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The Laurens advertiser. (Laurens, S.C.) 1885-1973, July 01, 1908, Image 2

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The Early Tears of
rover eveland
His 'Birth In Caldwetl, N. J., His School Days,
Iiis Inegal Career, His Rise to the Governor
ship of New York and His 'Defeat of James
G. 'Blaine For the Presidency In 1884.
WH K N ( Ii ?
pastor <.r
tlio 1*1*08?
byterinn church In
the iitiii? o.wn of
Caldwell, N. .1., in
is:>7 bestowed up
on on<? of his ha
bloa (ho on mo of
the Itev. Slephen
Clrover, u prodo
ccHsor In I ho Hiuno
pulpit, in- proba
bly entertain od
not (be remotest
dream that the
boy would grow
up to discord Iiis
first name ami heeomo known in world
history as 0rover Cleveland, Iwlco
president <?r tho United KIiiIon nnd for
the remainder ?>r his i;t,? "ihu mos! dis
tinguished prh nie ell l/eii in f ho world."
The Itov. Stephen !?'. Cleveland and
Ji!s wife, who was Ann Nenl, daughter
of a Baltimore merehant, had a Inrgo
family of children. Tlnvo years after
Qrover was born tho family migrated,
as preachers' fa in 11 Ion aro wont to do.
Parson Cleveland became pastor at
PayottOVlllo, N. Y.. and Inter at Clin
ton, \. v Tho father died when
('rover was In Ids sixteenth year. The
family In.me was then and until the
widow Cleveland died in lss'j at Hol
land Patent, v \.
{'rover Cleveland attended academics
at Fayottovlllo and Clinton. lie had
nn early iimhltlon to go through Prince
ton COllCgO. toil lacked III" funds. lie
beenmo clerk and later assistant tench
er In the New York Institution For tho
Blind, New. y*vk city.
Fanny Crosby*, the oololirntod blind
hymn w riter, w as a lonelier in .he same
School. She and (trover Icenine warm
friends. In her rendnls? ences Miss
Crosby writes:
lie Boomed a very nentln but Intensely
nmbltlotifl hoy. AmoitK oilier very plonn
nnt chnrnctciistlca which I noticed in hlin I
Gltovr.lt cm.vli.AND'm IIIKTIiriiAOE, ?AT.U
WBTiti, N. J.
ki aciiki? BY staikway.
wna n disposition t.> help others whonevori
possible Knowlnfl I tin I Ii was a ?;r?-ni
favor to mo to havo my i.ins copied
neatly nntl IcRlbly, in- offered t'> perform
timt service for mo. and I s?vornl times
nvnllcd myself of IiIh nIii.
One day the principal of the school
Upbraided Iho blind woman for using
tho ClCI'k*S ,11 mo in thai way. OrovOl'
told Miss Crosby that slii> hud a perfect
right to employ him In (tinI capacity,
Inasmuch es her poems wore used in
the school ami also helped to make the
Institution bolter known, lie advised
her to give the principal soar.; '?plain
prose" the next Una; he should re
proncll her. WllOll the Official lemon
stratcd a second time, Miss Crosby
stood for hoc lights and won (he battle.
When Cleveland was nhotll eighteen
yenrs Old, he paid a vi-it to an undo
living In Buffalo, The aiiclo In
duced (he boy to remain and help him
In compiling the "Amorlean Herd
Hook." (JrOVOr assisted In several edi
tions of this work. St Hilled law and
was admitted to the hnf at the ago of
twenty-two. His first official position
was that of assistant district attorney,
Which he hold for three years, during
the civil war, Two of Iiis brothers
were In the army, Ol'OVOl' was helping
to support his mother mil sisters. Ill*
salary was small. When he was draft
ed to military service, he hired a rub
stltute And remained at work. Later
ho was a Candidate for the district at
torneyship, but was defeated. Then ho
settled down to law practice. In l^T'i
ho was Induced to run for sheriff and
was elected, serving for three years.
After another Intorvni of private
citizenship, assiduously devoted to
his profession, this bachelor lawyer of
forty-four yours was nominated for
mayor of Buffalo on tin- Democratic
ticket In 1881, 110 bad become known
us n careful, hard
working, but not
brilllallt, lawyer,
lie lind no pyro
technic, ornamen
tal side. I le Kim
ply attended to
business. Though
the Republican
state ticket car
ried Buffalo by
more than 1,000
votes, Cleveland
was elected may- ;
or by a majority 1
of 3,530. Early
In Ids term be be
came known as
"(Im veto mayor." lit* vetoed many
extravagant appropriation wills and
saved Ids oily at leant $1,000,000.
The siato of Now York soon heard
much of tills veto mayor. He had been
In oltlce less than a year when the
DomoerntH nominated him for govern
or New York had not elected a Dem
ocratic governor since heforo (he civil
Will*. The Republicans nominated
('hnrlos J. Fulger, secretary of tho I
treasury In President Arthur's cabinet.
