FORAGE PUNTS ANO BRASSES.
Lecture by Prof. Hitchcock of the
U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Fully two hundred or more farmers
assembled in the Court House Thurs?
day to meet Prof. W. J. Spiliman, the
Agrostoiogisfc of the U. S. Department
of Agriculture, and hear him lecture
on the subject of grasses and forage
Prof. Spillman was unavoidably
absent having been recalled to Wash?
ington from Orangeburg Wednesday, but
Prof. Hitchcock, one of his associates
was present in his stead and discussed
the subject iii a most interesting and
instructi ve manner.
The meeting was called to order by
Senator R. Manning,' who express?
ed his gratification at. .the large and
representative gathering of farmers,
evidencing an interest in the efforts of
the Agricultural Department.
During t?^e coarse of .Prof. Hitch?
cock's i?lk a number of questions were
asked, all of which he answered, and
there was a general exchange of ex?
periences bj those who . had. made ex?
periments with some of the. plants or !
At the conclusion of.ihe" lecture Prof. j
Hitchcock destri buted a , number of j
packages of seed of the various grasses
.and plants, those receiving them
promising to report th? results of their
On motion cf Mr., W. G. Wells, a
resolution was adopted thanking Con?
gressman Lever for arranging for the
meeting and Prof. .Hitchcock for his
interesting and instructive address.
Synopsis of Prof. Hitchcock's Lecture
Delivered in the Court House Thursday.
Iii his lecture on grasses and forage
plants, delivered in the in the Court
House to a mass meeting of farmers
on Thursday, Prof. Hitchcock, of the
United States Department of Agricul?
ture introduced his remarks by stat?
ing that he would divide the subject
under three general heads- (1) Plants
that furnish winter pasture; (2) i
Plants for summer pasture ; (3) Plants |
for storing in silos, This latter class
of forage is valuable only in a section
largely devoted to darring and as he
was informed that this industry had
not been developed in this county he
would pass over this division and de?
vote his time, to the discussion of the
winter and summer pasture and for?
age plants and grasses and incidental?
ly discuss their value as fertilizing
agen? for improving the soil.
Forage plants belong to two classes :
il) the true- grasses- -and - (2) legumes.
The legumes, to which belong the
many varieties of peas, beans, clovers,
alfalfas, eta, .was first takenup. All
oj tae legumes have a high feeding
value being rich in protein and other
elements requi red by stock, and are
better ton for ton than anv of the true
grasses. They bave also a high value
as fertilizing agents, being rich in
nitrogen or'ammonia, which is another
form of nitrogen, and enrich the soil
upon which they are grown.
The best results are obtained from
legumes by rotating with other crops,
for af ter ? time land, no matter how
liberally it is treated with commercial
fertilizer, fails to respond, and it
becomes necessary to restore the ex?
hausted humus by planting the land
in legumes, which, when ; plowed un?
der supplies the needed humus. A
scheme of rotation was suggested as
follows, (1) cotton, (2) peas, (3) oats
followed by peas, (4) corn or cotton
(5) cotton. This scheme could be
varied as would best suit the needs of
THE COW PEA.
Poceedmg to the particular plants
under the genera?, class of legumes,
he took up first the cow pea, of which
there are many varieties. It is com?
mon throughout the South and is well
known to ali ?armers. For many pur?
poses there is nothing better, but as it
is an annual must be sown every year
-and is a summer plant. It furnish?
es a valuable forage and is of consider?
able value for fall pasture. It is, how?
ever, of most value when cured. He
then went into a discussion of the most
satisfactory methods of curing, em?
phasizing the importance of curing
and handling so as to prevent the shed?
ding of leaves in the process, the
leaves having a much greater value
than the stems.
Plowing under legumes adds to the
fertility of the soil, but in the case of
the cow pea, as good results are ob?
tained by plowing under the stubble
as by plowing under the entire crop.
In fact, some lands are injured by
plowing under a heavy crop of peas or
beans, if the whole crop is to be plowed
under, a two horse turn plow should
be used, a one horse plow not doing
good work or giving good results.
