe,niliar to
i.self. The old shoes, bones and
even tie dead cat throxn into bin
No. 1 aid mixedwith the other cim
post wili find its way ilto tie lilt.e
rootlets of so ne plant.
While thi; method does not make a
co:nplete fertilizer for any spec-al
plar, it makes a most etcellent gen
e;al fertili.er. We are munch too a.t
o t.i.ik of worn out a ticles as del
,r worthle4s matte'-. An article serves
a long and well as it can in on- form
;-id t1l":l dis negrates only to alljw
;he indiiilatzd partie es to comne to
gether in so.ne new and often higher
ior.a.-U. M. Drake in Siw England
Undi%r;1rainin- mick Sw-nmp.
There is a far better way to make
ase of a swamp of uich black muck
i ha i to dra w it ont, season it a year or
iwo by e.sptsn e to freezing. and thea
spi ead it on uplands. No doul.t there
are placet whaze tais plan may pay,
but it is not econoay. The black
.auk is proualy nt nea,ly so rich
in er,ilizing matei i.d as is supposed.
and so mneh haudiug of it as is *re
ti:ed to draw t in its raw state, s:-a
son it and then handle it again to ap
ply it, very rarely pays. The better
way is to make undrdrains throngn
the rwamp, 1ossibly if there is a great
deal of water 1eaUiug'ail these \hrains
into La open ditch, which should have
a growth of sod on its sides as early as
possible. In two or three years frost
will p)enetrate to the depth of two
feet or more in the pliable muck, and
the surface if left bare through the
winter can easily be cultivated until
it is as imehow as an ash heap.
Uaually these muck swamps are
underlaid with a c ay snb.soil. That
is a good sign, for it ieans that less
of the fertility has been washel away
and lost. In all cases the drains
shoald be put dowu deep eaongh to
reach the clay, and somie gravel should
be pnt over the joints of the tile,so as
to not only keep the clay from stop
ping the wvater from entering, but also
to prevent the fine bla k mould from
above from siKt. ng into the tile.
Sometimes when we get down to the
clay springs of wvater will burst forth.
Where a sprinig is found, much care
will be required in lacy.ug the tile, as
there will he a great <.eal of sand
b ought up by the water, and this is
likely to get into aind choke the tile.
The best way prIobab)ly is to leave an
opeiiing here in thme drain and make a
smialI pond there wih the spring of
water in the ceitre. It is slow, dirty
wo k dredging out such a pond so as
to have the water rise up from a lower
depth than the drain. It wih regni: e
attention every year to keep this hole
from filling ur. But sntch a spring
once tonud w~ 11 furnish wa er at any
timeC through the op:en ditch into
whic~h the tile carries it.
Afte:-thesa:mp is drained,it shetid
be cultivated with ordiinary armi eI ops,I
but reserved for those which re ,ui e
mncky soil to do tjieir i.est. If g ain
is sown it wvill prob..bly make a .tank
growth os straw, whech,lacking m1meial
fertility,will not be able to sust-in its
own we gut. The g ain c:-op will
probably rust, and both that and the
straw will prove a >aiinre. But a
drained muck bed fertii>edl with }ot
ash and phosphatb makes a first rate
place for celery, for cnLhba y and for
co-n. The,e e u be bet ter grown ont
the dlrai e I muek bed -han onugands
fer ilized with the s w.mp mt uek spread
over the:o. AI.no t anll m:tcky soils
are de5ieiut in ot ash. TLcey are the
remiainis of -.egetaitionl that has very
little mineral matter in i:. A dressing
of phlospha.te and 1otash applied to
m?ucky soils makes them abnost as
rich as fermented cow manure. In
time the muck bed will waste away by
exposu: e to the air,and for this reason
it should every few years grow a crop
of c-over to i e iewv the vegetab'e mat-.
t r~ it has lost. It may seem needless
where the soil is still blacek with the
remains of old vegetation to plow
under a clover growth, but the clover
is far more nitrogenonst than any vet
etable matter this soil ever prodneed
before, and it also contai is a g:reater
amont mine al fert.ility. So there
is probably no way of making clover
p: ociuee a better efTect than by grow-.
ing it on soil which is apparently al-:
ready ful?l of vegetable matter. -Amer
ican Cultivator.
An "ice-creeper," for wearing on
the shores in s ippery streets, has been
inite itel by a Vfissou ri lady. It has
smalml st, el teeth to 1ie ce the ice as
the eare walks and < an be applied.
V 1LLAub W lmVAU4:1 V U15L
The Remarkable State of Afas That
EXisto in Hastings, a Little Town Amid
the %%hite Dlountaine-Most Cosmopoli
tan Setilement in New England States.