Mr. Folget' was regarded as a partic
ularly strong candidate, yet Cleveland ,
was elected governor by a plurality of
102,85-1 over Folger and by a clear ma
jority of 151,742 over all the candi
dates, .lust after ho voted on election :
day he wrote to his brother, the Rev.
William Cleveland:
if mother woro alive, I should he wrlt
Ing in her, an?! I fool ns If It woro u time
for mo to write to some one who will l>?- :
llevo what l write. ? ? ? I will t.-il you
inst of till others tho policy I Intend to
ndopt, and that Is to make tho limttor ft
business engagement botwoon the peopio
and myself, in widen tho obligation on my
sldo Is i" perform tho duties nssiKnod mo
with nn eye single to tho Interest*! of my
employers. I snail hnvo no Idea <>f re
election or of nny i.n:!. political prefer
ment In my bond, but ho very thankful
and happy If I serve unu term ns the poo. i
plo'n Rovcrnor. Do you know that if ]
mother wer? alive I should feel so much
s:if. r. I have always thought Hint h?-r
pi ij * ps had much to do with my sue
r< ms :i 1 shall export yon to help me In
Unit way.
Governor Cleveland was precisely
like Mayor Cleveland. lie was a busl
ness governor. It was said Of htm that
la- ran the stale as he would have run
a railroad, mastering the details of the
business so that he could run It well.
The same writer declares that "he not
only preached .nioiny, hut he made
the state olllclals practice It. Ho vo
lood hills until the legislators were
wild with rage, and ho forced through
civil service reform."
tinner Cleveland was cordlnlly
disliked by the politicians' In his par
ly. Hut his reputation among the poo
pie as a plain, prnctlcnblo, businesslike
executive had grown so wide that In
the summer of 1881, before the expira
tion of his gubernatorial term, there
was an Insistent cull for him to ac
cept that "high political preferment"
which In the letter to his brother he
had declared was not In his head.
The great mass rtf the nomocracy
throughout the country believed that
Cleveland was honest and that noth
ing COtlld tu i him aside from a course
which he beueved to be right. lie was
nominated for president at the Chica
go convention of invs-i, ids Republican
opponent being James (}. Hlnlnc. Mr.
Cleveland received a small plurality of
(he popular voto and an electoral ma
jority of thirty-seven. For the first time
Since I860 the Democratic party had
? allied the presidential election. A
man who two years before was 1111
known beyond his own city and conn
ty, a painstaking, laborious lawyer, a
ponderous, heavy set "old bachelor,'
had entered the lists and swept to de
feat "the plumed knight" of twent>
years' national ronowu.
The First Presidency of
rover Cleveland
His Inauguration In March, 1885, His Marriage
to Aliss Frances Folsom] His Removals For "Of
fensive Partisanship," His "Tariff For Revenue
Only" Plan and Tito Presidential Campaigns.
Ac o o M V a
Nl Kl > hy Iiis
brother nml
sister, (; rii v o r
Cleveland (dipped
quietly Into Wash
ington March -'.
: 1885, unit on HlO
?till was Inaugu
! rated ?s president
of ilw l'nlted
Blutes, succeeding
Chester Ahm Ar
thin*. T w e n t y
elght years bad
passed since a
l lemocrnt had tak
en die oath of of
lice as president.
Miss Kose Eilsen
b p i !i Cleveland,
t li 0 president's
younger s i s t e r,
was mistress of
the White House
mid therefore "first
lady of (he land"
dining (be first
llftcen mouths of
i Ii e administra
tion. During this
period rumors as
(o a Wh I to IIouso brkle flow fust and
thick, tin* president having sent elab
orate bouquets to Miss "Frauklo" Fol
som mi the occasion <>t' the young wo
man's graduation from Wells college.
Frances Polsum was the daughter of a
former low partner of Mr. Cleveland
in Puffalo. After her graduation she
traveled In Europe. On June 2, 188G\
shortly aller her return to America,
she w as married to tho president in the
White House.
Unusual obstacles beset the presiden
tial pathway <>f Cleveland from the
moment o( his Inauguration. Shut out
from executive favor ior practically a
generation, the Democratic politicians
were avid for OfllCC. The president
sought to adhere to a policy opposed to
removal from olllco of competent otii
clals except as to heads of divisions
mid other Important otllccholdcrs, but
the Jacksonlan cry "To the victors be
long the spoils!" became so Insistent
that the president was Induced to mod
ify his policy to tho extent of remov
als for "offensive partisanship," a
phrase coined by him which speedily
be< aine famous. In the light of his
tory It must be admitted that "offen
sive partisans" in federal OfliCCS were
exceedingly numerous in those days.
