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HOUSES oftAe FUTURE wiMAmre O"ARCHITECTURAL0 "ARCHITECTURAL exhibitions this winter emphasize an over- a* whelming trend toward smaller kitchens and larger bathroomß. g&ffi There is no particular connec- LSlj tion between these opposite ten k ».i derides, except that both have raaa a sound scientific basis and are interest ing illustrations of American leadership |9| In everything that makes for efficiency El and good living. Small kitchens are in general more con- M venient than large ones. Fifty years ago ‘i «| the average American kitchen was often the largest room in the house, an expanse HB of vast open space frequently used as a general sitting room, as a laundry, and ■ky* as a playroom for the children. Distances from one point to another were so great EOjdE that food preparation became a task re- EUEN qulring the combined efforts of several HBf! persons. An inquisitive husband who strapped a pedometer to his wife’s wrist F3E3; found that she walked more than a quar ter of a mile while making a custard pie ***** in such an old-fashioned kitchen. The modem kitchen is designed for the atmost conservation of time and energy, and the ideal size for the average home, ac cording to scientists, is an oblong room no more than 8 by 12 feet The oblong shape is better than the square because fewer steps ore re quired in crossing the room from one work center to another. Science also dictates the arrangement of the equipment Everything is arranged for pur poses of step saving. Most women work in a right to left motion. The order of their kitchen is fixed,—first, gathering up the raw food from cupboard and refrigerator; second, preparing it for the stove; third, cooking it and .serving it; fourth, removing the dishes, washing them and putting them away. This fixed order is reflected in the arrangement of the kitchen fur niture, —first, refrigerator and food cupboard; second, work table; third, stove; fourth, serv ing table; fifth, sink and dish cupboard. The scientists prescribe that the walls shall be lined with all the equipment in the order named, so that work proceeds exactly like the assembling of an automobile on an endless belt. And the kitchen of the future will be as small as it can conveniently be and meet these requirements. Bigger and Better Bathrou.r.s On the other hand, bathrooms just naturally tend to increase in size and importance. The modern bathroom has come to be one of the most attractive rooms in the house, well lighted, well ventilated and luxuriously equip ped and decorated. The American bathroom has no precedent in the lives and customs of people of other lands. There are no “period styles” in bath rooms to copy. The bathroom is a development of the past 35 years, and architects have only recently begun seriously to study the equip ment and decorative treatment of this modern American room. Originality in bathroom architecture was held back for a long time by the casual and undistinguished beginnings of the room itself. A generation ago, when a home owner became converted to its importance as a factor in health and comfort, he would order one in stalled in his house, usually converting another room, a large closet or a back hallway into a bathroom. And this attitude toward the bath room ha« left its mark upon architects and builders up to very recent years. In planning new houses, or remodelling old ones, they gave the least possible consideration to the bath room. It was tucked away in any old corner, and grudgingly given a small obscure window. Times are changing, however, and today architects and builders have begun to realize that the bathroom is so essential to the well being of the whole family that from the very starting of the plans for a house it should be a part of that home and should receive special attention. In the house? of the future this particular room will be planned and built as a bathroom, with more light, more air and more sunshine than ever before. It will have plenty of space, and will be frequently equipped with such machinery of health as exercisers, weighing machines and sun lamps. Magic of Machinery Science and Invention have worked so many miracles in the daily life of the Twentieth Century that people sometimes fail to realize their supreme contribution to the noble task of abolishing household drudgery. In an hour, the modern home maker can accomplish things HpflA economics / that required days and weeks in the days of her mother and grandmother. First came the electric iron, and the steps it saved from the stove to the ironing board and back again amounted to several miles a year for every home maker. Next came the washing machine, not only saving time but also contributing to human happiness by abol ishing aching backs and cracked knuckles. Then the vacuum cleaner, which at one stroke abolished the tiresome and dusty task of sweeping. Finally the automatic refrigerator, whose possibilities are only just beginning to be realized by home makers, —for it not only