Hastings is a little village seated
amid the White Mountains on the
bjundarv betw, en Maine and New
Hami.shire, and is the most unique
in -\ew ingiand, perhaps in the civil
ized world, declares the Boston Globe:
it contains 300 inhabitants within
the village proper, with es many mre
at work cutting and hauling lumber
to the villag- from the slopes of two
surrounding mountains. It has the
large manufacturing indust: ies, large
store and boarding houses, twenty
six rebidences, postoffice, electric
plant, lighting streets, store. etc.,
raiiroad, telephone, fine school, re
ligious s;cieties and services, excAl
lent water system and sewerage-in
short, as wauy modern conveniences
as auy %illage of its size in New Eng
land. Yet it is ueith.r city, town,
plantation nor evea an incorporated
place. It is nothing.
Its inhabita' ts pay no taxes of any
sort. Babies have been born here,
have grown to inauhod and b-come
the heads of families and never known
what iu was to I-ay one cent for taves.
The.e is,of c.urse, a wild lan-1 tax and
a state tax on the will property, but
these are pai.l by non-residents an i are
so.nething with which the inhabitants
have noLhing to do. Oa the other
band, no inhabi'ant can vote. They
are, as a rule, well educated, the
dazly papers have a large circulation
here, te people are well poste. in
cnrreit e :entq.
Yet be,e, in the very heart of New
Engia:d, i.s a coainunity who have
no tuore v,ice or intinence in n.,tio :al,
state, county or town affairs than
t hou4h tuey live.J in the heart of Rus
sia. ie.e are giay-haired America.
citizens w-o have never cast a ballot,
and caunot so Ion-; as they live he':e.
It. is the most cosmopoltan village
in New England. Eve:y nation on
earth is, or has been, represented
The most remarkable thing about
this most remarkable place is the ea
tire absejce of crime.
Notwitiistanding this heterogeneous
popnatioa tuere are uo ) olice, not
even a coistable. There was a sort
of e-nstable here, bat his com nission
expired abont a year ago, and his dn
ties had been so licht li \.d not con
sider it wortg his whi,e to renew it.
Here is the only vilia-e in the
United States. to whi,b-there,is no
carriage roa:. The ol'y Mns of
transportation to or from the outside
world is by a railroad. This railroad
starts at Gilea1 and *ollows the val!ey
of the Wild iiver aiong a route sa
narrow that in many placas there is
barely rooa1 for the rails. On every
other side of the village are moun
t..ins so s'eep that even a foot nan c -n
c:imb their sides only with difienlty
and so high that the sun is visible
only part of the day.
When this railroad was first built a
few persons ventured to drive a car
riage over the ties, but it proved so
di!licnlt and dangerons tha.t this
method of reachiag the village has
been abandone 1.
This railroad is one of the wonders
of New Eug'andl. It renetrates four
teen miles into the wildest defiles of
the White Monitains. A ride upon
it is a new experienIce, even to a trav
eler who has visited every contry
upon the globe. You fellow the si iu
ons White rive'-, whirling aronnd
enrves of forty degree, wvhere it seems
i vo).ssible for a trainjto go; yon
eli uh the sides of mountha t an
elevation of 403) fest to the ~l
whe-e a horse conld scarcely go and
could not haul a load.
You shoot d awn declivities which
are almnost nrecipices, where a break
in the machinery means death. Once
the train dii run away and was
r.mashel, killing the t-ainmen. It is
a frei;it road, not us a.lly taking pas
Here was the first s,ecess'al experi
mient of hanuling logs by rail upon a
l:rge sen!e i t New En' laand, and nuo-i
this readl was -nsed the first patent
ge trod locomotive for mountain climb
ing in the cast.
The scho I is another nuique fea
tare. The scholhou3e was h) iilt in
I1992 by the two co apanies who oper
ate here, and the teacher is paid by a
co itribut'o:i from each workma-1 of
ten cents a nmonth. -This is taken
from each ma's wares each pay day,
and is enonthz to pay for about thi"ty
five w eks of school each year. This
term the-e are thirty-seven pupils.
This territory was granted to Rich
avd Batchellor by the state of Massa
chnsetts about 1100 years ago.
Forty aears ago G. A. -Hastings of
BehladD. P. Fastings of Frye
Urg haught 20,00)0 acres here, prac
ticaly the who' e re-ion. In 1891
they sold the right of way.through
their territory, the mill. site at the
village and twenty acres to. the- Wild
River Lumber Co. of Island Poad,Vt.
This company purchased at the same
time 40,000 acres of timber in Bean's
Purchase, just across the New Hamp
shire line.
They put in the big steam mill,
store, most of the houses, the electric
system, sewers, etc. They cut their
timber at Bean's Purchase and haul
it bmy rail to the steammill here,which.
saws 60,03)0 feet a day wi'.a ran to its
fuli capacity.
Carl Storrs may be termed the fa
ther of the settlement, as he holds
every pulic office so satisfactorily
that no other man has been thought
of in connection with ihe positions.
He is the cow-"aty's agenr, b sok
keeper, pay:na'te-, tri.djustice, pst
When the prestimptiueis
segregate confinement enidee
Eastern penitentiary, -hiladel -
aroused the indignation of Charles
Dickens and his trenchant pen gave
expression to his horror of such pun
ishment, the institution on Fairmount
a% enne was given a sinister reputation
beyond its de ierts. Since the greatnov
velist wrote in terms sos .vereof so:ita
ry imprisonment the results obtained
by the management of the prison here
have refuted in the main the strictares
passed npon the Eastern peniteut:ary.