The velvet bean is a valuable plant
in some regions, especially farther
south, but in this section it is extreme?
ly doubtful' if it has any advantage
over the cow pea. Besides it does not
usually mature seed in this latitude.
In cultivation and treatment and uses
both as forage crop, as fall pasture
and for improving the soil tho same
methods apply as to the cow pea.
SOY OR SOJA BEAN.
The soy or soja bean, unlike the
i velvet bean, does not climb a tra
j ?3 of a bunchy, spreading growtl
? beans grow low on the stalk. Ii
section its chief value and use
forage ; in the west it is grown
cipally for the seed, which are g
and fed, mised with corn me
j stock. The bean meal is too ri
j be feed alone. This plant has
advantiges ever cow peas, its
value being for hay and forag
is cured about as cow peas. It
be sown broadcast or in drills,
does better in drills, so that i
be cultivated. Should be pl
early in season, but may be ;
ed any time after the soil bei
warm; can be planted after oats
matures in sixty days from pla??
The h&irv vetch is useful for w
growth and may be cut and cure
forage in the spring-it matures ?
May-or may be used for winter
; ture. It grows up like the garder
which it resembles in many resi
having little tendrils at the enc
leaves. It should be sown with i
to hold it up from the ground, o
wise it forms a matted mass over
ground. It does best when sow
the early fall-September or Octol
and will not do well if sown
than October. From one to one
one half bushels of seed are requir
the acre. It thrives best on sandy,
drained land. Stiff, wet land is
suited to its growth.
Alfalfa is the chief forage plan
the irrigated sections of the g
west, and is extensively gown throi
out the west outside of the irrig
sections. It has been known and
tivated in the South for many y?
and was first grown in the south, a:
wards extending to the west when
is now a staple crop. It will
grow on stiff, wet land, or land i
ject to overflow, being killed by n
than two days overflow. The c
difficulty encountered where it is i
gated is the inabiltiy to remove
water quick enough from the fields
is a valuable plant, furnishing a j
manent pasture all the year thro
from year to year and yielding sev<
cuttings of hay of superoir qua
each season. It is altogether the rr
valuable hay and pasture plant wi
it is grown successfully. It
best as a pasture plant in the f
For planting the soil should be v
prepared so as to remove all lumps i
clods, and the seed should be so
when the soil is moist. May be pla
ed in the spring but not advisable
it does best when sewn in the J
after the weeds and grasses are out
the way. If sown in the spring gr
care is required to prevent the tem
plants being choked by weeds. WI
j once well started it can take care
i itself and furnishes a permanent p
ture, it being a perennial plant, ser
ing down long strong roots deep ir
the soil. It does well on well drain
sandy land, and responds readily
fertilization. It is easily eradicat
when desirable and there is no dang
of it becoming a pest.
Crimson Clover is useful for wi
ter pasture and does w<
in some sections of the sont
It is an annualand shou
be sown in the fall. It h
no particular advantage over others
vetch for*instance. For hay it shou
not be allowed to mature seed as
then has a hairy burr that is injurioi
FLORIDA BEGGAR WEED.
The Florida Beggar Weed is adap
ed to poor sandy soil, making a vigo
oas growth that affords both pastu
and forage. For hay it should be ci
before the stalks become large ar
woody. It frequently attains a growt
of six feet. In planting may be sow
broadcast or in drills.
Taking up the grasses the followin
varieties were discussed :
Teosinte, a plant somewhat simite
to sorghum in growth and appearance
for coarse fodder, resembling that c
corn or soghum, yields most abundan
crops. It will produce more forag
per acre on rich soil than any othe
plant. It requires plenty of moistur
for the best results. It does not ma
ture seed in this section, which is
disadvantage. Seed should be plante
in hills four or five feet apart, and th
cultivation should be the same as givei
Bermuda grass furnishes the best o
all summer pastures throughout th<
south, and is fine for hay when plant
ed on rich low land. It can he alter
nated with vetch or burr clover fo:
winter pasture. It can be plantee
from seed or cuttings. It is difficult
to eradicate when once well soddec
but can be killed ont by planting lane
in oats followed by peas or velvet
beans for two years in succession. Ali
things consdiered Bermuda is the
most valuable of the true grasses foi
tho south and when a meadow is once
well sodded with it there will seldom
be any desire to eradicate it for a Ber?
muda meadow is of more value than
any other crop that the same land can
bo made to produce.
