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The independent press. (Abbeville C.H., S.C.) 1853-1860, July 01, 1854, Image 1

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DOLL&R PER AJUTDTt,] " ' "I??t iVhe Instilled Into the Hearts of y^jur Children that the 3L?$irty Is the Palladium of all yonr Rights."?[PAYABLE IK ADVANCED
'." ' ; :' 1 1.? 1 _ ' J" ' " ' - ^? ~ y "T* " 1 "a~:- ' " ' ' . " ~ "' 1 -,~~,~~l ~~"
tOlUME 2?NO. 8. ABBEVILLE C. it., SOUTH CAROLl^, SATOgflY MORNING, JULY 1, 1854. ' WHOLE n1jMBE1160.
. The old Elm Tree's Shade.?
Tho dear old Elm* Tree's Branching'shado,
Where once the climbing grapovinb hnng,
Still pours her cool touch along the glndc,
O'er which the mock-bird orailv sunor.
Hor awningeproads; still airs tlio cliff,
As though our sport-da}^ ne'er had fled;
The stream still glides along as if
Our partipg tear liad ne'er been shed.
But changeful days have como and gone, ?
Sinae 6ft we quaffed your friondly shade,
And o n our hearts the mellow tone >'
Of eadncM lias its Image laid.
wf(na tree! when'. 'ncath your wido-spread
* 3jpwc1r, / . r
rieei your kindly Jove for rue,
But sigh with pain the long fled hour,
- . My dearest joy to visit thee. .
ffo more the grapevines clasp your arms,.
That pendent 'ncath your boughs once hung,
No more tlic notes, the warbled charms,
The mock-bird 'mid the boughs one? sung.
The vines arc dead, the bird has flown?
You lonely greet the flowing gale,
And ev'ry summer's eve your tone
Breathes out a melancholy, talc. j
Dear, fond treet My firm, best friend! (
"Who blest my boyhood's earlier years, ,
"With thee, some lonely:houra I'll spend, 1
? .. ! . .
jviiu give iresu gusn 10 memory's tears.? j
I'll dream of joys that onco were ours,
When rambling o'er tho blooming glade, <
We shunned all other deep-blown bowers, 1
To gambol in your soothing shade, 1
Clivpobd. (
Speech of Hon. B. Brooks. j
" - - OJf THE rUBUC LANDS. \
In thfl Hmiiui nf Rpnrwu>titath'<i? .t,in? 1 .< iqci
*' the Civil and Diplomatic bill being under s
consideration, i
Mr. Brooks *aid: The disposal made yester- I
day of the bill to aid in the construction of a <
Railroad to the Pacific had reference to the final 1
action of the HoUse, and was not intended to
chock discussion, btft to give timetto the friends '
of .the roaddko ^-increase their ntimbers, and to 1
disseminate a more general information on the i
. subject* It is apparent to the slowest observer,
that in.no place throughout the country is less .1
attention given to speeches, or have tfiey less 1
influence and effect, uianhorc; and if the House
will bear with mo in the delivery of 1113* re- t
marks, I promise not again to trespass upon its t
time during the remainder of this session.
If the paternity of a bill could recommend it s
to my .judgement as strongly as it docs to my f
fnolir?r*a .T fnhK !? o4- mtr J
vvMugo) a .?vn? vm?u ?uj ivgniU *U? UIJ IMUUU
?. from California wlio introduced it, together 1
with my sympathy with, and interest in behalf
of his State, would commit mo to a'rote which \
my understanding; cannot approve, or my inter- i
protation of the powers of the Constitution a
justify. The affectidns; of my heart have been v
kindled into'a glowing warmth towards that i
distant State, whose.entire delegation in cither r
branch of this Congress havo recently passed c
through the crucible of constitutional trial, and c
proved themselves "to. be?like its staple com- t
modit^r?pure gold. I yearn to fold this young
cut vk our waver estates m a cioscr ana nrmer i
embrace, and-will cast liiy vpto for any measure
which will effect it, provided I am not required c
to compromise between my conscience and the e
Constitution. 1
I have read the bill for a railroad arid tele- 6
graphic-communication to the Pacific with 1
care; and re-read it with greater careand it (
* ?a with sincere regret that J am constrained to t
oppose its passage. We are asked to*, donate 1
alternate sections of the public (which <
are no less a part of the-GOpiinAi f&aaure of 1
all the States than tb? money in tbtf'vaults of 1
the Treasury) on eitbefsjde of: a line yet to be t
determined,^ some' joint' stock corapeny yet i
vivwwu, iyi vu? ui uiuin^ ?u vijo \
construction of a railroad and telegraphic com^ t
muni cation ftfoin thB city of. San Fnitfciscij to $
some point, yet to he located, on tho Misaisaippi i
driver, any whore between the thirty-seventh x
parallel of north latitude' and,the botijidiiry {
line bf Mexico. .We We'wked'to elriepd the1' k
sections bo donated to a distanco of fifteen miles I
on olthir side of the road, from the Mississippi i
river to the one; hundred" fthdtfxth degree of -J
longituda weal of'XSteenwicb,'(*ifoldt inUho 1
Uoitky Mountains;) from .thenceto the eaateffl ;<
point* ihrotigh th? ?o th'e: )
y-vfUtta ^reoaw?; ^:w^^rkf5tWiaa4 i
fcha.ll reach t
of die- proposed rond^-Fri^gea of earth, i
gravel, etpnft, und timber to bo used in its con? i
I b* * '' ' ;
Tho second, the propriety tltt'd expediency of
tho contract. Then its specific terms and condition.
