OCR Interpretation

The Laurens advertiser. (Laurens, S.C.) 1885-1973, August 25, 1886, Image 1

Image and text provided by University of South Carolina; Columbia, SC

Persistent link: http://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn93067760/1886-08-25/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

?Htcr Hipp
YOL. ?.
big job of Clothing
_Baltimore Fir?.
* _
An Kinny Henil Iii lori- lin- Sidle \firt('lllllHnl
Hoelely and Hie State Uranga ni 'l'hclr J omi
8uminer Meeting on August l, ISSI?.
It is doubtful whether, in idl thc timo
B?UOO South Carolina was tko lund in;;
ground of tho Indian, any Bingle Hf th <>.'
ft century hus witnessed within Uer bord
ors ii relativo progressin material welfare
equal with tho last, ll need-, no com
pilation of statistics lo ?how thi.s. Loi K
nt Columbia, tho beautiful city in which
you arc holding this BUUUUcr Uieetiug.
Comparo her in 1805, sitting amid u
mu? her population feeding on thc refuse
cuttle of Sherman's supply train, with
her condition to-dfty. See her waste
places rebuilt, ofton inore substantially
tin n before; her homes once moro sur
rounded with the comforts of lifo, and
her people on tho streets ?md in the
marts again steadily assorting them elvi s
in the battle of life. Columbia in this
but represents tho State, and in tin- de
gree of her rehabilitation dm .< not more
than equal tho general progress. Tho
uncomplaining fortitude, thc incompara
ble enorgy of tho South in tho struggle
to restore her fortunes, broki ll in the
lato Civil Wfti', has been Milln ;< d with
admiration by nil,ami to my mind present?
os much of tho horoic clement us any
thing in her history, from Sumter to
Aoiueri/rritAi. DEIMIKSSIOX.
Yet, notwithstanding this successful
progress, and ut its close, our agricultu
ral interest linds itself depressed, tho
chief product of its industry -diing at
best with no suftloiont margin of prellt,
and often, in individual cases, al ?i point
below the cost of production, which im
perils tho accumulation that has boon
nindi'. Tho agricultural mind is earn
estly and with justice demanding the
reason why.
lt has been suggested that ii is to bo
funnel in onerous ?lliiinciftl legislation and
wasteful public expenditure. Others,
going deeper into the unaly s is, have
sought the chief cause of thc trouble in
the faulty business system upon which
our industry is based. There e perhaps
truth in both these suggestions, and cudi
deserves attention, bul as to Ihoir rela
tive and practical importance in tho con
sideration of a meeting of South Caro
lina agriculturalists a fow thoughts
occur. The laxes paid to the General
( Jovcrnmcnt, indirect though they bo,
are probably tho largest levied upon our
pursuit; but in their levy and expendi
ture wo have an interest mid control in
common with litt v millions of people.
Indirection makes it diftioult lo ascer
tain what wo actually ?lo pay; and ex
tensive community of ?uteri ul 1 nth com
plicates its uftcct upon our special indus
try, and makes thu desired chango haul
to accomplish. With nu overwhelming
voting majority al the polls, ami with
ordinarily a majority ot n presen tat i vos
in tlie State Legislature, State li vies and
expenditures have been and remain
w ithin our immediate control. Tho sup
port of Government is a neccrsity, but
every cent taken from thc taxpayer be
yond its economic and ctlicicut adminis
tration is oppressive. Pms the present
management ot' tia- Stale Government
favorably moot thc requirements of tin's
proposition'/ I think it docs, lt is not
protended that liiere is no room fur ro
treiicluncnt and reform. With some
special opportunities of observation it
has seemed to mo that improvement may
besought in the direction of a moro
simple and aclu aper comity administra
tionj of confining tho disbursements of
tho charitable institution, of tho Shi to,
which exclusive of tho interest oil tho
publie debt consume one third of tho
State levy, more rigidly to thosi v. hoare
proper recipients of charity, and in mak
ing tlie labor of convicts a source of in
come, to tho relief of tho taxpayer. The
inequality obtaining in the assessment
for taxation and tlie failure of tho for
feited land laws to enforce tlie collection
of tuxes operate injustice and demand
redr' u'. All of these may be looked to.
Whoa Iii position to do so, I have myself
urged them upon tho attention of oin
law-m&king power; but it has not been
indicated where retrenchment an I reform
t<i an extent appreciable in thi.s connec
tion, can go further ut this tune without
in my judgment impairing the efilciouov
of tim public administration, or curtail
ing expenditures in the best interests of
tho pooplo. He this as it may, however;
take thnigs ns they stand, and let m. con
sider. The Stab' uud ordinary county
taxes, together with the two-mill school
tax, aro, one year with another, about
ton mills, upon a valuation of property
at little over one-half its stiling price;
mid estimating them por capita they are
about ono and two-thirds dollars to the
population, How much can the burden
of snell ft tax affect any healthy industry?
Now subtract from the sum thus taken
from the furnier w hat he must pay for an
cftl?icnt and well ordered government, if
this lie not such, ?nd you have tin meas
ure of practical retrenchment; but in thc
infinitesimal proportions of tho saving
made win n distributed among the indi
vidual farmers have you found adequate
relief fro/u thc widespread depression of
our calling?
