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The news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1877-1900, December 01, 1900, Image 1

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Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067705/1900-12-01/ed-1/seq-1/

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As Many as 15.000 'Guns Have Been En
gaged in This New warrare Along t1
.'O mud Its Bordertug Ilalus-T h1e
.RattWe XF.Au FlacO at Night.
Trayp'iers in the valleys of the Po
nad. 'he Ithone during the past season
hY'.e had an opportunity to witness a
new and thoroughly scientific use of
cannon in battles fought without blood
shled, yet ending with rout on one side
and victory on the other. The vine
growers of Northern Italy and of
Southeastern France have begun to em
11oy artillery against thunder and hail
storms. In many cases the womIenI
have been the cannoneers and the roar
*'of the contest has frequently recalled
-that of an actual battle field. As many
as 13,000 guns have been engaged in
1hs new warfare along the great val
ley of the Po and its bordering plains.
and government assistance has been
given to the combatants in both France
and Italy. The enthusiastic reports
of those who have taken part in the
21o0el defence of tho vineyards are
flred with stories of constant success
'against the enemy,
'hese battles with storms have thus
assumed great pract!cal and scientifle
Interest and importance, It seems to
have been dernonstrated that it is per
fectly feasihle by shooting at the
clouds of an advancing and gathering
thrgider storm to break up their array
a to introduce so much confusion in
hir ranks as to prevent entirely the
formation of hail, the fall of which
-during such storms often results in the
ruin of many Acres of costly vines. A
single cannon on a cenimanding emi
sence suffices to protect about 601 acres
-of surrounding land. But isolated guns
are not efficient, They must be nr
ragged in batteries covering many sall
ilt points suitably chosen with refer
ence to one another, and the system of
pickets connected with the guns needs
Oto be as carefully organized as in the
k case of an army, Many times these
battes take place at dead of night.
els seeing suspicious clouds
vjre the alarm, and imme
ns within the
s are
used, and an
0 smoke ings; dart
osnthe * of the guns to
tof It ' or more, tearing as
9Mnder the gathering clouds and caus
fng somuch commotion in the electri
ca1y charged vapors that the condi
tions which lead to the formation of
hail are prevented, and only gentle and
refreshing rain falls instead of the
dreaded bombardment of icy projec
The best reply, perhaps, to those who
'doubt the efficiency of this s.stem of
defence against storms is that the in
surance companies have reduced their
rates to the vine growres in the protect
ed regions 33 per cent. since the guns
Whave been in use. What works so well
in Prance and Italy would doubtless (
work equally well in this country. and
Professor E. W. Hlilgard has already
suggested that the system should be
Introduced in our middle west, where
great damage is caused by thunder
When a begnning like this is oncet
magnafobody is ever'able to predict
What the end will be. It has long been
the dream of some meteorologists that
-man would'eventually attain to a suffi
dient command over the elements to
enable him, if not absolutely to rule the
clouds, at least to interfere successful
ly with their movements and forma-t
tion. It 'is an old superstition among
many races; that magicians and wizards'
can make and prevent rain and direct
the wind in its course. Whether this is .
half-conscious memory of some past
age of human mastery over atmospher-b
Ic phenomena or a prophetic tendencyk
forecasting the direction of scientifick
progress, at any rate the success of the g
vine growers' protective artilleryh
proves that man's control over the
powers of the air is not all a dream.t
A few years ago the failure to pro
duce rain in a season of drought by r
firing dynamite bombs from balloonsa
'discouraged efforts in the direction
of the artificial production of desirable l
states and conditions of the weather,
but now it seems that the problem only
needed to be attacked from a different
side in order to give promise of at
least a partial solution. There would
be no cause for wondler if in a fewti
years it should be found practicable, a
by means similar to those employed in
Italy and France, not only to protect
vineyards from hailstorms, but to dis- m
sipate the destructive power of many
local tempests and even of the dreaded
Western tornadoes themselves.
That the immense atmospheric dis- f
turbances. hundreds and thousands of
miles in linear extent, which are tech
nically kno -n as eyelones, will ever m
submit to .1iman control is far teo j
much to expect, but tihe worldl will be hr
* pleasanter d relling place after local of
storms have been robbed of their ter- r
Srot's, and min will be a proud rider 3
when he can feel that the winged er
horses of the air obey his bridle rein.- deC
2KProf. Garrett P. Serv iss, in the New Ti
T ~ ork JournaL Sc;
A socratic saig
Socrateshmad some good.old-fashioned iy
* notions. As he used to saunter around bh
in Athens he was accustomed to say: to
'A horse is not known by his trap- a
pinge, but qualtes; so men are to be hit
aggem# for virtue, not weath," rir
The Observations of an Eyewitness of a
Nebraska Storm.