The power of Congress to dispose of tho public
domain u both conferred and limited in tho
third Beetion of tho fourth article of the Constitution,
which reads as follows:
"The Congress shall have power to dispose
of, and make all needful rules And regulations
respecting tho territory or other property belonging
to tho United States: and nothing in
this Constitution shall bo so construed as to
prejudice any -claims of- the United States, or of
any particular State.
My interpretation ,of this section is, that Congress
has no power, to dispose of the public lands
in any way that will hot inure to the benefit of
all the State collectively, in as equal a ratio as
possible} and this, general -benefit so.resulting
from each particular legislative enactment, is
what I understand to have been meant, by the
frnmcrs of the Constitution as the "general
welfare." . -
Without tlila limitation of pow,er* and the
condition that the disposal by Congress of the
common territory ana.other property of tho
United States, shall not he so construed "as to
prejudice any claims of tho United States, or
of any particular State," the door.for local internal
improvements, the wildest and most extravagant,
is thrown wide open, and Almost
resistless temptations offered to a coalition of
large States to enter it, to the exhaustion of
all tho pecuniary resources of the Government,
and to tho oppression of the smaller States.
Unlimitcdacquisitionsofmoretcrritory, whether
by conquest or purchase, would find zealous
idvocatcs in the very men who would profcai <
-o be restrained by constitutional scruples, irom j
jutting their hands into the Federal Treasury
W tho benefit of their respective State?.
ThJa ir? ? ? -
?.ow.i/ivmvivu v? tua jiu WIT oi congress ?
>ver the public lands is corroborated by the '
anguago of cveiy deed of cession of lands by
lie States to the General Goverment. Virginia
>.eded her public lands in 1784/ under the con- (
lition which appears in the following extract i
rom licr act of cession: ]
"That all tho lands witbin the territory, as
)eded to the United States, and not reserved
br, nor appropriated to, any of the beforemen- ?
.ioned purposes, or disposed of in bounties to ]
he officers and Boldiers of the American arniy, <
hall' bj; considered as a common fund for the '
lgc and benefit of such of the United States^ as '
iuvu ueuomo, or suau uocomc, mcmocrs 01 tins
Confederation or Federal Alliance of said States,
Virginia inclusive, according to their respectve
snd usual proportions in tne general charge
md expenditure, and shall be faithfully and
>ona fide disposed of for that purpose, and for
10 other use or purpose whatever."
In the same year, Massachusetts relinquished
lor lands '* to be disposed of for the common
>cnefit of tho United States." e
Iu 1786, Connecticut relinquished her lands
o the United States for the common use and
lenefit of said States, Connecticut inclusive.
In 1787, South C&tolina made " a liberal cesion
1a flip TTnifil/1 flfflfpff nf rtlnima /lnn^\
or the common benefit'of the Union,". 1
In 1790, North Carolina ceded her vacant
ands in the following words:
"That all the lands intended to be cedcd, by
irtuc of this act, to the United States of Amerca,
and not appropriated, as beforementionud,
hall bo considered as a common fund, for the
ise and benefit of the United States of Atner*
ba, North Carolina inclusive, according to their '
espective and usual proportion in the general
barge and expenditure; and shpllbe faithfully
iusjh>bcu ox jor mac purpose, ana lorno otiifir
ibo whatever."