Thoro oro other assessments upon the
industry of the funner mid lions Upon
his land which pus? under tho name of
and uro collected ns taxi :. TllCSC being
in np just Sense taxes, bleed confusion
iii tho popular mind ns to the amount of
taxation. I allude to county and town
ship subscriptions to railroads. They
are simply busim.-. Invostmontsraade'bj
the county or township apon bualnosi
considerations; stock in the railroadi ls
always given in reitim bu tim subsor?J
ind?ceme;,'. These in Vi st incuts, liki
others, aro sometimes wisc, and sonic
times not; but it is well to classify them
corroctly. Jf a farmer buys a mule, und
tho purchase money is Collected through
au officer of tho kiw, it is not taxes, bo
causo ?io officer lmpitens also to be the
ta., collector. Tho farmer hun acted U>
his individual capacity upon his own re
sponsibility. Tho profit? of tho trans
action are uot to bo credited to good
government; nor ita losses charged to
Without ignoring, or 1 think undor
rnling, tho effect of financial legislation,
oithor Fetlorol or Stato, noun our ogri
culturo, I am of those who Hud that tho
chief causo of its present depression is
tho faulty system upon which it is di
rected. Of this system it has boen said
thai it looks to sending abroad ovory
thiug thal wo produco, and bringing
back everything thal we consume. That
with it home commorco ?a nothing; ox
pori and imports everything. That
whenever our capital linds investment
outside the tarin, it ia in railroads made
necessary by this system, and whose ob
vious interest, lying in securing the
longest haul of the largest freight, is to
intensify it. And lliudly thal under it
th? producer is given over to tho rulo of
that ches of business people who aro
occupied merely with tho distribution of
thc producta of labor, adding value to
them only by change ?d' place, and that
the merchant and tho t transporter have it
all their own way in apportioning the
avails. This may be too trenchant criti
cism, hui wo aro compelled t > admit that
there.has been much force in il in the
past; that there is too much force ill it
now; and, until it substantially ceases to
apply to our method*, I run see no abid
ing prosperity for us. Wo are too ex
clusively devoted to agriculture, and our
agriculture is confined to too limited a
milgo of production. Tho .standing in
junction of the agricultural journals,
'Keep thi! hoys on the farm," is based
upon fallacy, lt should he, "Send a
lull proportion of them from the farm."
Tul them to developing the resources of
our forests and mines; send them to the
trades and occupations which will supply
at home what wo buy from abroad.
Build up manufactories of any and
everything for which there Is demand.
Invite capital to ombark upon these in
dustries by favoring legislation. Thus
increase the class of profitable consum
ere, and make for the larmer that home
market, which is for him the best of all
markets, and without which he cannot
diversify to its most profitable extent thc
products of his farm. The markets
abroad, tho farmer finds the cuele of
Competition widening as ho goes, and lu
is handicapped with freights to au extent
that confines his shipments to special
and not always his most profitable crops.
Willi us the list for exportation embraces
for thc larger part of the Stab- but a
single item, cotton, itico takes the place
of cotton in a small section, and then is
some talk of introducing tobacco as an
additional so-called molloy crop. Hut
what WO want are the consumers to take,
mid tllO crops to besohl, in the home
market. Fresh meats, the producta of
the dairy, fruits, vegetables, live stock
are transported with a difficulty and at
an expense which limits tho distance to
which they can be sent, yet it is in thc
production Of tho Iiiost perishable of
these that tho fanner linds Ute most re
munerative results of his labor and the
largest increase in the value of his land.
An aero devoted to market gardening,
learn city, will rent annually for wind
will buy the fee simple to live acres de
voted in Ibis State to cotton; and when
live stock IS the object (tho least profita
ble of the products enumerated, because
the h ast perishable and tin; easiest trans
ported to distant markets) a Kentucky
blue-gross flinn will rent or sell for three
times as much per acre as a cotton plan
Without going further into these g
eral considerations it does seem to n
that the progress we havemadosince tin
ih VilStatioil of the late war has been, liol
beean80 of, bul despite the system upot
which wc havo worked; that the doprcn
sion we are laboring under is tho legiti
mate consequence of that system; ?UK
that as long a.v we adhere to it we wil
continue to have our periods of elatioi
and free expenditure when the price o
our single molloy crop, from causei
which wi; do not control, is up; and on
periods of despondency over crnmpci
resources, when it is down. We call liol
it is true, escape Ibo vicissitudes of sea
solis, imr evade the primal curse; but wi
must no longer look so exclus: 'ely h
foreign markets, nor in any any marke
Biispond our fate upon a singly hair. Wi
must, by diversifying the pursuits o
our peoplo, enlarge the homo market
that alone fully repays the farmer'
labor, and in ordering that upon tl.
larui we must recognize the law o
chances, which is as rigid as any othe
imposed upon nature. Like the instil
ance men, wu must spread our venture
over a broad surface, to hope to realize
reasonably certain profit.
.Mimi ei.Ti iiAi. OAl'AMIifTY. or THR STATS
Circumstances sometimes forbid
mixed husbandry and compel odhoronc
to the one crop system, but in noseetio:
of this Stato do Mich limitations exist
lu tim coast region, beside tho valuabl
crops of ric?! and sea island cotton, eas
access to largo centres of populatio
make market gardening more or les
practicable on every farm, and th
natural perennial pasturage of choa|
unimproved highlands and swamp, com
bined with a climate requiring no wiatt
shelter for stock, gives opportunities in
surpassed even on the Western plain
for thc addition of pastoral farming. I
Hit! middle section of tho State, betwee
tide-water mid the falls of the rivers, an
in that part of it which moro especial!