One of the most interesting facts con
cerning tornadoes is the record of how
one began. The account was Seit to
the weather bureau by one of Its ol
servers.. Ihe fllowing Is an abstract
"By A. II. Gale, Voluntary Observer
at Bassett, Nebraska.
"Dated, July 28, 1SS9.
"Mr, A. Brown, live and one-half
miles northwest of Johnston, saw the n.
tornado fori. lHe was at work In his to
harnyard and noticed it coming across n
his field as a light suunner whirlwind. y)
such as is notictd on any still, hot ii
day. Air at the time was calni. Mr.
Brown says he was harnessing a horse.
and as the light whirl passed himu 1 Nt
gently lifted the straw edges of the
roof of his cowshed, but had not
enough strength to lift his hat. and
passed on. At this point it was devoid
of any color, and was mainly noticed
by the whirl it made among the grass,
straw, and chaff on the ground: he
watched its onward movement indiffer
ently. and soon saw it gather a color h
which made it detinable. Ile then paid .
closer attention to it and noticed it
becoming black angry and gyrating
vigorously, chips, straws, and dirt fell
Into it. and were absorb!d by it and a I
smoky veil began to envelop the whirl
ing column as it mounted upward.
"At the same time a funnel began to
lower itself from a turbulent low-hang
ing cloud of an area of about 40 acres;
the column and funnel soon connected, d:
and with this union thet' 'thing' took on
a terrifying aspect: up to this time he
had no feeling of apprehension. When
the whirl passed him he saidl he was
aware of its passage only by its action
on the ground. No color. A black
cloud above, in commotion, followed
the whirl on the ground. which latter
was eight or tcn feet in diameter. This
cloud was alone, separate, and (lear
from a higher strata of storm clouds o
above. When passing his point, and as
long as within his line of view, he cs
timated the speed at ten miles per b
hour, line of path east by south. I will
say here that the entire path from in
start to end was 18 or 10 miles, and in th
that distance it made a southing from W1
a due east course of two and three- a]
quarters miles, and ranged from one to e
three re Is in width. Two ardane-falf g
miles 4om Mr. Brown's pount it u
crossed' a large cornfield, and here it flu
reeeiteo much of its -color g matter..
the' _
;aw it as t e bar]
ornfield to his nd the
loe for the cellar, at der
his place was complet of e; i
eavy logs, windmill, and nd timi
able, in all seven buildings, co etc- har
y leveled to the ground, fences upset, but
oken down. Fence wire woven and tue
terwoven with broken lumbcr. straw, of h
lebris of all sorts, plastered with mud. aleh
ery fence post standling in the track life
rmed a dam. aroundl which was
assed debris of everything imagin- i
le, the whole daubed with mud; it Am(
s a picture of desolation adl ruin~1 rollc
imalin the extreme."-Theodore Wal, oo
-s in Ainsiee's. ines5
Whales from 300 to 400 years old are tIes
netimles inet with. Thu- age is as('er- den'
ined by the size and number of the set
talebone, which increases yearly. rites
-- the
he telegraph poles along the Savan- beet
b and Statesboro railway, in Geor- stor'(
i are growing. They ain't madei of arria
'ress, and must havt'e beeni pla nted Bu
'ih tihe roots. They'~ are sprouted 'it cb
etop), and serve a double purpose-. i
ey are shadle ti'ees, as well as a sup' f mot!
t for the wires. the I
~~- foun
ivorces are rarely if ever heard of o
China: andi as foi' breaking the
lihted troth thbe man bimnds himself initin~
three solemn oathus to coimmit hari- ta
in if lie prov'es fa1ithiless, while the thies
r by the same oath agret s to di'- in er
men herself over to tin' eam'e of thie
dsman. But it is usual for them
pass over the "Wood Ling" without
astrophie. A widow in~ (China eannot
mrry withbout loss of 1'epurari-i (, s
WI a mirl whoi( has lost hirr inten'dd i i
'tn takes vows of c'elibacy in his abou~i
nory. whag
Tulv there' were giants in Colon'al mot?