Georgia ceded hey lunds in 1802 for the same
mrpo8ea and almost in identical language.
It is. sa\d that tho'words "prejudice any
laim" (Sec. 3, Art- 4 of the Gonstiimibn) have J
xaltuive reference io coiitracls relative to their J
ands, which wore made by some of th? older t
Stntes before the.adopUotfofthe CbDstitnHbn. t
canAot think .po; pnd it skeins to me,1 if thip ^
oMtTOctWttis'fcdrrcct/that the restrictions in i
he ditferenbdc.eda ot cession "for the,common t
)cncfit," .''common fund," "general charge and 1
^inui^iture, art) iuiu uuu biiiy. ji me con- a
ract in ado by a State relative to its vacant c
ands, prior to the adoption of the.Federal Conr e
ititution, wqb then perfect, it required no sup- ]
>ort from future legislation, and acquired none t
torn any restriction Jn a deed of cession. If, i
in the other hand, the contract was Imperfect* i
md theSWte subsequently made a perfect con- t
riot wi(h, the TJnitedStates, then the argument t
ipon the word claims faJIs to the grouud. It is <
mrdly supposable that a'StAtc which haa bepn r
;reatcd out of territory lying'"between thoHud-j t
tori and Mississippi mew?.'- the UwfhSry;i?t e
nrlilrtiif Wr*a luf/ntd UUa -r'iC'/ -
HUV^WVU' W4/.W4W 4
Federal Constitution, would a<Ji?it. any; olaiqi "i
kber noil wlacli Massachusetts might nowpro- t
lust ta conclude that the "word ?
ilaetf la the?enaoof right, and that toe,miff i
neattiiiflr-of the entireclausc ia, that th&. r i?h t 'j
tho^Stat-es, Khali uot bo%rpjudlc|d,' nor tt? <
?I say plausible, because it ie tjtoro spocioua
than cortcotc?which has ever been adduced, in
support of tho constitutionality of tho nets of
Congress, whereby a part of tho common territory
which this Government, asa trustee; holds
"for the common benefit of aU {he States," has
been given to individual. States, or' to incorporated
companies, is, that the rcaorved sections,
at the price of $2 50 per acr* will bring as
much money into jjhe common treasury, and at
an earlier,uay, under the impulse of cntoiyriso
thus fogtc^a^as if the wholo,wcro sold at $1 28
|iv? wukvym^vu u uui9 w? MlU IQCI^ X Vt^UUUV
perccive htflfc.lt affects the constitutional quostion.
The argument is based on the assumption that
the General Government is the proprietor of
the public lands, and that in the character of a
prudent proprietor, lias tb&" right, and that it is
its duty, to adopt any measure in regard to its
domain which will facilitate the sale of its surplus
lands, and bring into the treasury the precise
amount of money that would have been realized
had all the lands been sold at the price
proscribed by law. It seems to me that hero is ,
a correct'conclusion deduccd from falso premises.*
The Government is not n proprietor, but
a trustee, holding lands for tho States which
created it Proprietorship implies absolute
uuuu-vi?a icc-Bimpio tine; ana u tue government
is tlic proprietor of the publio lands, its
power over thorn and over the money proceo^L;.
ing from their sales is unlimited; and it
donate either land or money to a State, a?.porporation,
or an.individual. But as -a trustee,
with a power over the puhlie lands and their
proceeds limited to'thc execution of other enumerated
powers, and to the carrying thorn into
operation, these dangers and abuses are avoided,
and the rights and interests of rill the States
preserved. In tbo language of a Senator from '
Virginia, (Mr. lluntcr,) the doily beauty of
whose life adorns intellectual endowment and
scuoiariy attainments vincfr remind us of tho ,
vigor of Jefferson and the accomplishment* of ,
Wirt, "give this construction, and you give tho >
whole system of the Constitution harmonious ; (
pou bring no two provisions into conflict. Give j
it any other construction, and you destroy one ,
part at the expense of tho other." ,
A prudent trustee, however, may exercise a ]
wise discretion in the managemei^ of an estate, (
us well as a proprietor; ana, so Tar as'the ap- ,
plication of the poWor in tlie bill Under consid- .
sration is concerned, it is not mntcnol tn mn '
I'iews in what character wo may regard the
Grcncrat Government.. It is not noedfesary to
ny purpose to show that the nrgurnent- iu reference
to the appreciation of tho value of the
reserved sections is uniformly fallaciqi&ii'but,
is one of the appointed trustees of the! States
>f this Union, nolding property of which the'
States are real owners, and which if is incum>tmt
upon me, in part, to manage for their, fcoinnon
good, it bccomes proper that I should
ihow, by statements taken from tho reports of .
ho Commissioners of the Land Office, that an ,
ncrease of the sales of tlie public lands is &ot ]
ilways thus effected ; and tliat, moreover, it is ^
lomctimcs a losing speculation. In the year (
1836, was sold of the public lands, twenty mil- (
ions seventy-four thousand eight hundred .
ind seventy-one acres. - .. ]
Ji.1841 - ' 1,103^796 .