Republican postmasters were slnugh
tei od by wholesale,
in a storehouse connected with the
wnr department were many crates of
bntlleflngs captured from southern
armies. At tbo suggestion of tho ml
jutnnt gonernl Mr. Cleveland ordered
I that tho flags ho returned to tho states
! from whose regiments they had been
1 captured. Certain Grand Army posts
i beciiniO so Indignant that they pQSSOd
I resolutions strongly censuring tbo pros
; Ident, with Insinuations Dgfllnsl him
I because be had employed a substitute
i Instead of going Into Iho army during
the war. This Ineldent, wldch took
plaeo In 1MK7, was Intensllled In Its ncrl
lUOIiy from the <). A. It. side, because
the president had vetoed civil war pen
sion bills In hundreds of Individual
eases wherein he believed the Applicant
was not entitled to a pension. He hud
become known as "the veto president,"
as he had been the veto mayor and the
veto governor. So harsh was tho clam
or evoked by the battlotlag order that
the president Issued a frank statement
rescinding It. explaining that he had
noted without looking up the legal as
pect of the case and that In his opinion
any direction as to the llnal disposition
of the cnpturcil
Hags should orig
inale; wlfli eon
gross. Since IhOH
many Hags have
been returned.
President Cleve
land In his mes
sage io congress
in December, ixst,
enunciated bis cel
ebrated proposi
tion of "tariff for
revenue on I,v."
This was (be most
notable incident of
Ids lirst term in
Oftlco. The mes
sage, submitted on
I be eve of the
presidential nom
inations of t^ss,
ama/.ed the nation
by its bold stand
against t lie so call
ed protective tar
iff. Mr. Cleveland
was known to be
In a willing mood
for reuomlnntlon.
His fearlessness
In thus dnrluc to
alienate tlmt largo wing of tbo De
mocracy which bollovod In n high
tariff for the support of Americau
Industrios was greeted by tho Brit
ish press wttli profound admiration.
Eminent political economists in the
I'nlted States declared this message to
lie OU0 of the ablest of presidential pa
pers. Tho president's stand for reduc
tions in the' tariff on a "revenue only"
basis was the subject of much discus
sion pro and con for many years fol
Mr. Cleveland received the Demo
crutlo nomination for president In ISSS,
but was defeated in tbo election by
Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Many
Democrats attributed his defeat to his
tariff message of 1887. After Mr.
Harrison's election and the consequent
tirade of criticism from members of
I the president's own party Mr. Clev e
land sent for the speaker of the bouse
of representatives, .lohn Q. Carlisle, a
Democrat, and said to him, "If every
other man In tint country abandons
this Issue, I shall stick to it."
Accordingly In the last message of
his term he "stuck to" his stand on
lite tariff problem, urging congress In
lssx-D to enact laws In Hue with his
suggestions of the winter before.
Cleveland retired to private life
March ??, 1880, and settled In New
York city for tho practice of tho law.
Ho whs not particularly nctlvo lu poll
tics after his retirement.
In the meantime history was making.
Harrison nuu high tariff were In the
Huddle. The McKinley act of 1800, In
creasing the tariff on wool, tin plate
and other products, was followed by
high prices for the poor man's noCOSSA
lies) of life. Events rapidly were shap
lllg themselves toward a vindication of
Clrovor Cleveland. The ex president at
tended to his law work, and tin*
people did the rest. With (ho politi
cians, as of old, mostly in opposi
tion, the lndcpcnd-Mit Democratic vot
ers forced the selection of Clove
bind delegates to the national Demo
ocrntlc convention of 1802, held In
June. "Four more years of Orovor"
was the campaign cry. Though the
New York delegation opposed him, Mr.
Cleveland wmh nominated for tin- presl
doncy the third time In succession on
the first ballot. President Harrison
again was his Republican opponent,
Cleveland was elected, receiving 'JT7
electoral votes against 140 for Harrison
ami 33 for General Weaver, Populist.
The Second Presidency of i ,.- ,??
rover eveland
His Fight For the Gold Standard, His *Bond
Issues, His Defiance of Great Britain Over the
Venezuela 'Boundary, His Support of Palmer and
Bttckner and His Home Life In Princeton. -.*
AVTKIX an in
(crhn of four
years In pri
vate lifo C!rover
Cleveland return
ed f> Washington
and was Inaugu
rated president or
the United States
on March i. I8IW,
for i li o second
time. The Cleve
land of l-HOtt was
\ erydliTerenl from
tin- Cleveland of
1885. When lu> Ijo
gan Iiis llrsl term
he was altogether
now to Washing
ton and io nation
al politics, l lo was
practically an un
tried man in the
wider l ie id ol*
statesmanship and
was luil jtinl com
pleting his forty
eighth year, in
1893, at (he very
mature ngo of fif
ty-six, Mr. ClOVO
laud had enjoyed a
distinction unlquo
in American his
lory (lull of being elected president,
rcnomlnntcd nnd dofonted nnd again
renomlnnted nnd elected. Ho bad
Bcrvcd ? no full term, with all (be ex
perience in national and International
politics which that service entailed.
in another and more popularly Inter
esting rom-'o the second advent of
Cleveland \ras dlfferont. He was now
a- thor i: ;!i family man. Tho Cleve
land: had a baby, little Ituth, born In
Now York Oct. :;. 1801. Her death a
few years after |ier parents' retire
ment to Princeton, N. .1., was a mat
ter <>f ? eneral regret. Mrs. Cleveland
during i ho second term furl her endear
ed li 'If to the American people.