RESCUE GRASS AND ITALIAN
Rescue Grass and Italian Rye Grass
are both of s:>me value for winter ras
ture and are particularly well
ed to some soils and sections,
are annuals and have to be p
every fall. The seed should b(
in the early fall.
Some of the most interesting
tri butions to the body of th<
relating to the validity of con
for futures have been made b
Supreme Court of the United S
! and the decision rendered by
court on Monday, in the case of '.
vs. the people of the State of
nois, is not the least interesti]
these. In this case the court ]
on the question of the extent o
prohibitory power which ma
exercised by the legislatures o:
states in relation to such cont
The particular legislation inv
was section 30 of the Criminal Cc
Illinois, which provides that wh
contracts to have or to give to hi
or another the option to sell or
; at a future time any grain or
commodity, or forestalls the m;
by spreading false rumors to infii
the price of commodities, or co
the market, shall be fined not
than $10 nor more than $1,000 or
fined in the county jail not excee
one year or both. The plainti]
error was convicted on the charg
violating this statute, so far z
related. to options to buy grail
other commodities at a future t
and the affirmance of his convie
I by the Supreme Court of Illinois
been sustained by the Supreme C
of the United States,
i In its opinion the court said tha
j was unable to declare from any J
judicially known, or from evidenc
the case, that the prohibitior
options to sell grain ta a future 1
hard in itself no possible re'atior
the suppression of gambling in g:
contracts where the parties cont
plated only a settlement on the b
of differences in prices. It might
that the legislature thought that d
ings in options to sell or buy a
future time, though not always or \
essarily gambling, might have
effect to keep out of the market, w]
the options lasted, the property wh
was the subject of the options,
thus assist purchasers to establish
a time what are known as conn
whereby the ordinary and rege
sales or exchanges of such propel
based upon existing prices, might
interfered with, and persons who 1
no grain and did not care to han
any were enabled practically to cont
rices. Or, again, the legislature n
have thought that options to sell
buy at a future time were in th
essence mere speculations in pri
and tended to foster a spirit
gam bing. In all this it was admit!
that the legislature might be m
taken, but if so the mistake was i
such as to justify the conclusion tl
the statute was a mere cover to (
stroy a particular kind of business r
distinctly harmful or immoral,
must be assumed that the legislate
was one of the opinion that an effc
tual mode to suppress gambling ga
contracts was to declare illegal ?
I options to sell or buy at a future tim
The court declared itself unable
say that the means employed were n
? appropriate to the end sought to be a
I tained and which it was competent f
the state to accomplish, or to adjudj
that the state of Illinois transcend*
the limits of constitutional authori
when enacting the statute in questio:
That legislation prohibiting coi
tracts for the mere collection i
differences is within the power of tl
states is no new doctrine to the rea<
ers of this journal. Those are casi
where there is no intention on eith<
side to deliver or to receive commoc
i ties. This class of cases must, hov
ever, he clearly discriminated fro]
the cases where there is no such mt
tual understanding, but where a
actual delivery is contemplated. Th
latter class of future contracts are pei
fecatly legal and valid ; indeed, as th
Supreme Court itself ruled in the eas
of Clews vs. Jamison, decided las
year, the fact that at the time of mak
ing a contract for future delivery th
party binding himself to sell has no
the goods in his possession and has n<
means of obtaining them for deliver,
or otherwise than by purchasing then
after the contract is made does no
invalidate it. Tho decision just ren
dered, in a word, leaves bona-fide fu
ture contracts still within the proteo
tion of the law.
i m- lawn. --
Richmond, Va., March 12.-In th(
case of Offield vs Davis, appealed foi
tho Circuit Court of Greene County,
the State Supreme Court of Appeals
1 has handed down an opinion affirming
the lower Court's decision, and hold
ing that a common law marriage in
Virginia is invalid. The question
presented in this case for the first
time before the Court was whether a
contract entered into between a man
and woman, by which they mutually
agree'* ?o become husband fand wife,
with nit any celebration and without
li'O'ise, constituted a valid marriage
iii ,^*s State and entitled iii;- woman
to . >w? interest from the time the
agre, ? ?? nt was made. The opinion is
writtei. by .ludge Cardwell.