Constitutes tho cotton belt, on alnioi
any ono plantation may ht! grown CAC
Southern staph; thal is planted, and a
of the cereals. Thc soil seems speciall
adapted to root crops; garden VOgCU
hies and fruits do well. The soil,
Huntly loam, is not SO well adapted (
the usually cultivated grasses, but valm
hie natural grasses are found, and tl
Bermuda is nat uralized. For a past m
grass thc latter is unequalled on sue
lands, and Dr. Kavcntd'h oxperimen
have shown ti.nt, highly fertilized,
may also bo cut for hay with cxtnund
nary results. There is no question t
tho success of the Mi ana grass for lui
under similar circumstances. The var
oas soiling crops are, however, grow
with such facility in this region tba
under Hie system of preserving by enc
Iago, the necessity of hay from mOftdot
for bonn! use is done away willi. Ooh
above tho falls of tho rivers, from them
to the mountains, everywhere aro to 1
found plantations with bottom lar
enough f^r hay and com, lovel lai
nough for small grain and cotton, ni
: broken hillsides, once fertile but nc
li remunerativo under tho plongh, y
producing good natural pasturage M
capable of b? M y brought, under tho hoof
of tho sheep, tn thc highest condition of
grass production. Tlio soil and olimute
of this part ol' tin; State aro naturally
adapted lo all thc grasses that are milli
vated. In situations away from water
courses, (and they ure few, ) w here alluvi
al lands sufficient for meadow are not
found, the general character of tin1
country romains the same, and, as in the
middle region, ensilage may supplement
any deficiency in hay product.
Such arc tho varied agricultural capa
bilities of our State, and the exhibit is
under rather tuan overstated. lt is only
because of tin- UXChl8?V0 attention given
to cotton that the impression ever could
have obtained that the cereals and grass
es were not suited to our surroundings.
The crop of cern grown by Mr. Parker,
near Columbia, and thc crop of oats of
Colonel Wylie, a' Lancaster, remain re
spectively the largest on record, tho corn
crop reaching 'JU!) bushels and tin- oats
crop Isl bushels por acre. hr. Ravo
nd's crop of Bermuda hay m ar ( ?hurles
tmi was bn thousand pounds to tho
?u re, exceeding moro than four-fold thc
average crop ot tho I nitcd States. Mr.
Childs, within five miles ol' where we are
sitting, profitably grows and sells with
tho Means grass $10,000 worth of hay
per annum. Colonel Rioil's growth of
lucerne in Fairfield yielded ten cuttings
in the Benson, and by actual measure
ment twenty-live feid ol' growth. 'I'he
Fgyptiun millet, a luxuriant and valua
ble forage plant, is cut from six to seven
times and gives a total grow th of l ight
to ten feet.
The market gardens m ar Charleston
arc unsurpassed anywhere. Within the
last four years tho growth of w atermelons
for markoi has been introduced along
the line of the South Carolina Railroad
in Aiken and Barnwell counties, and tho
profit.- have been such thal this year live
thousand acres arc devoted to the crop.
Bast year one farmer, Mr. Wothcrsbec,
of Barnwell, sold one hundred carloads
for ten thousand dollars, Unding hi?
market in Charleston, New York and
Cincinnati. He informs nie that his m t
return, tho expenses of production being
included with cost of marketing, was
something over 3(1,000, In the saino
section of these counties, on the Ridge
in iCdgollold. and at other points, orch
ards are cultivated for the home and
Northern markets w ith eminent success.
Hi Greenville and in other counties the
culture of the grape upon a large scale is
no longer an experiment. In short,
whenever individual.; or a neighborhood
have broken loose from old-time tradi
tions, the ability to successfully N ary oin
agriculture has neon conclusively shown.
Tho summer meetings of our societies
have largely the character of oxpcriouci
meetings, and it is in this that in Hu
judgment of many lies their chief value.
Having been requested to do so, smut
details in my own experience of con
verting a cotton plantation into a fain
of mixed husbandry, with grass and li vi
stock as the hading features, will lu
submitted. As in all now departures
mistakes were made, difficulties ellCOUII
b red and losses incurred with which i
is unnecessary to trouble you; but b
save some younger brother of tho plough
who is dissatisfied with exclusive COttoi
culture, fnnn traveling tho same path
resulting methods will be lively givi ii.
'I'he experiment was commenced ii
1878, and made in the upper part ol tin
State, on Saluda River, twelve miles h;
.ail from the (own of Newbery. l in
plantation contained mar a Ihousaili
acres, of which about one half wns creel
and river bottom. Of this last about dill
acres had been cleared from llfty to ?
hundred years and clopped ch icily ii
corn, without manure. The high land
were hilly, thoir original growth wen
oak and hickory, and the soil varie?
from a red to a whitish clay, with mon
or less looso surface rock. TIlCSO big]
lauds hud been nearly all cleared, eulti
vated with little attention to preservini
the land, and win n beginning lo tai
turned out to be grown up in pines, h
bc again cut down and cultivated. Thi
process had been repeated at h ast thro
times . .ncc the laud was in origilili
forest. As a slave plantat ii rn, it hm
been proiitablo; after emancipation, un
der an ill devised system of tenantry, i
had beeil unprofitable and the proporl
became much impaired. The building
had became dilapidated, fences allllOf
goii", ditches Ulled, and the arable Inn
cultivated in patches, a vigorous growl
of young pines over most of it. The ci
tablishmcnt of a meadow, tho rostoratiu
of a portion of the arable land to goo
tilth, and the cutting down of pines au
shrubs on thc balance to promote tl
growth of natuml grasses for past liragi
the alteration of old buildings and tl
erection of many new ones, togetlu
with the putting up of first-class lenci
constituted the permanent outlay. Li\
stock, tools and implements had also I
bc purchased.