s. One Daniel Leake of Salisbury, They
IL., umde during his Ilifetim' and 11%
as paid for a mnillion shingles. I ur-er
the years Ihe was ac'complishing chry.
ictolossal work he clearecd a0 i1res Nl
land. taippe'd for 20 y'ears at least t I~-i
)maple trees, ma king some(timues SUS
00 poundls of sugar a year. He cotinl hie:tl
;w six acres a- day, giv ing in e tons a t'ur1
hay: his strong. long arms cut a thie ti
ithl 12 ft'et wvide'. In his spare time webi
worked as a cooper anmd he was a tii'
tfoums drum maker. i"
tis a peculiar fact that nearly all der t
mrehs favor somie unojuk' piece of etet'
e~ly. William IL wears a snmall tin' g
:'eltt hidlden by hiis i'uff. T[he ( 'a r en~ th
Rsia has a rept'ater' woirt h zoo brant
des, which he piz'ies very higly. show
i e (Christimn' chang''s her; rings sev- howli
11nies a dlay. whill sin' eiml casily Time
as she possessi's :ihMtt '-5 of them, suital
la Ito King of Italy always wvore a early
mpua~ry chamin of platinium. King L-. (nter'i
it of' Belgiumn is a (i'anmk onm ancienmt its''lf
piei's, of whIi hein piossissis a too fi
cclleti on. One' of the inost valuma- teco01
specimencis is a wva tih that b elonmg~d Durin
arie' Antoinette. Th'le Suit ani dons 1ers'i
iin shirt of gobmi and silver, and the p1
ands are cov'ered with a miass < lated
Ig of all kinds mi sze . a the
1o 1Tousefly nnd the Bluebottle Are
Short Lived at Vet-VictinM of the
I-ro-t-Vultterilies in Xilter Clothed
in Microscopic Ieathers.
Whiat has become of th.1 flies, the
-asshoppers and amnts? The morning
1p is iow a luxury, for the winged
rllent that iade the oarly hours
iser::b-le 1i1 More, and t1h honey
>t and sugar jar are safe from sweet
ving ainraudelrs.
It was hut :i fortnight ago that all
it of doors was teemii with life.
ow, with the hint of frost in the air,
te evenings are silent. The hardy
awk erlcket chirps in a lonely fash
n near the tireplace or in the cellar.
ecislonally a fly huzze< across the
iidow pane in the suiisiine. And if
)>u are riving along a country road
solitary hunible bee ma; be seen n11
e golden rod, and a l),ated grass
)ppe'r gives a feelble spring to avoid
itture. The butterflies and imothis
iiot he seen anywhere, and where
Ive gone the ants, bees, wasps and
custs? It lo( ks as if the first chill
'eath of autumn had wrought a
holesale tragedy at one fell swoop.
lit where are the (dead and the dying?
The oiusefly and b lueoXttle fly, the
mne of the house'keeper, are short
,ed at best. Many flies live but a
ly. The excitellent of escaping ex
rmination and rearing their young
unds out an existence of 24 hours*.
aiture. in appreciation of their short
reer', has provided thein with com1
oil eyes. which- see aboit on all
des, a niar'vellously aeute scent, and
facility of flight which is the aggra
ition of him who dozes at noonday
id who tries to catch that one fly.
hen ailtuin comes the death knell
millions of flies has sounded. They
ake no preparation for winter. The
ajority die, and their insignificant
>lies are blown away by the passing
-eeze. A few hardy survivors linger
ereks in the walls, creep under
e door frames or in crevices in the
oodwork. It is probable that eggs
e laid, larva hatched and other flies
eep fr6m the metamorphosed mag
>ts during the winter. But some n.t'
-alists assert that the few lingerkig
es are the parents of h ultitu
at appearin.
t ,- g- f.
of trees n
next year. The' cold et:ard L
slopment of the egg. which 'hatch
1 the warm days of spring. Some'.