1842 - - - 1,120,417 (
1843 i - 1,005,204 ,
1844 - - - ;. 1,744,768 ,
1845 - . .. - 1,843,527 ?
1840 .- 2,263,731 (
1847 - - 2,521,305 ,
1848 - - - 1,887,653 ]
1849 : '* - J,392,902 ]
1850 - - - . 1,405,838*,
1851.. ? r - 2,055,920 \
1802 - - 894,779 <
^ J
Total for twolvo yyeara, 1^856,ops <
The habit of donating alternate sections of i
and for railifead purposes wo? contract?d, i be-. .1
iev? in 1846; Vet there: -was lew land sold in >
t. Vi?a -1 I--- il
indcr toe old{ conservative habit {n the sing'.o i
r'Cfir 183&.' lAVhfil alternate sections of land 1
iro doiintcd, it is thc Btercotyjpcd longuaffc of i
lie bills that the reserved sections shall be i
leld at double price, \vhielflear??7th0 impree- i
lion on the public mind that, - -with difference <
>f the odd sections there is an equal number, of I
ections reserved nml granted, and that, the <
mix UCIII^ cum m mv; ui mu UU1C,, iiu* *
bing ialost to the Treasury. Snch?. however, ,i
s not alwaya the fact; for private entries nro (
nformally re#peotod, and whcn^tlioy fall within t
he line to >whipH . ther righi?^^ife^quee8 in' '<
Ue 1
in^Jtolbo doDCea tojgp 8tjju'ftiitte&^ ilha,right, j
rlefc on d take an other amou a t jlanid-e^yjia .1
o jthe amount tak^n by^^.y^intrlb?,,.though 1
ucVprivotS'ontrie*'wai^made ^t' the Govern- ;(
nent price of^l,25' peracro. I quote ii'om \
jrrrTfW 3
vV Itis&y faith that there is a material diffoi
ence in the powers of<Coi\grcas over euoh part
of tlio public domain-as lio within 8tatoff an
in Territories. A Territory continues tobo th
common property rof"?H the States, so long as i
remains a Territory? and any impro.vomen
within its liinits redounds to the common'bcnc
fit of its common owners. But when a part o
>l.n ?..UI. > - .A^-:
t.uw uumv uuiumu U09, VflUHU W1Q . U^UjUi^SlIC
of a State, it ia difficult to conceive ira
provcmcnt'ofaucli Territory wbfeh will uofFc3uI
to the benefit of thatjparticujar Statk and, i
may be, to tlio exclusion of all benefit to th
remaining States.. Such a CMe might, occur, a
if a State was surrounded byrorritorics, whicl
has nevftr yet happened, hut-is.yirtually ap
!>roached by tho geographical position or Cali
ornio. Again, tho Termories have no powc
but aucb as is gi^Wn by Congress. They aro ii
a dependent condition, aud look to (jongrea
for rovogUe,protection, and for law. Tins i
their only Legislature, and we should legislat
for their ?ood, precisely as a Stato Legielatur
*U?JT *vv Uig glMWA/i tuo OIUIU?DUW OClDg 8UU
ject to the provisions of their respoctive con
slitution*. t v. , _
Entertaining these views, I cannot consist
ently cn&t my vote for donating lands whicl
lie withra tho limits of a State; but -when th
lands asked for lie within Territories, organ
ized, I have no constitutional scruples; and tin
question then arises as to tho expediency of ma
king such grants as toe sought '
Tho isolated position of California, lying, a
it docs, oh tbo western verge of tho Isortl
American continent, her separation from lici
bister States by dreary deserts, ru^jred moun
tains, and largo territories inhabited oy tint-am
ed Indiaajghcr natural resources, aud the tidven
euro us a prut oinor people, leave but utile doubl
in the minde of reflecting men that she must b<
brought into raoro dircct and immediate com
munion frith tho heart of the Confederacy, 01
ultimately dissolve her connection with it
rhis separation?wouId entail tho Ides of every
foot of American territory west of the Rocky
Mountains, together with .all the property o!