Tho meadow consists now of sovout;
live acres of fust river bottom, being
pure alluvium. Stumps and sprou
were carefully eradicated, the lan i lin?
cd close and deep with narrow onc-hor
ploughs, Bermuda grass roots sow
broadcast and ploughed in shallow, th?
heavily rolled ti make thc surface i
smooth ns possible. Tho best time fi
this work was found to bo from aft
frost in thc pun ? till hot summ
weather set in. The annual woods th
sprung up with the grass were cut ai
raked by h o rsc-po wer and carbal off tl
Tl.?' meadow is Ordinarily subject
fre?pient w dd ir and occasional Minim
ovorllows. 1 ( ha? roooived no other f?
tilization. except in some small oxpoi
montai plats, nono of w hich have givi
satisfaction. 'I hc Bummor OVOfflow,
coming just b'-fore a harvest, is inju
ons; if before the grass is tall enough
bo mashed down by the sediment il
posited, and time enough for subs??.pu
rains to cleanse thc blades, they arc, li
tho winter freshet*, advantageous. Wh
the whole or any part of a crop is mu
dit d by a fr?'shet lt is licrfcctly ch an
by running it through a machine co
bining a whipper and fan arrangcmei
After tho meadow is fully not, say nfl
the Ki'i-ond year, including tho oceanic
ul ?lainage, from summer overflow, fe
to Uv?: tliousaiiil pounds of iiiereliantal
hay i y bo expected acc?>r?ling to si
sons noni such a meadow. Ampio bu
room is necessary to making good lu
railroad or water facilities for transput
tion tk> market ore oa-cntiid. Hay, bul
in proportion to value, will not b?
transportation for any distance, over a
highway, anti local railroad freights ap
proximate too closely tho cost of con
veyance l>y wagon. Water oarriago is
best and cheapest. When tho location
is not adapted to marketing the hay,
only enough should bo harvested for
whiter ioctl of live stock, and the real
grazed off for summer pasture. Indeed,
thu best husbandmen contend thai if
justice is (leno to tho land UO hay should
over leave thu farm on wldohii is grown,
except ill tito shape of (lesli and bones.
So far, with my meadow in a fow hun
dred feet uf n railroad, and special con
veniences for shipping, tho bulk of the
hay has gaie to inarkel, and it is the
largest ami most remunerative market
crop of thc fn.ttn. i havo aol been able,
however, t<> advantageously send it for
sali; further than lo towns from sixty b>
one hundred miles away. I!> minda,
from its tenne'ty of life and from its well
known chimu .ei ns ?i pesi in hoed crops,
should bo nut for a meadow only win n
it is intended to stay; and here its stay
ing qualities are ?d' immense value in
comparison with grasses that require re
seeding and resetting every few years.
Cultivation, however, is to some extent
necessary, Marrowing benefits il, mid a
thoroughKcarilicatioii every other year
with a sharp cutting instrument that
does not disturb tho smoothness of thc
sod is desirable, dhus far tue river
overflows seem sulHciout to keep tho
meadow productive. The seventh and
eighth Crops have been the largest,
reaching each over 5,200 pounds per
aereof liny, weighed when cured and
billed for market.
Thc second river low grounds on this
place ?ron cold tenacious clay, requiring
thorough drainage, and from long culti
vation deficient in humus. Kuotigh of
this is set apart for corn culture, and tho
reninindorthrown into permanent past ure
Producing without manure from twenty
to thirty bushels to tho acre, fifty acres
annually under tho plough is enough in
the general scheme. This fifty acres
alternates with ns muoh more either in
spring oats or in weed fallow, thus add
ing to instead of decreasing the supply
of humus, Aime than one year in weed
fallow injures the tilth for the next suc
ceeding crop by tho land becoming too
foul. Cum isa poor market crop, trou
blesome ?ind wasteful to handle, und no
moro, therefore, is grown than can bo
profitably fed. Very little of thc blades
is gathered for forage, sometimes none.
lt is loo CXpCnsiVO and is UOI Heeded OX
cept as a change to liardworkcd or sieh
Spring nats ?nv planted in rotation
with cuni mi the BCCOud low grounds:
hill oats un highland in rotation with
cotton, lu the ci.(ton rotation the hind
is s,,wn duwil immediately upon harvest
ing tho oats in peas, f ortilized with oithoi
ash clement or kninit. When the. pea;
are matured, hogs, ?md ne other stock
are pastured, not lou closely, upon them
Thc value of the pens to the hogs is esti
mated at about tho cost of the pea um
ash element crop, leaving its am?lior?t
ing value us clear gain. The cotton rc
ceivos two hundred bushels of compos
in thc diill, which is found to be ai
much as can he advantageously npplici
to tho aero in that way. Tho oaks crop
neither .spring nor fail, receives manure
The crop is threshed as soon tts harvest
ed, both tn secure economy in feeding
ih. grain and by careful housing to SUM
thc st ni w in tho best condition for win
ter forage. Cut when not over ripe am
.tired without or with little rain, it i:
valuable. Suit, in putting it away
makes it more palatable to stock, Tin
richi of oids has varied with nason
from twcnly-livu to forty-seven bushel
lier acre.