Phrenologists have given their teiti
mony in favor cf tne system which
Dickens condemned, and sAitary zou
finewent is in vogne in many of the
penitentiaries of the country. If en
forced to the letter and a man was
coml;elled to sit within a narrow cel
day after (lay with nothing but his
-own thoughts to occupy his mind,
then, indeed, sol;tary canfinee:ent
would be a barbarity that wonild shame
civilization and bamanit.y. Maduess
and death could only result in the ma
jorty of cases.
But when the convicted man stands
before his julage t receive his pan
ishinent ant litaas to the words "sol
itary confinement," their terror is
li;htened by the mercifal provis:on
that his lonelinss shall be be relieved
by "hard labor." Then, t,o, the
crowded condition of the Eastern pen
itentiary requires that two and fre
quently thr:e,convict, shallbe con fined
in the same cell, and the "s,litary
confinement" part of the sentence is
mo e or less a legal fition.
While a man has the conianv of
his fellows ad the boon of work in
the pris:n there is imposed upon him
a punishment the sever.ty an 1 ir'
s.mene4s of which cai only be a:pre
honde.1 in its full force by one who
has undergone it. Ta.e i.uishmeitis
silence. Throughout the day no m.n
dare speak to his fe':ow save of ne,-es
sity or by stealth. To a man wh. ha3
yiel.lel to temptation and fallen fro a
an honorable p'ace in soc ety the need
of himanu sympathy, the fon1 of a
kindly voice, a friendly ea: into whiAx
to p.ur the toit iring surgings of his
mind is most nece-sary, and inst
make this i.n.osed sil--nce ta:riiule to
The prison autnorities recogize
the severity of th3 nish-meut of
these lon- broodi.g ho.:rs an- t1he
mental strain i;npose:l on the convico.
Many in passing the peniteatiAry in
the early hours of the evanint mnst
have been startL A by tje c. ies
an.l tumult echoing fr::m behind iti
atone walls, and woude:ed as *hey
hnrried by if a bloody re o t was go
ing on within. A revolt it is indeedi
that nightly take-4 plaoe, but it is the
revolt of overbarde-ied hearts, of an
gni-hed souls, and black, evil minds
agiinst the silence they have writhed
under daring the day. From 6 o'clock
until 9 ach night the ban of silence
is raise.1, and the inmates of the prison
are free to give vent to the tumult of
their minds.
Locked there in their cells the great
majority of the prisoners await cager
l tne hour of sic. At the given time
pandemonium b-eaks loose. Tb 3 cor
ridors echo and re-echo to the yells,
shrieks and songs of the miserable,
caged men. Many of them have inn
sical instruments, and these add their
volume to the general discord. For
three hours the din continues, b4c n
the stroke of nine the electric lights -
in the cells go out-, silence o:ize more
broods over the g oomy place, an:1for
tunate the man who finds freedom in
sleep. __________
Baby carriages propelled by eleo
tiiity are in use in Paris, France. --
Horses in the Philippines are a curi.
The few that are ~raised in the
islan~.d too small to brand.
There is ~f.-sary in the British
musenm made of-4he vertebr:a of a
snake's backbone. her is com
posed of rats' teeth.
The Dutch fishermen kill the fish
caught as soon as they reach the shore,
while the French fisher aen leave their
booty to- die of suffocation.
In England the year formerly began - -
with the 25th of March. It was not
until 1752 that the first of Jacnuary
was made thc beginning of the te24.~--.K
year. .
The Clarendon Street Baptist church
of Boston has a Chi:zese Sunday
school whose average attendance is 20).
This school supports two native mis
sionaries in China.
Untame.1 camels are not the docile
creatures they are taught to beco no
after months of breskiag. In the wild
state they are extremely vi, ions, and
can kick harder, liigher, swifter an .1
oftener thati a mule, and sadmetimer
seem to use allfontr feet at once.
Mrs. Ann Smith of Wo-eester, Eng.
land, 110) years of age, has spent ove?
a hundred years of-her life ii tra.
elig from fair to fair in a van. Sh6~
has ha.i sixteen children, and one of
her daughters, now 80 years of agj
has. also had sixteen. Mrs. Smith
-eats four meals a day,drinks sparingly
of intoxicants, smokes- a cgay -pip
steadily, and attends to all her house..
hold dutie herself.
R egn. tefnty-five years ago, the
British Mtuseum, catalogue .of birdte
.as just been 'completed, in -tient?
seven large srolufnes. It attempts to
give a list of ever~y ki;td of bird known
atthe 'time-of pudlieation, and de
scribes 11,6l% species,. -belonging toa
2255 genera and& 124families; 40f,.
specimens,350, 000 of which are infN
British Miuseum collection, are r3
ferred to in the woik. ^
The largest-.u'agen'sfidutridgier.e
East river in Gre. r New 3 ork Y~
598.i feet long and i slog.
15 feet. -

xml | txt