GJoverncqyjnt round there at the timo". A railroad
cortimunication between the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans would secure that entire region
bo us forovcr, together with its UDtold mineral
wealth, and, .which ir" more valuable still, our
pioneer brethren, who at-o illustrating to the
ivOrld American enterprise. It would scatter
nnr lYiI/ljf f1*? * ??<??%.?? A?*.?
?nd Occailiea, and give Its o^commorcial power
niiich would wake tliis Government the umjire
of every nation upoa earth. Its commercial
advantagci^are incalculable, and.its politi:al
Effects, strain the imagination. San Frnnrisco
would becomn the-commercial emporium
:f the eatf&rn world, and with lavish hand
pour out Uie wealth of the remotest parts ol
;ho globe Jon every section of our country, up>n
whichllcaven Las benignantly and continually
em l ed. -A?continuous line of railroads
jetween tho two great oceans would hefebmc
;ho highway of tho nations of tho earth. Out
:arrying trade ilk the Pacific, now amounting
:o -about three hundred thou sad tons, and cmploying
upwards of ah hundred millions of dolara,
would be augmented by the operatbn ol
Jiis road immeasurably beyond the proportional
increase resulting froto the mineral
wealth of California and Australia' combined j
ind the whietle of 'a locomotive .heard oh the
ihprc of the Pacific would .do moria^Owardi
ipening the ports of Chipa and Japan than bayjncts
and squadrons. . 'These results.are as'ncar:
!y certain as may bo approached by ordinary
inman reasoning.- -But there'arc oElHH^eonsid:rations
and advantage? of a domestio charac-cr
which need no speculation or thcorygo i*iommend
to the establishment of this roaid by
iieans of th'o donation of lt&dsin the Territory
>r NeW Mexico,' which I . regard as including
tuch other territory aa h already beon,^$Jfi
c?The mo/erapid trnnsmisai&roftjiei iri'aUs, for
which itfMkfiar,the 'aovernmcnl^ iiow paying
innually ?$l,Q0tf,0d0, v will.JbHp^ou'r distant
riciid3 into clogc association with oOc governiientatid
.oureelvo^v^d thu^'diffiWin those
ar-qn regions a. eoouu ana poiiucw Byxnpouiy,
ind-^gtB ieypdnJed. ijitolligcnco which ara, the
iliieC:. elements of' nationalstrength anil Aa.ionnl
prosperity. Tlie prompt transportation
?f troops and munitions of war will strong then
jur national defcnseH, andjjive confidence and
iocurity to the wester^jpfoneeWjWhdso cottaje?
will flanlt oither aide Of -tho jroid, and con[titut^thetrtJU"cflitiont
guards, while they may
ierftfpY present enpnort from the employtuoii't*
i?would offer.fortheir.hohcetlabor.; TTie^tollution
of tho mimber of Oorernnient officials,
ihet.J'edufltion. 'of the '"nnn\hoi-;:oJJir6ppa deee*
lary to protect our: relate ptofli^rty and po*
legions, th?; greater eS^ty>'Ajidjrfpidity, in
tonveyibg Government stores nHd^uriitfons-bJ
ivor, together with'/^e'Mving^'df-tiiqa^ftnd exsonscft
irieident- totho. fcxt^naioiliof/dWi-nRtJ
nl 11 f a T\r nwfftrli'rfttii A*Sita^5'-#rlifiin
WMfcnable economy! - Th?K&S^mpUtedin|^,of
tho'Army by tlic oi^mjeotioii of'threo
wbtMiewns to bave^min^.^ii branch of the
? thd cott
?t* ^iw^-v^BBV>or fcatiO'il
- endured by thoso who wero appalled, and \\&6
,s died on board theill:fated San fcranciaeo} Tho
d licart sickens and bleeds When contemplating
e tho miseries which'oncompaSBcd the mcn'tyho
t encountered, them by order of Government,
t and tho wgpien who shared tliem by the coinh
mands of .affection. And, sir, if, by " robbing
f tho exchequer" of everv dollar in it?#?ulljs,
s i could havo preVc^tQcL their sufferings, and
tlSiirt'csorved their lives., -mv voto should nnvnr
irtti'ave proventod thoir salvation..