The United States department ofagri
uilturo ia 1870 estimated Ihc nvorag
kield ol* COttOll Ul the South ;.t Hil
pounds of Uni per acre, and thc cost o
production at Dj cent' per pound. Mi
licndcrsoii, the commissioner of n gr icu I
ure in (leorgia, is quoted us placing th
.lop of Inst year ( 1885) in that State a
150 pounds of lint, and the ced pi
lound at il cents. 'the average yield i
South Carolina varies little from that il
.borgia, ?uni there is with nu- no dolli
>f tho near approach to accuracy of th
intimates of cost made on the basis <
hat rate of production. "Many of th
h ms of expense, however, ?ire fixed, an
(rilli a larger yield thu cost per p.mn
lecrcases. In Hammond's Hand Koo
>f South Carolina arc given in detail th
expenses of two crops grown in insu
me in Newberry of 400 pounds of lir
md one in Fairfield of 300 pounds to tl
icro; the li rut cost 0 \ cents and thc la
i 0-10 cents per pound. In thc san
sear I kept for my own satisfaction
.art ful account with tint cotton crop 0
this farm; tho yield, better than usun
ivas 410 pounds of lint to tho acre ?ni
ihc cost 04-10 cents por pound. The:
ligures show that, with middlings rulin
it from '.I to lt) cents ut thc seaport
'ottoii hy itself can be no pronto!)
?rop. Analyzing tho items of oxponi
n my accounts I lind that :t fi-10 cent
>r something over half, was in inanur
neat ami bread for tho laborers, ai
food for plough animals, '''hese und
he system of mixed husbandry are nun
in the farm und sold at full price to tl
.ottoii crop, lt is inst herc that in ai
mell syst?tn nt the South, cotton com
n, and planted only to a proper oxtoi
s valuable If ??d?* only at tho cost
irodnotion. it has purchased thc manar
'rom the liva stock, and turned in
nonoy tho provision crops or tho mo
tito which they have been previous
ion verted. These aro some unsaloabl
md others marketed with diftloul!
vhilc in Unit respect cotton is u
.quailed, lt is transported with mo
acility ami less waste than almost to
?Hier farm product, and is aa readily e
;11 an ^ed fur enid ns the not?- of a solve
.auk. The limit of the cotton crop
he extent to which tim compost ma
>n the pince, will go, some thirty to fi
y 00r0S? and tho seed is all fed t., "he
?r working oxen; nono of dis used <
.colly as a fertilizer.
TntNii'H, un:, BABXitf ANO eiiOvan,
About ?ix acres of nita baga tumi
ire SOWn ftiuiually on land upon whi
i tock have been recently hurdled. Tl
s snffloicnt for tho flock of sheep
vliich it is fe<l. Larger crops, with
dew lo fulling also to cattle and hoj
lave been tried and abandoned. '1
uta boga remains sound in the field
viator and ia dug as fed. Barloy I
?ini'iB'iui 111 H m II ii>TiWiiaiii-I ii* ?i'i II " 'tr i i rniTin
soiling, sun! rye ?tn?! re?! clove r for graz
ing, ni'O tsown. Though good for this
purpose, ryo docs not do UM WCU UH <>I>
tho BftlKly loams of tho lower country.
Barley ts highly rcmunomtivo for carly
spring soiling, ami roil cloves' sow:1 UH :i
si 'pa rsi t e crop on hurdled Isms! has never
failed to catch, stud do? s sis well as I
have, ever BCOII it in Virginia Ol' Ken
tucky. From forty to fifty uorcs are
now set aside for Hu SO crops.
There aro, ns st?it< il, seventy -llvo ocr? H
in meadow, ouo hundred acres in corn
culture, llfty heilig plantel alternate
years, eighty acres in Ino cotton and ont
rotation, und say tiny acres in small
crops. The remainder is p< i mam ml
pasturo or forest. Of this nour 100acres
is recently cultivated laud, thoth bot
toms nial highluiiil, ) ol highland known
willi usas "oldfield," upon which ail
the ihort-lcnved pine has heen cul down
and tho young deciduous trees let! ror
simile. This cons!itute.s the summer
pastures. Hs cultivation consists in
keeping down shrill) growth and an an
imal spring scorching off ol dead gra s.
I nder this treatment thc Soil ot naturi!
grasses ha - steadily improved, lt car
ries, including cattle, sheep, hogs and
colts, some live hundred head of stock.
A separately fenced pasture is m cossurj
for the hogs during the lambing s< asou.
In (ne winter the gleanings of tin corn
Holds, tho aftermath of tho meadow ami
the canebrakes ol' tho swain]) fun --t.
(which are not grazed in summer,) are a
valuable resource.