You will never wish to take another
j dose of pills if you once try Chamberlain's
Stomach and Liver Tablets. They are
j easier to take and more pleasant in effect,
i They cleanse the stomach and regulate the
liver and bowels. For sale by Dr A J
SCANDAL ?N MEXICO.
Our Minister in Mexico Mixed Up
With Mexican Officials in Min?
Washington, March 13-M. Theall,
local counsel for Mr. Mealy, the Amer?
ican citizen who is held under an or?
der of court in Mexico for contempt,
has submitted to the state depart?
ment, through United States Senator
Nelson, a long statement of the case
from M. Meaiy's side, which reflects
upon United States Minister Powell
Clayton. It is alleged that the minis?
ter has misrepresented the facts in the
case to the department and that he is
interested in a rival mining company
which has affected his attitude toward
Mealy and his legal fight with the
development company, which forms
the basis of the present action against
In sending the papers to the State
department, Senator Nelson wrote
quite a lengthy letter and refers to the
accompanying papers among which is
an affidavit in Spanish by Juan Bar?
rera with an English translation show?
ing the alleged connection of Ambas?
sador Clayton with certain mining
companies in Mexico in which Mexi?
can government officials are also inter?
ested. Senator Nelson refers to what
he calls the serious import of the
charges and suggests the impropriety
of- a minister from this country being
a member of a large mining company
which is looking for favors from the
Mexican government. He says such a
minister will not be in a condition to
protect an American citizen against
the encroachments of a company in
which many of the leading officials of
the Mexican government are interest?
ed. He says there is a rule as to con?
suls which does not allow them to
engage in trade in countries to which
they are sent and states that the nec?
essity for such a rule should be much
stronger in preventing diplomatic
officer from engaging in speculative
mining enterprises. The senator sug?
gests that the questions involved in
the Mealy case are important, especial?
ly as they affect the status of the
ambassador to Mexico.
A MONUMENT TO MAURY.
An article recently appeared in Har?
per's Weekly in which allusion was
made to the movements in Paris to
erect a monument to Lieut. Maury.
The Richmond Times copies the
article and makes the following very
appropriate remarks thereon :
In the main the article was very
complimentary, but there are one or
two expressions which we are unwill?
ing to pass unnoticed. We quote:
"So far as we are aware, no one has
ever proposed a monument to him
over here. He seems to have been
rather effectually forgotten. Part "of
this, no doubt, is due to the fact that
Lieut Maury was a Virginian, and
when che war broke out forsook the
service of the nation to go with his
State into ' the Lost Cause. ' When the
fighting had ended feeling still ran
too high to take back into the service
a man who was looked upon by the
North, as a traitor, even though he
may have done, as Maury did, a
A strange sort of a traitor, to be
sure. In those days Southern men
believed with all their hearts in the
sovereignty of the State, and it was
consideed the height of partriotism for
a man to be true to his native State.
? Yet this Northern publication says
that Lieut. Maury, a Virginian, was
I regarded as a traitor because he took
sides with Virginia against the invad?
[ Is it possible that any patriotic
citizen of a Northern State would
think more of Maury if he had desert?
ed Virginia in the time of her need
and taken up arms against her? Is it
possible that the patriotic men of any
Northern State would today revere the
memory of Robert E. Lee as they do
if Lee had drawn his sword against
Virginia rather than in her defence?
Is it possible that any patriotic citizen
of a Northern State today thinks as
highly of Gen. Thomas as he does of
Lee or Maury? We do not believe it
If Lee and Maury were typical traitors,
this country would be lucky, indeed,
if it were full of traitors.
It is stated in Harper's Weekly that
no one has ever proposed a monument
to Maury on this side of the ocean.