saves time and energy, but actually takes a part in the preparation of food, adding a long list of intriguing contributions to the daily menu. The automatic refrigerator has brought a new touch of luxury and attractiveness to the home table. It has added a note of color and zest to all departments of domestic hospitality. With its aid, the technique of food preparation approaches perfection. We have discovered that cold is just as im portant in the kitchen as heat It improves many fruits and vegetables. It makes meats more healthful and appetizing. It enables the home maker to keep her prepared dishes longer and to do her work further in advance. It brings to the ordinary family hundreds of recipes never before within their command. It helps every housewife to the achievement of new successes and new economies. The importance of a good refrigerator is un questionable. Annual yearly waste of foodstuffs in the United States is 20 percent of the total, and half of this is waste in the home due. to spoilage. Frozen Desserts The first Englishman to taste a frozen sherbet was Richard the Lion Hearted. In the year 1191, while he was crusading in Palestine, he was treated to this delicacy by the Moham medan leader Saladin. Richard could hardly believe his tongue when he tasted so delicate a dish. One of the “tall tales” told by Marco Polo when he came back from his travels was about a frozen pudding that tasted like sweetened snow. Nobody believed him until he showed a Vienna cook how to do it About 300 years later one of his recipes was used by Catherine de Medici as the climax of her wedding feast. Today with the aid of the automatic refrigerator the humblest home may have with slight effort and expense dishes which 200 years ago were served only to kings and emperors, and to them only on the most important occasions. Today it is no more trouble to make a biscuit tortoni than a rice pudding. Housecleaning Made Easy The bugbear of housecleaning has been prac tically driven out of American life by the mod ern spirit of efficiency and labor saving. New tools and machines have been developed, old implements and materials have been improved, and houses are built so that it is easy to keep them clean. The modern washing machine, the vacuum cleaner, the self-wringing mops and chemicalized dust cloths are instruments which make it a practical working principle to keep clean rather than to make clean. If the daily household routine is carefully planned, if the kind of furnishings that are easy to keep clean are chosen and handled in the right way, and if provision is made for keeping all the dirt possible out of the house, there is no longer any need for worrying about those periodic upheavals which used to THE COOUDGE EXAMINER i % iw known as “housecleaning V The modern woman Is a great £§ believer in “preventive house ffiß cleaning,” which means a study *5 $■ of where dirt comes from, and S an effort to stop it before it enters. ii Another household invention which is just beginning to find a wide following among architects and home makers is the eiectric ulshwasher.- In a ques tionnaire mailed to 1000 housewives asking their opinion as to the most disagreeable and mo notonous task in housework, 920 mentioned “dishwashing.” It is a task, of course, that must be faced three times a day, seven times a week, 1095 times a year. No other task in housework consumes the time required by this one operation. Somebody has estimated that an electric dishwasher actually saves the average woman 40 working days of eight hours each out of every year. A scientist has figured that old fashioned methods of dishwashing cost 3282 a year for a family of four people: when done electrically the cost is 3141. Importance of Soft Water Among household inventions which have not yet gained universal recognition, architects are now emphasizing the value of water softeners. Water is so essential in every phase of modern life, and it bears such an important relation to health and personal comfort, that everyone should know more about those characteristics of water that make it desirable or detrimental for household and personal use. Water is the greatest solvent known to man. That is. it will dissolve readily a greater num ber of substances than any other liquid, and for that reason always contains many impuri ties. As water falls from the sky in the form of rain, it gathers up all the particles of dust, smoke and gases that have risen from the ground and are floating about in the air. Water from springs, wells or rivers gathers up min eral impurities. Probably the time will come when all water used in homes will be filtered through a water softener, to remove the impurities that harden the water and hamper the lathering qualities of soap. In the laundry, soft water Imparts a snowy dry flufflness and a sweet smelling cleanliness to the wash that is absolutely unknown to hard-water users. Briefly Told There are nestles everywhere; but smooth green grasses are more common still. The Bad Part of It Listeners don’t expect to hear any good of themselves; it’s the bad of others they are after. —Chicago News. Use for Hair Tons of hair at one time were used for packing between the plates of a certain part of English war vessels. Hair, being very elastic, afforded a good backing to metal. Ultraviolet Protection Dangerous and invisible rays of ultraviolet light produced by arc welding are absorbed by a special paint developed for the covering of walls in rooms w r here such work is done. It is an oil-type paint, gray in color, and dries in about two hours after application.