-s an unusually cold winter plays
>c with the dormant insect lif( .
the (u'ming of nature strengthens
fr:il cggshell against the power
eat and cold alike. until the secret
em1y of the siun stirs the budding
anid bids it colle forth.
ethes exhiibit a woniderful instinct
'aring for their hlelpless young.
og a ('ertalin spec'ies the eggs are
d in balls of material suitable for
The halls are packed away in a
to await the v'oracious apphetites
ie infant hleetle that miust eait its
out. Theu burying or sexton lbee
deposit thir eggs ill the btodies of
b~irds5 or field ml('(' They then
:0 work aind perform the proper
of huriail. heaping the earth over
body of tihe dead. The young
e hatched from the egg finjs a
of food awaitinig him on his
al1 in the world.
tter'files and mnothis are v'ictims5 of
wveather', though in some instanc's
as been prov'en that flies and
.s live ir' the region of glaciers in
igh Alps, and a ('erta in spec(ies is
I tlutteriung ai~out on till summlit
unlt Waishinigton and amild eternl
.IThese bultter'fliles and(1 mloths ale
ately' associated with tile gen
andil othier' flowe'rs belonging to
lofty altitudes, andl act as ais
ass fertilization.
temlperate zone hoasts of one ori
w'.inlter butterliies walrly clothed I
ero'lscopli( feat hers. And on chelr- "
Fecbruaruy and( Matrc'h (lays thmese I
omle hie'ralds of spring spom't f
like animuated sunhlenams and liv
phophlle('ie's of spingitide. But t
hais herome~ti( of tile butterflies and
s of the valnisheld summei(rtide? r
aire a galy y('t thrifty folk in look-.
or tihl future of their r'ace.,
h th(e gar'deni andh cocoons and
alids are found in all sorts of y
*s and (condlitions. Angular and ;
shlort andl thiick, long andl thin, c
luled by the head, or lby tihe tail,
dowinward: hung hlorizontally in 3
'led leaf, like tihe darlinlg baby in r
ve'top: tuc'kedl atway uinder a soft c
o'lverllet onl the( she'lte'red side of f
itI' post, or1 tundler the edge of the e
ilk: within tile warm corner of a hi
'ole, or a c'rac'k inl tile boards, un-b
II lark of the trees, ini a ('osey j
of the twigs, andil evenI buried ini a
'ound(. Thed delieate yet firm silk. n
reads ind themi to the topmlost
hies, where, exposed to sleet.
and rain, whirled aibout by every
mug blaist, they defy~ tile witer. pl
butterfly and moth lay e'ggs in a fal
le feeding ground during the ti
suunilner. The haint('hed larva or a
tilar eats voraciously, gorginig si
uilti it ('an eait no more, Or, if in
ifor further Ixertion., it spinis a di
I an 1 m1aWIkes r'eady fore wintei'. si
gtill winter01 it ap~ parenutly slum- he
its slng quarmters, nourished by w
entiful supply of fat it acetimu- dl
riuring the caterpillar stage, and th
proper time emerges a fullgrown Ire
moth or butterfly. gorgeously attireO
and bent on holiday making.
The spiders, so far as I can learn,
store away no food supply in winter
quarters. Quantities of eggs are laid
and carefully sheltered in ;elvety cob
web sacks Impervious to the weather.
'lse s:wks may be found swinging by
silken ropt's from the golden rod and
milkweed and hidden away in crevices
and corners of board fences and stone
walls. The little spiders creep from
the luxurious sleeping bags provided
by the solicitous care of their wise
mother, and if they escape the canni
balistic propensities of their brothers
and* sisters enter at once on a career
of trapping and iinting.
The old saying, "Go to the ant thou
sluggard. and the quaint fable of the
foolish, shivering grasshopper and the
wise and thrifty ant would lead us to
believe that wisdom dwelt in the halls
of the ant hill along with the fore
thought so , ommon to the beehive. The
bees and wasps do lay up stores for
winter. The wasps do not provision
quite so wisely as the bees, but in the
I centre of the cone sh:.ped nest of the
paper making wasps Biay be found a
goodly store of honey. All bees do not
store as liberally as (bes the hive lee,
and the mortality among bees is wide
While thousands die. a few survive,
and of these few it is generally the fe
males show the greatist tenaeIty to life
and serve as mother; of the race for
the next summer. live bees receive
such fostering care f im man that they
can hardly be countal among our vild
friends who mus sbFt for themselves.