8 Having satisfied niyscfrthnt Cougrcss has tlio
s constitutional power to mako donations of
[i lands which, lie in the Territories, and that," in
I* tho case undec consideration, it is expedient to
- make them, the remaining considerations have
r reference to tho terms end conditions of the
a relinquishment. The bill provides as follows:
8 "rant tor tlie purposo of nilliug and securing
s tlio construction of a railroad and telogt?pli
0 line from tho Mississippi river at a point not
c north of the 87th parallel of north latitude, to
- thoci^y of ,San Francisco,. in tho Stato of Cali
fovnin, there shall be, aud hereby is, oppropria.
ted and set apart a quantity of land, equal to
.* the alternate sections to tlio width of liftuen
1 miles on each'side of such load from the teruiib
nns thereof, on tho Mississippi river, Jto tho
- 106th dogreo of lougitudo west from (ireend
wich; and from thoucc^ westerly to the eastern
- lino of the Stritc of California, alternate sections
io uic wiaui 01 iweniy-nve inucs on caen snio
of such road ; and from thence through the
6aid State of California, to the western term in
; us of such road, nltornatc sections to the width i
of fiftcen'miles on cuoli side thereof; such lands
to be fiolcctcd from the sections which shall he
" designated in tho public surveys of said laud
(when made) by oud numbers, aud io be held
^ and conveyed as herein provided."
j Now, sir, my principal obje$ti6ns to the bill
. are to be found in tho passage otit which 1 have
IW I. iUi - - - ?
ivuu, uiifUMU UIV1U urv UUIIUL' I)DI11U IU IIB details
to which my assent could neveryield.
My first objection then is, that no reasonable
conjecture can cvon approximate the actual lo
cation of the road. 1 would not #e iiu individu.
al, and I cannot as an agent, raako any bargain
bo loose and indefinite. 1 bave suid I take it
as grantcd.thl?^ti\c most direct practicable route
would be punned; but by the terms of the l>illj
. there is nothitig t&'prevent this road making a'
, civilizing sprawl from tha 'nioutli of thc_ Ohio
' river, via the great American desert, down to
uic v-iunancne settlement, una lrom tUence back
to that point in the Rocky Mountains where the
senior inembor from Missouri (Mr. Benton) iusists
that "Col. Fremont's mule died, but not his
men, and not of cold."
Again, it is very well, understood that the
city of San Francisco and the point where the
Ohio empties into the Mississippi river urc to
bo the termini of the road, should it ever be
] built undd^tliis bill. Now, sir, it so happens
thai a line run from San Francisco to the mouth
, of tho Ohi^jiycK is the very longest air-line
, which can tie rim from the city of Sun Francis-:
. co to the Mississippi river, any where from St.
, Fannin tho Territory of Minnesota, to Baton
f Rouge, in the Sluto of Louisiana. "What- will
justify me, as one of the trustees of the public
f interest, in granting altornate-Kcetions of land
upon this vory long line estimated to bo at least
[ two thousand miles in length, when, by giving
to the road a different locution, I cuu reduce
' its lengthj and hasten tho completion of the
C ffrork, secure a ro'utc which i& comparatively
* Unobstructed?altogether so by ice and snow?
pnd at an infinitely- less cost of Government
.lands,-than are to be transferred and vclinquislied
by this bill f I hold that, in so great |
an enterprise as a connection between the At,
lantic and Pacific oceans, it is true patriotism
. to disregard all sectional interests, and suppress
nil sectional feeling. Sectional jealousies arc
the banoSfftuationol, as indidividual jealousies
arV of all "local advaa&ment..- Prom tlie <>perafio'a*of
ajltyid to tho Pacific good enough will
accrue to eviery State in. the Uuioo to propitiato
the -favor of cofcb ; and.it is,.unmanly anil
illiberal to wrangle over the retail vo rfvuluo of
thodifferenty^NB.".In so great, an' wulcrla*
king, our roTilo should be deter'mindrl
hv tl r* nf n AI* ' iinMClil AVn J o !
feasibility and cost, toget^?^ with our anthori;
s\y to aidin iW completion in a way, and by
the moans proposed.
I liavo vcmartoi that iivtny juilgnicnt, there
I -was a material difference in tuopowors of Congreet
over such parts; of tho public domain as,
, tio within States and in" Tei'ritorics; and it
tfrikes hw? that tho. power to donate alternate
I scfftioas'Of tho publlO/^anda^hiih? 1 ie in the
Territory of New Mexico may bo*;<Jeriveil from
liillfi t<4ltJk' chili Alt. irilf n rSitiafifii
{ tion, which authorizc? ^^aj:e98"to provide for
i thacommdn defejico BU<r^neral wclfai e of tho
pown that the rapid |
r'conim^ catioa^byer this road, with the most
>, ^ijtajjKTbortiou . c&untry, would a<ld*
j itnoro to the "coraiiion dofinco" tliaii forts, niag?