Though Mr. Cleveland novor possess
' cd In a very appreciable1 degree that
quality Wlllcll WO call personal mag
netism, he was undoubtedly tbo most
popular American of bio time when he
began his second term as president.
When be closed that term and retired
permanently to private life ho was one
of the most unpopular Americans for
the time being, lie had cut loose from
his parly and bOCOtno that amazingly
unusual thing an executive Independ
ent of the powers which made htm.
'fhe great struggle for the maintenance
of the gold standard against bimetal
lism which Signalised the campaign of
180(1 was taking doflnltO shape. The
president SOt himself obstinately to
ward maintaining the gold standard.
In the summer of 1803 ho called an
extra BOfi-ion of congress and pushed
through the repeal of the Sherinail act
of 1800, under which the government
was required to purchase largo quanti
ties of silver bullion. The Democracy
at large W0S amazed and enraged at
this act ion. though a very considerable
portion of if Mood with the president
on (ho Issue.
To maintain (he gold reserve Presi
dent Cleveland from lime to time made
large Issues of government bonds. Tho
placing of BOIUQ of these bonds with
New York bankers aroused a cyclone
of adverse criticism, Mr. ClOVOlnnd,
of course, was In the exact storm cen
ter. Several years after his retire
ment Mr. Cleveland wrote a Statement
explaining the bond 'ales, defending
his own course and declaring that he
recalled th. OXCCUtlvC (lOtS with (he
greatest satl ifAOtlO)),
President Cleve
land In 1S94 en
hanced his Imme
diate unpopularity
by sending gov
ernment troops to
Chicago "to pre
vent the obstruc
tion oT the malls"
dining the great
rail way strike,
.against the pro
test of Governor
Altgcld of Illinois,
who declared that
he was able to
cope with the sit
uation without aid
from the federal
government. This
wan one of the
most sensational
acts of Cleve
land's career. In
1803 ho sent to
the senate a mes
sage relating to
British claims In
Venezuela which
bristled with bull
dog determination
to insist upon tho
upholding of tho
Monroe doctrine
even nt the cost of war between
the rutted States and England. Ol'ont
Britain had refused to submit to 'ar
bitration a certain boundary dispute
with Venezuela, President Cleveland
advised the appointment of a com
mission to determine for Itself tho
boundary line between tho two coun
tries with a view to enforce an ac
ceptance of this lino by Great Brit
ain. The Monroe doctrine having been
accepted from the moment of its pro
mulgation by Secretary of Slate John
Qulnc.V Adams as a part and parcel of
sacred American polity, the entire na
tion stood by the president in his
plucky stand. Congress also stood by
him. England drew lu uor horns and
accepted tho situation gracefully. ?
(J rover Clovoland for the (lino was ai
great popular horo. Ilowovor, ids do-1
font for ronomlnntlon In 1800, had ho a
desired the honor, was a foregone con-^
ClUSlOll. Tariff as an issue was tum-,
hied into that condition which years
bofore Mr. Clovoland had described as
"innocuous desuetude." Tho freo coin
age of sliver was demanded by tho |
Democratic majority. Mr. Cleveland
Supported the Palmer and Puckner j
"gold Democratic'' ticket. When ha
banded over the governmental reins to
President William McKinley, March 4,
1807, he stopped out of olllco forever.
Mr. Cleveland settled for himself tho
problem as to what, to do with an cx
presldent by retiring gracefully to
Princeton, N. J., In tho shadow of tho
great university Which he as a poor
boy vainly had hoped to enter. Here
ln> built a home nnd grow old with his
family of bright young children grow
ing up about him. Two mote girls
nnd two boyn were born.
During and after his presidential
terms the Cleveland fishing and duck
hunting expeditions supplied much ma
terial to the press.
In 1003 Mr. Cleveland was hi'roduo
ed In Ht. Louts as "the most distin
guished private Citizen In tho world."
My that tlmo bin political opponents In
both of the great parties, generally
speaking, had come to look upon him
ns a historical figure, and by tho vast
majority of Americans I he veuernblo
ex -president was rognrded a? a truo
patriot, nn honest public servant nnd
an able chief executive. ,

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