—Popular Mechanics Magazine. Those Good Old Days It is the feeble and ill-nourished mind that shrinks from knowledge of what has been and suffers from pessimistic dread of what is yet to be. It is only the mentally and spiritually ham pered—prophesying of evil to come —who be lieve that all change in our own day must be for the worse, and who long for the good old days.—Albert Shaw in Review of Reviews. WIDE OPEN SPACES v By FANNIE HURST (© by McClure Newspaper Syndicate.) (WNU Service) ONE of those experiences that you read about In books came to Alonzo Meierberg when he was thirty-one, and on the upward plunge of success as a young sur geon that was carrying him to the top of his profession. lie walked out of the office of one of his most distinguished confreres, with his own suspicion of himself corroborated. One of his lungs had a hole In it. Tuberculosis had him. The man who was considered the most brilliant plastic surgeon iu the city of New York, and that meant practically in America, was doomed at thirty-one to exile. If not per manent exile, and most probubly that, then for a period of years that was apt to play havoc with the soar ing of his career. Well, Meierberg was about as logi cal as the average intellectual would be under such conditions, lie placed his situation before him, so to speak. Reckoned on the alternative advantages of remaining at his post, and dying young and perhaps bril liantly, or going off to struggle for an existence that might not be worth the living. With his mind, the latter alterna tive won. But love of life was too strong in this man to go down be fore the mere argument of a sophis ticated brain. In the end, Doctor Meierberg went out to a shanty town of an alti tude and dryness necessary to bis well being, and there took up his abode. The wide open spaces. God’s country. Back to nature. Cactus Post was all those. A little smear of a town situated on the slope of a mountain that hung be tween desert and snow-caps. The 6un came up in glory over Cactus Post and went down in magnifi cence. The air was as dry, as thin tasting, ns sparkling as champagne : and, every morning of his life Doc -1 tor Meierberg awoke to the incred ibly lovely chippering of birds he did not know by name, and to the clear ringing sound of axes hurling Into the wilderness of tree boles that lined the mountain side. Glory hung over Cactus Post. Dewlit mornings. Peace-drenched noondays. Long, somnolent after noons filled with whnt the doctor knew was sedative balm for his wounded lung. Evenings before a pine wood fire that went deeply into the nostrils, like the tickling elixir of a chartreuse. Leisure for read ing that never before in all his closely packed years of struggle and endeavor had the doctor enjoyed. Boxes of books arrived from the East almost weekly, and were read! Not merely placed on a reading table to be read at some future time. But read, there and then. The folks In Cactus Post were a goodly enough sort, too. Simple women and girls. Bred to the open spaces. Fearless folk. Fine, the doctor thought. And yet it must be admitted as the months marched along and then the years, such a nostalgia began to lay hold of the doctor that the heart of him was almost as sore as his healing lung had been. Years of the coyote-riddled, night silences. The flaming sunrise usher ing In the long, somnolent days. The gorgeous sunsets ushering them out. Monotony. The old days began to gnaw at him. Closing his eyes of an eve ning beside his book-stocked fire place, the doctor could visualize things back home. The Incandes cent-eyed city. Women who were a million years and three thousand miles alien to these husky, calico clad ones, wrapping themselves in furs and riding out Into the span gled evenings. The warm, vibrant flare of life along New York’s Broad way. Mental stimulant of theaters and concerts. The voice of the city. The warm, pulsing note of human ity. That was it. Humanity. The doctor was lonesome unto death. The wide, open spaces were too wide. Too open. Humanity was a charmed circle-closing within it life and love and warmth and beauty. Secretly, the nostalgia was becom ing almost more tnan the doctor could bear. And yet, he knew that, somehow, he must stick it out for another year. He knew himself on the road to recovery but he dared not hasten the way along that road. Another year, what with careful liv ing and right habits, would see the spot on his lung healed. Another year! Sometimes, during