'amines nud arsenals, find at a cost infinitely less
iton.^vbuldlji&riourrcd'by the establishment
r of.igoAl defgiieca, witJjfUl their 'appliances of
, m<pif moDitioarof .vrkt, andLmilltary stores, ort-'
r atich a footing'ji? viiLpromise reasonable booufto,
?ibo do derived tioin the'
P<i?'ero^PpIll8r??* torcgQlato commerce.with!
, jtbhdigh nations 'and ajpoiig the several States,"
j gress lias ^ establ UJied
' Maraijbis Ckmvinfcion. ^^submit- that the aririi
I ;justly the donntion of
||< 'toKavdn" tbowsnncf
t-1 yiiitobvrg,'' Vfi^J Ja?kaon to
rtcfed, nn^
i tl?? amount
,, ?B?
ly straight line of railroad?, completed, or in
progress of completion, by individual and Stato
enterprise, and all lyiii!^ between the thirtysecond
and thirty-tuirii parallel of uorlh lati- .
The Legislature of/CexAs, as if autleipi^Uhg^
a connection between the two oceans by rail- ,.
roads, and also their locations, have passed a
law granting twenty seclious of land per milo
for H.n -? - -
'? ii rouu~uirough thatState
from a point ou her eastern t? her western
boundary, in the direction of l'l l'aso.. Tlio
length of the road through Texas is estimated.
to'be 66ven hundred and fifl-y miles?tlio lnnd^j
granted upwards of ten.millions of acres, which
will ho worth, at a reasonable valuation, when
tlio road it? finishod, fivo dollm? per aero?giv-'"
ing the liandsonie euiu of Ji/ty. niillicus of dpi- ,
lars. Xow, if wo estimate the entire oost-of
this road at foify thouM"<l dollars per milt,
(which is a high cstiiu$$)=\nifc. thirty millions v
of dollars of iia .reaourtM AVill litvy<S been ex-^
Jmusted in its construction. Thiai will lea-^Q
twenty Vnillions of dollars to cover aucijoiits ;
and should noni> hmhi* i>f?w ' ? 2~" --,J
?J "inintu^ iiiu .
of the extension of the l-or.d" to UiQ^wwific
ocean, ? distance ofaix hundred aud fHtyniilea
froin tli o western verge of Texas, iftrw inucli
of tho remainder of the line lies in*the State df
California, (l<> which section 1 jam uuwilling
that tho Federal Government bJjaTl'make any
coiltribntioii towards the construction of n
road,) <>r how much of it lies within the Territory
of New Jlcxico, (tu wiiieliil nin unwilling
that the Government eh all inutei liberal and
cvou inuuiHcent donations,)11 havebeen unublo
neenrately to\asccrSftin; l)utrv-am inclined to
think that ofio hundred uu'd fifty miles will
reach across the southcr^dxtrcuiity "of California.
| JL.u>ei;ul donations of Tjyitcl ih .NfiW Mexico
; will bo greedily accente?i>by<6*o?iio one of t'.io
companies boforomcntion^ajpihost probably by
tho Viclisburg qpd M I'^^ggonln.ntiy, or by a
combination of eoinparnosf^nd thus a railroad
communication be sccurdjpjfifoiu the Atlantic to
tho eastern boutiditiy of'BBi/oHnnT^iJiiiewlH i u
near the confluence of tfl^CoIorndo and <Jila
rivers. When a rond'islilifcfro, the necessities
of commerce and Holt-inluirest will porfcot. tho
connection between -the wd greatooonnw. The
work is thus accomplisbadg&y^jprivntc o.nlcr(Iprinc,
nud an experiencoviCAohcfe uu that any
work thus perfoiinud ia ufwjlj^bpttcr, and sooner
done, than if undertaken Government.
.. ? ?...w. vwvjy^yi.iv UQCVIIIO
a contractor. AllOpverampiSj-LBAtronage and
its ccri nations are thus avoided, anil security
given against profligate oxtriiviigfvnoc.