Commencing with llfty nativo ami
llfty Southdown owes, broad-tail td hucks
were bred to them and their female
progeny for four year-. Tin ti a pure
?ired Southdown buck was pul with the
Hook and recently a Shropshire has li,, n
added, the broad tailed being withdrawn
t" the sallie extent. 'lile muilhor of
bleeding ewes was increased m neal'
three hundred. These were found to be
loo mnuy, mid two build red adopted as
tho right number without further pro
vision of special pasturage. I'he llock
has boon kopt principally for tho lamil
market and the product of wmd i.. ,? ec
ondary object. Barron ewes are culled
for sal?-; breeding ewes lune boon gi ncr
ally kept os long as they wer- f. rlilo. In
nine yesos three shel p hilve been los! by
dogs, none by theft, 'l in re ha been ?1
little scab and otherdisi ase of a purndu
character. No 1 pid< mic of any Lind
some deaths from accident, sonic from
old ago, and n few from unknown cai
The loss of grow 11 sheep from all th. M
causes lue. varied ?ion ". tu io por cent.,
with sm average of less than p. r cent
Tin- number of lambs roared in propor
lion to owes lias nvorug?'d SI per coat,
Fnun Christina : till mi Idle of April tin
llock receives as much hay us il w ill cat
Clctlll ?lt night, with, JU T head, a pint e
cotton seed ono night and otu- large tur
nip sliced up tho next, Al other tina
it subsist upon the pasturage lu retofon
indicated. From early spring indi
Christmas the sh tcp arc hurdled in opel
movable pi ns; in \.?ti!- r th y ai ; ard. .
al night upon litter with sheds provide?
that they can us,- a! pl' asure.
?A ITI.f.
Cattle have b ? it br< d chiefly for lu 1
und work animais, tho calves gottillf
nearly ?ill tin- milk from then dams
Recently a dairy for tho salo <>i bullo
lias boen undertaken with success thu
far. Selected nativo cows were bred (.
i I levon bull w ith il Brahmin cross. Th?
udf-brcd heifers wore bred to a alu.it
liorn bull willi a like Boil nu in cross, 11 .
now a pure-bred Dovoii i> being u ed
I'he result has been rapid itilprovcmi a
md a handsome herd of general purposi
.attie. No further crossbreciling h e. .
emplatcd. Devon bulls will lu- n ed n
futuro. About llfty lu sui of i .sf. ' ;.:
kept. The straw crop and onie second
Li lass hay is rcservwl for thoir usc in bin
iventher in winter, and when high walo
coops thom from tin- canebrakes. Tho,
dso in winter ?ne yarded ?il nigh! u
il ter with adjacent shel tel", mid ar
111 rd led in summer alongside ol bul 11?
ivith the sheep. In hurdling, the lan
s ploughed before and after tho stn lt i
lilt upon it. The size ol' the pens is ie
ermined bj tho number of stock, upo
i calculation thal ono cow is cipuil t
bree sheep and that live hundred sin e
viii in seven ?lays manure nu acre. Th
s moro than profit, and other writci
?onsidor a fair dressing, lt is believe
o bo tho equivalent of ni leas! seven <
light hundred pound of first-class fe
ilizcr, and the permanency of -i - cfleo
ivith fair after treatment, is such thai
s thought to add len dollars per acre I
,1)0 value of the land. Tin manure '
mimais is applied bj hurdling at om
:lnr?l of the expense of compost.
Colts l?ivc been the hast p roll tab
.tock handled. Both mules and hors?
lave cost nearly their tull value to roi
hem. Some are still I red both for tl
iloasnro in dealing; with them, ami I)
.anse thoy too purchase the grui:; ai
'omg" crops at full value Mille col
>ay hotter than horse colts ol tho con
non breed.
Hogs have given satisfaction on tv
lifforont plans. First; Keoping on
-nougli to be reared 011 natural pastil
ig?- ami tho waste of tho place, roooh il
nain only when put up to fallen f
Daughter; and second, (which is nc
. referred, ) keeping enough to mal
hem tho chief pliroltOSOrS of the COI
now 11 and tho clover and poa 0t0\
This ls the only stock not careful
rarded every night during tho year, ai
herc luis boon little if any loss by tin
Jo far, thoro has bu n immunity fro
pideiiiic diseases. Ks.se x and Borltijhi
(rados aro used, and s d , on foot,
..om eight to txyeiyo months bid, ha
icen f/.i.u.a mo-it profitable.
Six largo and active mules ?.".> need,
,nd flvo yoke of ove, ..,e kent prinoip
y for team i y^,. 1*11080 Inst aroOCOasfi
ily ploughed, hut are utterly unlit 1
michinos. Tho hay harvesting E&achil
ised aro: 8 mowers, 2 Bulky lukes,
eddor, '2 hay OfyfttorS, 1 hay duster a
Dedo';'.;"!? press. A self-binding rcapi
, Chicago screw pulverizer, and ?;. No
orn-mul of tho American (Iriudi
!oinpany liavo given satifaction. T
nan ager must bo moro or h's? of u n
hame, ami a shop well equipped f>" 1
mira bo kept 011 tho pince. The w<
nd tear of machinery and (mplomon
Deluding blacksmith and v hoolwrh
rork and motcrial use?l in pair, 1
?eon 15 per cent, on iirst cos. li t
work bc dono promptly aud OH thorough
ly UH possible, it will, including matcr'nl,
ho lihou! <s poi* Cont., and tho remaining
7 poi' ?? ut. will express tho insidious
cll'cct of ago which repairs .short of re
construction cannot nach. Theso calcu
lations lin based upon careful and judi?
eious n i-, ?md shelter al all times when
not in tin- H?hl.