The thrifty at degerves much sym
pathy In that it Is te favorite prey of
spiders. crickets, betles and other in
sect hunters. In spie of vicissitudes it
is devoted to its coamunity life. The
care of its young. t2e management of
its slaves and captired aphides from
which the honeydev is milked, furnish
incidents for a tal- as interesting as
the customs of any wandering tribe of
the desert or any lot nation of Central
Africa. A few .ant may survive and
feed on accumulatd stores during the
winter, but it is ciiefiy the eggs and
cocoons hidden aRay in the security
of the undergrourl chambers of the
ant hill that furnisi the ant population
of a succeeding sunmer.-Chicago Post
Mr. Boyle a Sehese6O Tie Up the Nations
orld I ney Agreement.
r, of a plan to
a by means of
rance princi
atlons. Mr.
eform in
ato o
. Mr. oyle's
Ee rsement of many
e-known r uding, it is said,
sgvrad state ors and a score of
reputable lawye' Among others who I
think his scheme universal peace is
feasible is Montagu White, the Amer- I
-an representative of the Transvaal. s
The work of building up. the Inter
national Peace Assurance association I
will be begun at once. it is intended 11
to obtain a large membership in the t
Enited States and when this is accom
Ilished to secure some kind of recogni-e
tion from Congress. With the indIOrs- I
ment of Congress its projectors believe z
it would be an easy 'matter to get e
European nations interestedl. The plan a
will become operattive wh-len eleven of si
the leadling nations of the world have g
igned the agreement and agreed to en-T
force the association's ruling. b:
The scheme includes the formation a
of an international board of adjusters if
nade up) of twvo representatives of each tl
nation signing the agreement. When el
lifferences arise between two nations el
ivhich, in the ordinary course of events, tU
would lead to war, this international ir
~)oardl of adjusters is to settle the con b;
roversy. This board may award dam- iri
iges where the majority finds a just si
laim, fix boundry lines disputes and er
'equire apologies in case of insult. The h:
issociation adjusts alldpays the finan- ci
-al loss to the injured side. nr
The associatioir will be organized on n
he plan of a stock company and the th
ost of membership to individuals will sa
>e $1. Each nation cn signing the di
greement is to, be charged an entrance Pi
se eqlual to at letist five cents per capi- b)1
a of its total populatfor, and will also it
ec obliged1 to pay a prper assessment m
ach year. A reserve ftnd for the pay- th
ients of claims is provided for, and h:
rom this dividends may be paid if the to
und passes a certain aim. to
Mr. Boyle ave-rs that among others fu
-ho have praised his scheme are the vo
merican Commissioners who attend- sp
d the Hague Conference. If Congress ar
an be Induced to look with favor on it ati
Er. Boyle will propose that an inter- Tc
tional congress be called by this er
>untry at which the pro~ject may be on
lly discussed and definite action tak- the
1. If this scheme fails -Mr. Boyle will ('0
ave something more tangible to fall wr
ack on. He is the inventor of a pro- Of
'etile which automaticallyj clearffthe las
ecapon from which it is fired. GUD nn
akers say the invention his merit, let
A Royal Oculist. Ne
One of the most interesting royal
rsonages in Europe is unquestion
>1y Duke Carl Theodor of Bavaria,
e famous oculist and benefactor of nig
ankind, who recently attained his ma
tieth birthday. With the poor people --
Bavaria and neighboig states the her
ike and his family ar' simply wor- his
iped in many a humble co~age where tra;
has restored the sight of the bread- Istij
inner, and that without 'e ectine or Jto:n
'manding any emolumnen r one of ty
e greatest services whi an can I !r
aer to his fellow creatninli
I saw !. sweet young mother stand
Where !:now had drifted o'er the land
A babe was lying on her breast,
Its fragile form
Against herself she fondly pressed
To keep it warm.
In later years I passed once more
And saw her at the cottage doorp
A boy was lying on her knee,
IHer look was grini.
And, suffering Joshua, how she
Was warming him!
-Chicago Times-IIerald.
Wlgwag-Ilave you ever been
through an Insane asylum? Miss
Flighty-No; but I'm just crazy to go.
Sillicus-What has become of Vol
apuk, that was destined to become the
universal language? Cynicus-Oh.
everybody talks golf nowadays.
"Do you know that you talk in your
sleep. Henry?" asked Mrs. Peck.
"Well, do you begrudge me those few
words, also?" he snapped back.
"I have finished my treatise on the
deaf and dumb language. It's ready
for the publisher now." "I suppose
you'll publish it as a hand-book?"
"But when the news eame, dear, it is
a wonder that you did not faint."
"How silly! You know that I could
not faint without mussing up wy new
"Listen to me, friends-I am no7
about to tell the truth."sald the politi
cal stump-speaker. "lturrah fer that,"
cried a man In the crowd, "Give him
a chance"'
"My child," said Mr. Knowitall,
"don't say tomorrow.' Tomorrow
never comes." "It don't?" exclaimed
the boy; "then how's Christmas goin' to
git here?"