That is a mistake. The late Kenton
C. Murray, editor of the Norfolk
Landmark, time and again urged,
through the 'columns of that paper,
that a monument be erected to Maury
on the Rip Raps at the entrance of
Hampton Roads. And there was talk
of starting up an association with
that purpose in view, but we believe
that nothing practical was done. It
is high time that a movement was
started in Virginia to erect a monu?
ment on some suitable spot to that
noble man. We believe that his ad?
mirers all over this land would liberal
ly contribute to such a fund.
When you wake np with a had taste tr.
your mouth yon may know that you need
a uo.-e of Chamberlain's Stomach .t Liver
Tablet-.5. They will cleanse your stomach
improve your appetite and make vou feel
like a new man. They are easj . o take,
being sugar coated, and pleasant in effect.
For sale by Dr A J China.
RELICS OF GIROIMS P?ST.
Historic Comer of the Exposi?
Jas. A. Hoyt, Jr., in The State.
The collection of historic records and
relics in the southwest corner of the
State building has interested many
visitors to the Exposition, and there
are always sightseers around the cases
in which this display is made. It is
the first time that South Caroilna has
ever attempted to display to illustrate
that in which in many respects she is
richest, the treasures of .the past.
A visitor entering the building is
immediately attracted ?O a handsome
case containing 15 or 20 battle-scarred
Confederate flags, and occasionally
when an old veteran sees the colors of
his regiment, tears are shed over
these precious mementoes.
In an adjoining case one of the late
pictures of General Hampton occupies
a conspicuous position, while imme?
diately under it is the original Ordi?
nance of Secession, which, next to the
Declaration of Independence, is the
most notable State paper in existence
in the United States. The balance of
the space in this case is devoted to
some of the choicest relics from the
collection of the Wade Hampton
Chapter, Daughters of the Confeder?
acy of Columbia. This collection in?
cludes the battle sword of General
Hampton with which many a bloody
charge was led. An especial effort has
been made to include in this collection
articles illustrative of the home manu?
factures of the people of the South,
and especially the women of the Con?
federacy during the dark days cf block?
ade and privation.
An adjoining case contains distinct?
ively the exhibit of State records.
These are too numerous for detailed
description. Many quaint acts of the
General Assembly during the period
of the proprietary government are
shown. It is notable that one of these
provided for the encouragement of
ship-building in the province. Among
the notable records on display are sev?
eral treaties made with the Indians in
the early history of the State, and the
original record of the charter of the
State of Georgia made at the time of
the grant of that franchise by His
Majesty, King George. In one corner
is shown the oldest piece of writing,
and probably the oldest article of any
kind preserved of the first settlers of
the province. It is a record of the
proceedings of the colonists one year
after the settlement at old Charles
Town, which was copied and repro?
duced in Rivers' History of South
Carolina. It is probable that this
record book was brought on the ship
which first made a permanent settle?
ment on our coast. Indeed, records
are shown during the]reigns of Charles
II, of England, William and Mary,
Queen Anne and the Georges. The
quaint old English writing will prove
of exceeding interest, even though it
be not very intelligible to people of
this generation in Carolina.
The famous Jackson vase is on dis?
play, draped with the flag of the Pal?
metto regiment and the flag of a Mexi?
can regiment captured in Mexico. One
of the medals given survivors of the
Palmetto regiment is also shown. In
adjoining cases are the old great seals
of the State, including the original
wafer seal made by order of the Gene?
ral Assembly in 1776. The original
Ordinance of Nullification is on dis?
play, as is also the scabbard of the
sword of State with the curious mono?
gram "W. M." which some aver to
be that of William and Mary of Eng?
In wing cases on the walls are shown
the autographs of many of the pro?
prietary governors of the State, and
many papers illustrative of the colo?
nial history of Carolina, which will
repay the careful investigation of stu?
dents of history.
The "tar and feather" papers col?
lected by the late Dr. R. W. Gibbes
are strikingly interesting, while auto?
graph letters are shown of all the not?
able officers of the State during the
Revolutionary war, some of which
have never been published.
Such of the Revolutionary rolls of
the State as are in condensed form
and can be consulted have been placed
in these frames for examination.
None of these rolls have been publish?
ed. The only roll in existence of
Sumter's brigade is on display.