I. VllOltKltS.
Ono aotivo and reliable negro hus
charge of all UK- live stock, including
work animals when at pasture. Ile basa
collie to assisi him. Other lahorers are
aol ullowod lo koop dogs. About three?
fourths of this man's timo is thus occu
l>ii i. Hcsido thc manager, ono whito
man is foreman and assistant; six negro
laborers, including stockman, are ein
; li ycd by tho year, ?lol? labor oquivn
leni to Hie work ol' four laborers for tho
yt ar is hired at ditVcreiit seasems, as
m oded.
Under this system separate Recounts
villi each crop show that, per acre cull i -
vated, hay i- tin most proiltublo; oats
next, cotton next, anti then corn. Of
(ho live stock, in proportion to capital
invested :n each, hogs, sheep, cattle,
colts, have provon remunerative in tho
. nier mimed, linell product of thu tarni,
!i iwever, supplements tho other, and 1
am by n>> means sure that a huger (lovel
i melli ol ?my ?nie would not, under
present conditions, injuriously ailed its
shuni i ti . us given. What luis hoon writ
ten of this experiment is bused upon tlio
data of the previous eight years. Tho
unprecedented rains ami freshets of the
last two months of this year have been
damagingly fell there as elsewhere in
thi.. ami adjacent States. It is too curly
to Speak positively, hut 1 have reasunto
think that in tile face td a common
cai.unity tin- result will COU ll rm tho
adage that ' lt is host not to carry all of
our eggs in tin- sanie basket."
t o\<?ui->H>!K\ tum noVT ow .
Mit i linill , ul lilt' 4 'n |>l t ll 1 Hove Plltlllll 'I Item
Oui nuil un-1 '(ireful.
i W iel I Huton Notes ia l'Utnluirg Dlnpntcb.)
Koine i [ticer things can bc seen about
tho Capital during tho last days of thc
ion, Ono of the queerest is the
crowd ol' collectors. Coining to Con
gr? . my he an honor, hut it cannot he
sail1, tn make nu n honorable. The uver
uge of dead heats in Congress is quite as
gr< a' ic < nitsido. i )n the last days of thc
iou v u will liinl a swarm ol florists,
livery stable men, hotel and hoarding
honsi keepers, constables ami proies
si mul collectors, swarming thefeorridors,
looking atlee delintpionl mombcrs ami
Iryillg to catch them in the halls. There
uro members who systematically rob
le h-ls mill haberdashers and al) sorts ol
Iradi smell ighl and left. Nothing eau
he I idly done with a member of Con
fur obtaining monoy under false
pretenses, though it is a juilahle oll'cnsi
when committed hy common peoplo,
The only remedy is to make the transite ?
tina known. If tho records of tho Con
: ii ssi< mil dead heats could hu printed ?
Doti many people would lu- astonished
! !.. i os! reckless prodigality in luxu
rio . -iich as carriages, dowers, wines,
ei rs, i te., is tin- usual life til' tho Con.
ii sioiial heat. There are poor mer
and '.Voliten hero who have catered tt
tin i members with tin; ?dca that mci
holding such honorable positions must
l necessity 1><- honest, who have tried ir
Vain lo collect what is tlllO thom, Thcsi
tupi t act nally sillier for the uccossarioi
if lifo, while thc Congressional dobton
ire aping; men of v.t ulth in high living
. ant-at-arins' olltco coull loll i
lisgi ie. ml stoi'v of bogus checks, dupli
?ated drafts aitu violated obligations-t
h : . h i unplcasanl to print. Tia
nut I ? oil restaurants, and even tin
I inri tor shops, would simply repeat tin
dory. I was standing in tlio livery ollie?
it A illard's the other d?iy, about to eal
ior a coupe, when a Northern Congress
tuan hurried up ami asked very per
implorily lor a carriage
'.Haven't got ono, ?onoml," said th'
igont, blandly. ".Surry, hut ovorythinj
is oui."
As soon as the member weill away th
i ? . m inquired if I would have tho count
"That's all right," he remarked; "?cv
{ot picul** of carriages, hut he's a dont
at, Novel pays for anything. Why
i've gill a hill against him in here tw
veals i.l.i. The gall of the man!"
"Are tocrc many such men in Cou
"Yes, quito a number; vo'vo bee
duck oft on henton out of hundreds c
h '!..i.. by both Senators ami momlxin
l'Ile*, are the worst customers in tin
?iy, because you can't force, collection!
I'liev hardly ever have anything nan
han their doilies; you can't arrest an
Ul nish diem; you can't garnishee the
lalanes. Ami tho airs they give then
?elves! We are very careful about tins
ng Congressmen, rtoll you!"
.ttiiie Our MIKIII Write M Hhorl .\ovol froniThl
1 hoard to-dnv tin? story of n Tn
'hilt factory girl which hus elements <
he wonderful in it. A new hotel, toi
'ulled tho I lui'wick House, is hiing hui
it llutlaiul, Vt., at a cos! (d' $25,000 I
.. 1,000, A tonner Troy laundry girl
he capitalist in this venture, ulthour
In house is named after her hrothc
vho is tho ostonsiblo proprietor. II
niiin is Mrs. Phoebe Churohill, WI
narricd an ofllcor of the United Shit
Vavy, who was blown nj) in a prevnatu
explosion ut Hell ( hito at soniv. stage
hut improvement. Two womon cat
tu ward to claim Ut', J. ns husband. ()
VUS from Houib Carolina. Ile was Vi vii
villi I"-. ut Sew York. Tin? other \\
hid Troy girl, ?iud she succeeded in i
uhlishing tho validity oi horolaim a
. curing $2,000 insurance on his lifo.