Professor-The rattlesnake's tail is
formed of a certain number of rattles,
topped oft with a button of-- Bright
Pupil-You touch the button, and he'll
do the rest!
"Two years ago, when my daughter
was married, I gave her away," sighed
the rich man; "and ever since I've re
gretted that I couldn't get rid of my
son-in-law as easily."
"I always make it a point to pay as
I go," remarked the out-of-town buy
who was placing his order. "11evr
soon do you expect to go?" asked the
nervous young salesman.
Mrs. Newjwed (to cook, whom she
~Jti-engged at registur offic
-uu see myj nusban ssol-very par
ticular about his food. Cook (sym
pathetically)-Ther' all alike, mem.
My old man was just the same. I
never cooked nothink to please 'Im Ir
my life.
ubhers oREceivi:s
as They U ed
A gentleman con ected with the office
nanagement of o e of the most suc
essful of the current magazines was
a the city recenti looking over the
outhern field. In the course of con
ersation he mentioned some Interest
ig things discernible behind the scenes
2 the publishing business. "During
he last 12 months," he said, "there
ins been a most extraordinary in-'
rense In the number of manu
crlpts receivcd by the maga
Ines from all parts of the
ountry. You will hear it trlked
bout in every office in New York. It
ems as if the whoole nation has simply
one daft on the subject of scribbling.
Vhere we received a hundred contri
utions a year ago we are now getting
t last a thousand and all the big
iagazines have been forced to double
icir staff of renders and correspond
ace clerks to take care of the ir- 1
-eased mall. A large percentage of
ic articles submitted~ have some bear- 1
ig on the recent war, and are written 1
y- members of the volunteers. They I
elude a little of everything. sto--ies, i
tetches, poems, personal renineseen
's and historier.l sketches, and we
ive been obliged to get out a special
reular letter stating that we wouldt
>t undertake to even examine any'
ore war matter. I helieve most of 1
e other magaz.nes have dlone the1
me thing. The average writer A
esn't realize that a great monthly
ibliention must he run on strictly, I
isiness principles:. We estimate that C
costs us ailmosi ('0 cents to put a r
anusc'ript of. say 2500) words through 9
e hands of the first reader. It is r
nded by three ('lerks before it gets a
him, and the first reading Is merely r
determine whether it is worth any d1
rther attention. If the verdict is fa
rable It is carefully examined by a
ecial staff, which reads it In rotation
d submits a written report, an oper- c
on that costs considerable mone'y. s
give that amount of attention to a
en a tenth of the stuff that pours in s
us would bankrupt any- house in ai
country. Yet raw amateurs are hi
istantly complaining because every-i n
ird of their manuscript is net read. X
ten they p)urposely transpose the' sI
t few pages. and when they go back ml
disturbed they write us sarcastie 'n
ters. .\s a rule. thi' first paragralh fi
~ides the' fat,' of a contribut'on.-- o:
w Orleans 'Times-Democrat. t
A l'etrayal I'nforgotten. a:
t a Sydney hancluet table the other p'
lht ai descendant of the Macdonaldls i
ssacrcd at Glencoe passed a knife,
ith the blade foremaost." to a miem
of a famous 01(1 famuiiy hoearing the
torte name of thme Miardonsaldf Ib'- s
y-ers. Mlost of those who looked oni hi
n:atize'd thte action as one of con Cr
iptiy hadsu b:-redIing. But olie o- tlh
>. obser1ves the Sydlney Bulletin, un.- in
stoocd the significance and knew "t
the UE trayal is still unforgiven, , g
Lack of proper nesting places, too
little water. the English sparrow, boys.
collectors. birds on hats and the eat
are among the causc.s of the decrease
of song birds enumerated by ). Lang.
ie sug:gests protection and encourage
ment of the birds by planting trees and
shrubs for them to live in. putting up
nest boxes for breeding. providing wat
er for feeding and bathing, and fe'ding
in unfavorable weather.
Between Formosa and the coast or
China lies a group of 21 islands, inter
spersed with innuimerable reefs and
ledges, which are called the Pescadores
Islands. According to the investiga
tions of a Japaiese geologist. these is
lands have suffered in a remarkable
manner from the northeast winds,
which blow with savage violence there
during nine months of the year. 'Tlie
original area of the islands has been
greatly reduced by erosion, and th-ir
surfaces are barren and desolate. so
that the wind-whipped group forms "a
quasi-desert anmiidst the green island
world of southeastern Asia."