the passing of it, the doctor feared for his sanity. Tedium of waiting. Terrible, terri ble tedium of waiting. Then - there was his sense of deli cacy and of actual fear of reveal ing his state of mind to the people about him. To the sweet-eyed Clar issa who rode in twelve miles on horseback to tend his shanty for him day by day, and rode home through the purple, star-spangled desert without fear. The cowboys, the ranchers, the homesteaders who had been his good friends. Who took him along on their jaunts into the heart of the universe. Who taught him the secret things of na- ture. Who bad been kind to him. Who were kind to him. It was unthinkable to let these good people know how the heart within him was a heavy thing. Up to the very day of his depar ture for the East, he kept it from them. Had not the heart to tell them that his departure was final. That he was shaking the desert dust from his feet forever. They had been good. Kind. Their delight in his cure was scarcely less than his own. When he finally stepped into the rattling tin can of a car that was to drive him the forty miles to the nearest station where he took his train, it was with the understand ing that he was to return to them in the autumn. His shanty was to be there and waiting. His friends. Like a sneak, the doctor turned his back on Cactus Post, knowing he had lied to them and yet had lied out of the kindness of his heart. The little group of them waving him good-by. The fellows. Bless them. The handful of women in their cali co who had been so kind to him. Mrs. Hodges, the general storekeep er’s wife, who had nursed him through bronchitis. Sweet-eyed Clar issa who had tended him so faith fully. Bless them. The city met him like a boom of ocean, a surf of humanity running and hissing up against his feet his first step off the train. Bing. Boom. Bang. The heart leapt In his bosom. The eager, quick-footed men. There! The wom en in their furs and the beautify ing wrappings that he had so missed. Even their painted faces! Gaiety was here. Pulse of life. The streets swam vitality. Rush. Eager ness. Lights blazed. The hotel where he stopped had the warm, perfumed quality to it that remind ed him of the bare shoulders of women and the whisper of furs. Life. Vitality. Sophistication. Here were the men who made the universe go around. The women who made the universe matter. The city caught him up once more. Goaded him. Spurred him. Within the month he was on the old tread-mill again, straining, yearning, aspiring. The young doc tor was back in the race. The pro fession which had practically for gotten him began to turn an eye upon him again. The doctor was back again. Cured. In the race. And after the first six months, it was borne in upon an amazed, a startled young doctor that the race no longer mattered. His work, the scientific curiosity that spurred him on, this love of It, could not be best pursued here in these marts of men. The doctor had tasted of the beauty and peace and the nobility of quiet He missed the ring of axes Into wood. The gibberish of birds against dawn. The clear voices of women calling through high, thin air. This was a roar. The lights of the theater represented the cheap tarnished pastimes that people sought. People without the leisure of the nerves for quiet reading. Peo ple who must forever be jamming, pushing, seeking. In all the months since his return, he had not had one evening of quiet reading. The stack of books beside his bed was half a man high. Life had him once more. By the scroff of the neck. The painted faces of the women mocked him. Pallid faces gone flabby from lack of the simple things that had kept those calico-clad ones out there firm fleshed and bright eyed even by light of dawn. The autumn care around. The color of asphalt in the city. The color of quartz and topaz and cor nelian and ruby and lapis lazuli in Cactus Post. The doctor knew! Knew it with his heart that was aching. And so, came autumn, as he had promised, the doctor did return to his shanty, in Cactus Post. A sun set the color of the blood that must have been surging around his heart met him as he stepped out of the rickety tin automobile that had driven him the many miles from the station. Clarissa of the sweet eyes met him, too. The doctor had come home. Giant Earthworms An earthworm native to south eastern Australia attains extreme lengths of 10 or 12 feet and diame ters of % of an inch, although the average specimen is only 3 or 4 feet long. It belongs to the same animal as our common earthworm. The progress of these gigantic worms through the soil is attended by gur gling and sucking sounds clearly audible to persons walking on the surface. Their eggs resemble large olives. Related species which at tain a length of several feet are found in parts of South America, Java and other parts of the world. Color*’ Meaning* Different authorities ascribe va rious meanings to the colors. In the mural decorations of the Library of Congress, red is used as a light of poetry; orange, of excellence; yel