Airfong the other reason* for donating la/ids
in Uic Territory of Xew Mcxico towards qoo.structiug
a railroad -^ctwcc'.i the* Uiirtiy-stfcond
and tliirty-tliird parallels <>f latitude, I find
those which arc cogent, in the faet thatit will
be adding a accessary !i:\!< to wiiat.fs destined
to become a continuous line; Jplt-it is prdba
ble such donations will i;ivo impulse and ener-^ "
gy to tlic indi\ idu:.": and J-jtafco ehtcrnrisoH uiYtmV
tliis lino, which the wants of'the,country urge
to a ppcody cituMishmeut, /?qd in'thc coiuforting
possibility of il.s l-cMoving tho Congress
from the numerous applictfconfrTor the donation
of lands \vhieii lie \vithinj|jbo limits of diffcrAnother
consideration iqtAllocation rtf this' ?
i'oad, and one of great moment, is, that wo
avoid the Mormons?a e^fertowards which tho *
religious-sentiment of tli^g&dntry will novcr
he reconciled, and whiclmfj^clestinnd to he the
fruitful source of local aifd'politicul annoyance
and trouble. The furtlid^fro aro separated,
the better for ns and for Uttsm.
1 am thoroughly conVmbm that no line of
Itnili'uiul i.'Uiniminii'nlifmAMlrniin.ttiA Aflo.ifi/. .*
and the i'aoific ocenns -wall- bo established in
our ti;nc other tlmn the voute I.-lmve indicated. !
Ii is tlio shortest route, freest of nntutnl
obstructions, the most conV^hioht to carry out
our national policy, and t0.4dd.iu ctxfccutioc; bur
treaty stipulations under Oyit&aty Guadaloiipo-'
Iliiliilgfo nud \vi|t.distribut(yjtt?^l?muiei-cinl bonfits
most equally aiiK?ng thv6'"States of tho Union.
It establishes a cog&hkient and .vapid"
coiuniunication between-JjiftSh-ortho' original '
States and the extrcmest uTiiTls of our national
domain, and brings the wctfjjth of Asia and tliqp1'neilic
islands, from Jessq.-tSO-Australio, 'to.their
very doers. 1
This commerce will be distributed tlirougli tho
Northern portion of Ala^apwW -Eastern Ten
nessec, jSorth Carolina, Vivginia, by tho
Alabama and Tennessee RivirwKfuIrond, which
dijr^rges from this lino at ft^BW^^ Tbe Mobile. . .
and Ohio Railroad iutorofcpu^jjfr crossing tho
line near the En3torn Iwrdar^j^ Mississippi,'-'
and which connects the Ou1jLofflM?&Qwith tlio
northen lakes. jTho Ncw.OneanJyrt^d^If^rthern .
iv^titvuu, n iyvw WHI1VVW).UIV2 UIIU^ UI,- J.MJW v/i"leans
and Ci li^jtfnatj^will cross thb.lino at Jackson,
and poj&.th'e' treasures Eastern;
world^upouj^qfevVestern niuPcxt^Wajp-SontLcrn
Stato^iWinIo tj l?e Mississippi;river'/SUf in gratitude
to;jte. tri^tory waters, wilLjftve to tli4
tido oP^otnmc^p6 u refljix flutf, aiit'^tjjsxchango '
for tlio' substantial products tit its fSjley, re*
tarn atftlXv, Conveniences, delicacies &hd ej?gant
hwimS^wbioh the rvtincet elf IUxation
Cphld dc'inS^d-% de.?u-^>". ''
jirefrrtjicp -??tliia routoj'jbecausc, of scotjoaal..
'Je^ajy ' IT io, T,otii ub&jusctaqa'fcf. U, ?"2CSi0,
ft^bS?. which I have, Nu^Semed Tfill' acnufcfte:' _The
ttmo hu?; b6ea<%uch; I wins ?<*ctlopaj, ,
has'pd&icd. I ciune'hcre aeoutoall bnt, thoHo^1?lK^io
of Now Eugland. [jfljjpefht3fdedoira)p;^
Uio word from iuy poliopol vucaWjlnry, andiiiaort-in
its place another whjob ia inor<x elevated
A 110 peopio^ ? MIV1V
or able occu?fou, byvevy high authority there, ,
that iPate of them eJio?l<l Do a?k"od if lnj tvaa au^tncijcan
jtbd nn^erjahould bc;V r^oT^JdwMv
a Santh Carolinirtu." This ecutimontha^4wMlji',S'j;
day and its votaries, of y bom no .

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