This exhibit was collected by Assist?
ant Secretary of State J. T. Gantt, at
the especial request of the State com?
mission, and is exceedingly valuable.
It is attractively arranged, oil por?
traits of Calhoun, Marion, Sumter,
Having a Run on Chamber?
lain's Cough Remedy.
Between the hours of eleven o'clock a m
and closing ?P;" at night on Jan '2~>. 1901,
A 1"' Clark, druggist. Glade Spring, Va.
gold twelve bottles of Chamberlain's
cough remedy, lie says, " I never handled
a medicine thai sold better or gave better
satisfaction to my customers." This
remedy luis boen in general use in Virginia
for many years, and the people there are
well acquainted with its excellent ou.Mities
Many of them have testified to the remark?
able cures it has. eflVeud. When you need
a good and reliable medicine for a
cough or cold or attack of grip, use Cham?
berlain's Cough Remedy and you are certain
to be moro than pleased with the quick
cure it afford?. For sale by Dr A J China.
to the acre at less cost, means
in the Cotton fertilizer improves the
soil; increases yield-larger profits.
Send for our bock (free) explaining how to
get these results.
GERMAN KALI WORKS,
93 Nassau St., New York.
Ill.IIIMIII I III I lui mi,
Moultrie and Pickens forming the
decoration of the walls.
Miss M. B. DeVeaux, ? bright
damsel of Summerville, is in charge of
this exhibit and takes pleasure in ex?
plaining any of the exhibits to visit?
I have expressed in a previous letter
the rather general feeling that it is
not exactly proper that these invalua?
ble relics, which no insurance money
can replace, should be put even tempo?
rarily in an inflammable building such
as all the Exposition buildings are,
for they all are mere shells covered
with the stuff known as staff. Fire
feeds on this staff like a ravenous wolf
on a f rseh carcass and a heavy, driving
rain beats through it as it would
through thin cloth. Yet I am told that
the relics are as safe here as in the
Secretary of State's office in the capi?
tol, for the shelves in which the relics
are kept in that office are of pine, and
though the building be fire-proof, a
conflagration once started within
would burn up the' shelves and their
precious contents in short order. So
that the risk under which the relics
are exhibited at the Exposition may
serve to convince our legislators of
the wisdom of providing an absolutely
fire-proof repository for their preserva?
tion. If it does this the exhibit will
have accomplished more than 'any one
One of the most interesting exhibits
at the Charleston Exposition is located
in the treasury department of the Uni?
ted States government exhibt in the
colonnade on the west of Cotton
Palace. A coining press from the
United States mint is daily operated
in striking the official medal of the
South Caroilna Interstate and West In?
dian Exposition. The press is a highly
finished machine run by an electric
motor at a speed of 90 revolutions per
minute, each revolution stamping a
medal which is the size of a $20 gold
piece. The design represents the
figure of Liberty standing on the
globe ; emblems of trade and com?
merce are typified by a railway train
and rice-field ; ships and a light house
are seen in the harbor. The reverse
side is covered with a well defined in?
scription of the Exposition; a wreath
suggests the staple products of the
State-cotton and corn. The medal
is a very attractive piece of metal
work and is for sale where it is stamp?
ed, and is readily exchanged for a
quarter of the current coin of the ?
As a souvenir of the Exposition,
this beautiful coin is one of the nicest
mementoes that visitors can take away
with them to remind them of the
glories of the magnificent government
exhibits at this Exposition.
For Infants and Children.
The Kind YOB Have Always Bought
Bears the fa? V/&ZT\ j*
Signatare of (*9V&$/j?7&Z3U#?
WANTED-Hickory, Dogwood and
Persimmon Logs. SOUTHESK HABDWOOD
COMPANY, Charleston, S. C. nov 20 4m
Tie Lamest ari Host Collete
Geo. S. Hacker & Son,
DOORS, 3AS?, BLINDS,
Moulding & Building
?jffici and Wirerooma, King, apposite Caa
CHARLESTON, S. C,
jSS*" Parchas? our make, which we gu?rante
SHp.'rior to any sold South, and
thereby save money.
Window ac d Paney Glass a Specialty
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