low, of creation; green, of research ; blue, of truth; indigo, of science. Other symbols often given are as follows: black, grief, death or evil; white, purity, truth or hope; red, courage or love; blue, loyalty, truth or faith; gold, glory or power; sil ver, purity or chastity; purple, royalty or justice; green, youth, im mortality or gladness; violet, peni tence; yellow, jealousy, Inconstancy. Beauty Talks By MARJORIE DUNCAN Famous Beauty Expert Fear of This and That SOME women are born worriers, always full of apprehension. Think of all the things you have dreaded and feared. How many of them have really happened to you? Whether you are twenty —fifty—or eighty—you have probably spent a lot of energy worrying about things ] that never happened. The en lergy wasted in apprehension would j have accomplished many worthwhile j things! Fear, worry, and apprehen : sion kept you from doing or at tempting many things you would have liked to attempt, things you would have enjoyed and which would have made you a more versa tile and interesting personality. For such emotions react upon the nerves. They diminish initiative and crea tive ability. Why meet life like a child in the dark, who fears there is a bear in the dark recess of the hall, and a bugaboo in the closet? Build up your resistance by using your energy for exercises which build and strengthen muscles, by sleeping in well-aired bedrooms; by keeping your house at a reasonable even temperature; by taking baths and rubbing the body briskly with a Turkish towel to remove all clog ging dead flakes of skin. You will improve your circulation to an ex tent which will increase your resist ance against taking colds. Sensible diet and avoiding constipation will increase your resistance against colds and against many other ills. If you are always fearing this or that disease, you are probably al ways fearing this or that accident. If you are, you are depleting your physical health, and are depriving, yourself of so many pleasure andr personal contacts. Build up your health and tackle some of the buga boos. Do some of the things you fear to do, and rid yourself of such phobias. Arm yourself with common sense Judgment as to precautions against disease and the accidents of reck lessness, but don’t be a coward. Cultivate a valiant spirit. Then the beauty treatments I prescribe will have a firm foundation. For an up lifted spirit will lift the face, with out pain, danger or expense! Yon all know the adage “don’t trouble trouble until trouble troubles you.” It is a wise saying—that. Be Natural and You Will Be Lovely IT SEEMS to me that youth’s greatest assets are naturalness, the health, the sparkle, glow and enthusiasm that are youth’s right ful heritage. And youth’s stumbling blocks are self-consciousness and overemphasis on physical beauty. Youth is impatient to grow up, to be a definite personality, to make the world aware of that personality. The longest letters beauty editors receive are from the sweet young, things. The greatest number of questions are asked by girls of twenty and under, and twelve is the age at which they usually start. And the greatest mutiny against the powers that created them are voiced by these young girls. Nose too long and legs too short, too much hip and too little bust, hair too straight and too much curve to the figure. These are only a very, very few of the complaints. Youth’s impa tience. Young girls of fourteen should not attempt to adopt stren nous reducing regimes. Let nature take its course. A little excess fat for a few years won’t hurt, and the gods may yet be good to you if you bide your time. People seeking advice on how to cultivate a charming manner clearly Indicate over-anxiety and self-con sciousness. Be natural, be yourself, and you will be lovely. Let com mon sense guide you. As for actual beauty aids, very few are necessary. Scrupu lous cleanliness should be your creed. The health rules should be religiously observed. A cleansing cream and good skin tonic and a little nourishing cream make a splendid group of facial preparations for the young girl of sixteen or so. A very good powder can grace her dressing table —but it should be very lightly applied. A good hair brush Is a necessity, quite as much as the tooth brush. Be yond that, with the possible excep tion of the personal daintiness ef fects such as a deodorant, bath salts, body powder, and manicuring articles, nothing is necessary. And speaking of manicures, too —pointed nails and too brightly painted are all out of place on a sixteen-year-old hand. Youth —natural, lovely youth eyes, clear and sparkling, skin glow ing, body vibrant with health, is something we all try to cling to when it starts slipping. Cultivate a love of life and health. For fine living and fine thinking, interest and enthusiasm will give you more beauty and more lasting beauty than all the cosmetics in the world. Don’t be impatient to grow up and make-up. Enjoy the bubbling beauty that is the very essence of youth. (©, 1932, Bell Syndicate.)—WNU Service.