It has been discovered that the ef
fects produced upon a body by electro
eution and by lightning are whol'v
different. It has always been supposed
that the results were the same, but the
experiments of a physician in New
York have proven this to be an er-or.
A physician in the coroner's office in
New York City, has recently made an
autopsy of the body of a man who
was killed by lightning. The body
was found to be hardened and there
were no blood clots on the lungs or
the pericardium. In elcetrocution,
large clots of blood form on the lungs
an(d on the pericardium. and the nerv
ous system becomes 1:liable.
In support of the view that Death
Valley in California was formerly the
bed of a lake, is the discovery of traces
of all ancient wateir-line running alonz
the flanks of the enclosing mountains
at a height of GOO fet. Tlhe bottom
of the volley is 2W feet below sea-level.
The winds from the Pacific cross four
ranges of mountains b(fore reaching
the valley, and by that tiie they have
been drained of their last drop of inois
ture. It is said that "no spot on earth
surpasses Death Valley in aridity or
Tophet-like heat." The lake that once
filled it is believed to have been fed by
a river which is now a! so vanished.
The-UMOTTdOpsits of Death Valley are
commercially Important, but labor
all but imposible in a place where
be without water for a single ho
in sunmer means death. -
It Is well known that th .uiratoi
m *on of therfl iapen lnl
, trees is caused tky a flat
S of the petiole at its junction
with the lamiina. The lower part of
the leaf stalk is elongated and rigid.
thus forming a basis upon which the o:
flattened portion of the stalk 4an, in
virtue of its elastica(y, move to and
fro as the wind acts upon the leaves of
the tree. There have been several
theories offered b~y botanists, none of
them very satisfactory, however, to ex
lain the origin of this curious struc
ture andl the purp~ose served by the
'trembling" of the leaf. H. J. Colbur-n,T
n a recenit letter to Natuire. suggests a
iew explanation, Ie thiniks the vibra- tI
:ion may be an adaptation f'or raipidity s
hrowving off the excess of condensed
noisture, which is liable to form onr
Dr. Manson. the malaria expert. be
leves that acelinatization, ab~out
vhic'h so much is heamrd in India and
r-opi-al counlltries gener'ally. depends
>nl "ex!erienice, educ-ation. andi~ an ini
elligent adaptation of habmlits," rat her 11
han on aniy actua m eb 'ange '
n the phsyiological condition of th
he body. It will lbe admitted by g
*veryv one who hais lived any length of om
ime in the tr'opies that recklessness b
nmd car'elessness are chara-:cteristic of
he new arr-ival in any liot country.
lie does not think much of exposing (
.imself to the sun. tihe r:in.l amnd the li
rindl; the old1 resident is very chary of t
oing out iu ithont his sun hait and his
bhite umbrell4. 'The newv-comner may
>ok upon these precaumtionms as signs of t
freminney. They are not so. Expe
('lice ha:s told the old1 residIent that ne
lect meamns an atta('k of fever. The
ew-comer sits up late, eats, drinks.
nid smokes as in Europe. The old
asid1ent goes to bed betimnes and cats
rinks, andl smokes in modera'tionl."
Where Singing Birds Are Found.
Singing birds are esteemed in all
mnltries. but in Japan the musi -ail ciu
)Iunds ('mlitted by' 'er'tainl insects are
pprec'iatedl. Listening to these milnute the
ngers has been for many centuries
fav'orite pa'stimie of the JIapaniese, and we
1s givemn birth to all or-iginal comn
erc'e. At Tlokio. towaird the end of hm
aiy and the beginning of JIune, ->necl
es sulspendecd und~er' the verandais of
e houses little ('ages of bamlboo from (m
hieh break upon the silencee of the
eshl twilight strange little whistlings y
metallic modlulations andi~ light
ills, which fill the air with a delicate
uisic. It is habitually in the evening,
tecr the hour of the bathi. that the (l
ople of Tokio seat themselves and
ten to the shrill concert. (I
How CrowM Talk,.w
A French gentleman has spent two b:
inters ill thle highways and1( h'dges of \\
s c'ountry, leam'ning time lanlgulage of (a
ows. lie says. states Nature Notes,: e
at these birds have:25.~iword(s.expres.
g "here." "there." "'hot," "cold." TI
ake care." "armed man," "a nest," tali:
d rsn forth. na
A great nation is made by wortb
citizens.-C. D. Warner.
lie conquers twice who upon victory
overcomes himself.-Bacon.