!Onsidora\\\e sun? of money that v
.ai'-.'.i in New York was divided bet we
in-two women. Mrs\ Churchill hnvi
cnown somothing oi the laundry bu
u ss ut Troy, entered Into nwrtnorsl
vii'n ., gentleman of that city und start
m estai dish nient in Now York ci
l'Ile y now have four Ot live lnuiidr
toro whioh (VTO equal to fl hoiuuir.a, II
t is fi'.... i this SOnrOO that tho money 1
IOM10 for tho construction ol thc Brxrw
louse. Oath in Cincinnati Bnquivei
About 95,000 deaths fri aa typhoid fe
II i ur in ?h?.-, eotuiiiV annually, says
[fedieal /?'i ni?!, und this represents ft
50,000 casca of die Asease, statis
how (h il '.lure la no disease so easily |
enteil ii ; thia, and ll is safe to say that
me half ol (his mortality might he sn
>y glentor. eltmollUOM and moro ntteol
o sewage.
Mount i:nin ? Outbreak.
Thu present outbreak seems to bo on
a stupendous scale, tboUgb as yet it h:ia
done comparatively trilling damage. Wo
bear of a Hood ol' lava, two or throe
milos in breadth, moving downward with
accelerated rapidity as it rolls ovor
steeper gradients. As it comes from tho
crater on the summit it lias hitherto
chiefly overflowed tho desolate wastes of
lava, ashes and scoria! which have been
accumulating from time immemorial ;U3
conflagration followed conflagration,
But with its Rory breath it has been
licking up the gardons and vineyards
that gU'dlo Nicolosi to tho westward, and
tho inhabitants of tho village lmvo been
busy saving their property Uko so many
startled ants, uncertain from ?lay tc; day
as to the reach of the ruin that is over
taking thom. And Nicolosi is but ono
of sonic seventy villages all built ou tho
flanks of the mountain and more or less
in continual peril. It may be asked why
the peoplo, after so many warnings and
calamities, persist in living on the thia
crust flooring tho fields over those HU1>>
terraneous furnaces. The fact is Unit
tho friable soil formed by tho decom
posed lava is of marvelous fertility whom
there aro tho means of irrigation, and it
is very easily wrought-ns in tho for??t
region wo como ap n magnificent groves
of the oak, thc ilex and thc chestnut, the
pine, tho beech and tho lime. So Unit
tho villagers run thc risk of being o-ccn
sionally ruined or swallowed up in con
sideration of tho comfort they enjoy ln>
tween times; and, putting their trust il]
tlie guardianship of tho Virgin and thi
saint?, congratul?t*' themselves on heine*
much better off than their neighbor?.
Yet when you see ^litnn in thc glow of a
Sicilian sunset fancy can scarcely asso
ciate the mountain with menaces of death',
and devastation. Not oven in tho trans
parent air of the Libyan di'.serf, fliokc fr
mg over tho buming sands behind l'an
huge pyramids of Ghizoh, arc t Jig
splendors of th?! dying sunset more, gk iri
ons. Tho hidden furnaces would sc .ern
mysteriously t<> add an intensity of s; em
pathetic reflection to those celestial lires
of orange and crimson, til'l tho llasliiug
lights, fading down into "vivid purples^
make the barren lava beda and the
broken precipices blaze in what may bo
prosaically described as great I ueadtliS
?f purplo pickled cnbliago. No artist
lias ever caught those bints, which aro
limply unscizablo by pen or brush.
Blackwoods Magazine.
lons 0. IIASKKI.L, N. ll. DIAL,
Columbia, S. C. Lauren?, S. U.
1. T. JOHNSON. w. lt. UICUEY,
)h'\ ic i:- Fleming's Corner, Northwest
sido of Public Square.
LAURENS C. ll., S. C.
Olli ce over \V. il. Ci a net t's Store.
V. C. BENET, 1-. e. M'UOWAN*
Abbeville. Laurens.
. W. KEROUSON. UEO. V. roi No.
LAURENS C. H., S. 0.
1?. TODO. \V. ll. MARTIN,
;. J. HOLMES. ll. v. SIMPSON.
AT T O Li N ? Y S A T L A W,
C. II., s. c.
tot*" O?iCO over store of W. L. BOYD.
Dr. W. H. B?LL,
)iTico days-Mondays and Tuesdays.
LAURENS 0. H., S. C.
ly buying your Drugs and Medicines,
due Colognes, Paper and Envelo; as,
doniorandum Books, Lace Powders,
Poolh Powders, Hair Brushes, Sbnv
ng Brashes, Whisk Brushes, Blacking
bushes, Blacking, Toilet and Lunn
Irv Soaps, Tea, Spice, Pepper, GlnfcOr,
.amps and Lanterns, Cigars, Toba-co
.ml Snuff, Diamond Dyes, and oti.er
rticlos too Humorous to mention ut
Also, Pure Wines?nnd Liquors, lor
nodical purposes.
No trouble to sbowjgoods.
Laurens C. IL, S. U?
August 6, 18S5. I ly
- ANO -
201 Vise Street, CINCINNATI, 0<
The type vmd on thia paper WM oatt by th?
beere leunrtrf.

xml | txt