The sum of individual character
wakes national character.-E. C. Man.
Consider it a crime to injure a broth
er, even though he be unbrotherly.
God gives every bird its food, but be
does not throw it into the nest.-J. G.
Early home associations have a po
tent influence upon the life of the
The secret of success in life is for a
man to be faithful to all his duties.
and obligations.-DisraelL
The man who thi'nks himself Inferior
to his fellows, deserves to be, and gen
erally is.-William Black.
Humidity Is a divine veil which cov
ers our good -deeds, and hides them
from our eyes.-St. John Climacas.
The ideal citizen is the man'Frho be
lieves that al Inen- are brothes, and
that the nation is merely an exterWT6n
Df his family.-Jefferson.
The spirit of independence is not
merely jealousy of our own par
ticular rights. but a respect for the
rights of others.-S. Baring-Gould.
Not from Old Aesop, but from the Land of
the Boxers.
Here are some Chinese or rather
Mongol fables. They bear quite a close
resemblance to the fables handeddown
by Aesop, but the great majority of
them seem to be original. Perhaps the
est of them is the fable of "The
Painted Fox."
"THE PAINTED FOX."-A fox find
ing a deserted dyer's sink contaiing
blue color painted himself a1k ver a
beautiful azure hue, and went and
showeil himself to the other animal&
rhey did not recognize ilm, and -SA
him: "Who are you?" The foX 1W
plied: "I am the king of beasts.".
The lion and other creatures then
lid him homage, and the fox, when* -
traveled, rode on the lion's back,
ing it over all classes of aninW9
?rally, but carrying it with an
-y high hand in the ase
'oxes. After,a time the
risions to his mother,
a sai : ' his g of yo
fox like the rest of us; if
im why not us?"
"Like you," said the otter
why, he is of a different color
ether." The foxes replied: "A* -,
ie color, wait till the first monthr.of4
>ring. In that month, on the n.h
the star called Bos, we foxes h!L Y?
Iwe don't howl our hair falls of.
n that night you can decide whether I
>ur king is a fox or not."
When that night came all the otheF
xes howled aloud, and the blue fox,
aring that his hair wculd fall off,
>wled in a low voice, but not so low
it what the other beasts heard him.
lius they knew that their pretended
nig was nothing more than a fox, and '
e lion, enraged at being deceiv,ed,
'w him with one stroke of his paw.
Moral: Though you attain to high
nk. oppree-s not your inferiors. Also
"Blue" coat has made many a man
SESE.-Two geese, when about to
irt on their annual autumnal migra
>. were entreated by a frog to take
an with them. On the geese ex
essing their willingness to do so If a
'ans of conveyance could be devised,
Sfrog produced a stalk of strong
iss, got the two geese to take It
( by eacl(h end, while he clung to it
his mouth in the middle. In this
inner the three were making their
u1rney succeessfully when they were
tic'ed from below by some men, who
idly expressed their admiration c
dlevic, alnd wondered who ht'/
~n elever enough to discover it. The'
inglorious frog, opening his mouth
say, *1t was me," lost his hold, and
s dashed to piee.s against the earth.
Iora: Don't let pride induce you to
-ak when safety requires you to be
The Century In a Noatabell.
'his century received from its pre
'essors the horse, we bequeath the
ycle, the locomotive and the motor
Ee received the goosequill and be
'thi tihe typ~ewriter.
be rec'eivedl the scythe and bequeath
miowing nmachjine.
'e received the hand-printing press,
bl)(ueamth the cylinder press.
e rece'ivedl the p~aintedl canvas, we
uen:th lithograp'iy, photcgraphy and
e received the hiandl loom, we be
:th the c'ottonl and woolen factory.
C n' ceived gunpowder, we bequeath
I' rece'.vecd the tallow dir, we be-.
ath the electrie lamp.
e(eeived the flintlock, we be
athi Maxims.
e received the sailing ship, we be-/
ath the steamship. -
e' received] the beacon signal Br'
h 'inenth the telephone and wir
r, reivedl ordinary light, we
thi Ihoestgen rays.-London,
e Ir'isixiani of 24 averag s
'e a~(d stronger than
of the ay

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