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Fort Necessity 7^v - - J<k / if'* liCl. fc(''Pitts ■ IM > iS'* <<J9es**a»*> \ Fort Frederick , —_—— ——— ”^ rie econs tructeci Fort Necessity ‘ HVHIHfIC* : *:^'T : 'mf ■^UB£ ' . >. & Tl 1 11 “I Hus! I By ELMO SCOTT WATSON the least Interesting of all the celebrations held during this, the "* as hington bi-centennial year, was the dedication last month of a II ilk'll stockaded fort in a mountain rnead- I lilKlil ow liear Uniontown, Pa., as a na- T.lilir ihinal shrine to the Father of His H|||k Country. For this little fort, con sisting only of a log cabin circled by a log stockade, was Fort Necessity, where on July 3, 1754, George Washington began the military career which was to place his name among those of the great captains of all time and where, as the famous Voltaire expressed It, was tired the “cannon shot in the woods of America which set all Europe ablaze.” The affair at Fort Necessity had its origins In the clash between the British and the French for the control of the interior of the North American continent. To make good her claim to the Mississippi and Ohio valleys and to check the westward expansion of English settlement beyond the Alleghenies, the French had erected a fort at Presque Isle, now Erie, I’a., had built Fort Le Boeuf on French creek and had also seized the British trading post of Venango. In 1753 Gov. Bobert Dinwiddle of Virginia selected George Washington, then only twenty one years old, for the difficult task of demand ing that the French cease their encroachments upon “British soil.” When Washington returned with the information that the French had no intention of giving up their forts, Dinwiddle decided upon more drastic action. Late in 1753 he sent a party of men under Captain Trent to build a fort at the Forks of the Ohio, where Pittsburgh now stands, and to hold It against any attacks which the French might make. Both North Carolina and the home govern ment had promised aid to the expedition, but when no troops had arrived by the last day of March, 1754, Dinwiddle ordered Washington and his 300 Virginians to proceed to the Ohio, “there to help Captain Trent build forts and to defend the possessions of his majesty against the attempts and hostilities of the French.” Meantime Trent’s little company of 33 men had commenced a stockade at the Forks. But in April, a force of French and Indians arrived on the scene and made them prisoners. They were promptly released and allowed to return home without haml. Washington, coming to their aid, met the returning fort builders at Will's Creek, near the present city of Cumber land. Md. By this time the French had extended Trent’s work and pushed it to a rapid completion, call ing their stronghold Fort Duquesm*. Here had been gathered a considerable force of Canadians, French regulars and Indian allies, a detach ment from which, led by Coulnn de Jiimon ville, scouted Washington's advance. On May 2S, at the head of a scouting party, Washington 6tumbled upon the small French scouting party. The Virginians immediately fired upon the French. Ten were killed, one wounded and 21 taken prisoner. Among the French dead was Jumonville. The news of this encounter was carried to Fort Duquesne and its commander immediately sent out a force under Coulon de Vllliers, a brother of Jumonville, to attack the English. Washington withdrew to Great Meadows, where he erected a fort. Although the place was unfit for defense, being surrounded on three sides by higher ground, which was heavi ly forested and afforded good shelter from which the enemy could fire down upon the de fenders of the fort, Washington’s force was so weakened by lack of ammunition and other sup plies, that he considered it impracticable to retreat further. Hence the name of Fort Ne cessity as indicative of his desperate plight A contemporary account of what followed has been discovered recently in the Charleston (S. C.) public library in a copy of the South Carolina Gazette for August. 22, 1754, which reads as follows: “Williamsburg, Va., July 10. —On Wednesday last arrived in town. Col. George Washington nnd Capt. James Mackav. who gave the follow ing account to his honor the governor, of the late action between them and the French, at the Great Meadows in the western part of this dominion. “The third of this instant July, about 9 o’clock, we received intelligence that the French, having been reinforced with 700 recruits, had left Monongahela and were in full march with 900 men to attack us. Upon this, as our num bers were so unequal (our whole force not ex \s s' i Gen. Braddock ceeding 300), we prepared for our defense in the best manner we could, by throwing up a small entrenchment, which we had not time to perfect before our sentinel gave notice, about 11 o’clock, of their approach, by firing his piece, which he did, at the enemy, and, as we learned afterward, killed three of their men, on which they began to fire upon us, at about GOO yards distance, but without effect; we immediately called all our men to their arms and drew up in order before our trenches, but as we looked upon this distant fire of the enemy only as an artifice to intirqidate, or draw our fire from us, we waited their nearer approach before we re turned their salute. “They then advanced In a very Irregular man ner to another point of woods, about GO yards off, and from thence made a second discharge; upon which, finding they had no intention of attacking us In the open field, we retired Into our trenches and still reserved our fire, as we expected from their great superiority of num bers that they would endeavor to force our trenches, but, finding they did not seem to In tend this either, the colonel gave orders to fire, which was done with great alacrity and un dauntedness. “We continued this unequal fight, with an enemy sheltered behind the trees, ourselves without shelter, in trenches full of water, in a settled rain, and the enemy galling us on all sides incessantly from the woods till 8 o’clock at night, when the French called to parley. From the great improbability that such a vast ly superior force and possessed of such an ad vantage would offer a parley first, we suspected a deceit nnd therefore refused to consent that they should come among us; on which they desired us to send an officer to them and en gage their parole for his safety. We then sent Captain Van Braam and Mr. I’eyronee to receive their proposals, which they did. and about mid night we agreed that each side should retire without molestation, they back to their fort at Monongahela. and we to Wills Creek; that we should march away with all the honors of war and with all our stores, effects and baggage. Accordingly, the next morning, with our drums beating and our colors flying, we began our march in good order, with our stdres, etc., in convoy; but we were interrupted by the arrival of a reinforcement of 100 Indians among the French, who were hardly restrained from at tacking us and did us considerable damage by pilfering our baggage. “We then proceeded, but soon found it neces sary to leave our baggage and stores; the great scarcity of our provisions obliged us to use the utmost expedition, and having neither wag ons nor horses to transport them. The enemy had deprived us of all our creatures, by killing, in the beginning of the engagement, our horses, cattle and every living thing they could, even to the very dogs. “The number of killed on our side was 30, and 70 wounded; among the former was Lieu tenant Mercier, of Captain Mackay’s independ ent company, a gentleman of true military worth, and whose bravery would not permit him to re tire, though dangerously wounded, till a second shot disabled him and a third put an end to his life, as he was being carried to the surgeon. Our men behaved with singular intrepedity, and we determined not to ask for quarter, but with our bayonets fixed to sell our lives ns dearly as possibly we could. From the numbers of the en emy, nnd our situation, we could not hope for victory, and from the character of those we had to encounter, we expected no mercy, but on terms that we positively resolved not to sub mit to. The number killed and wounded of the enemy is uncertain.” In the articles of capitulation, submitted by De Villiers which Washington signed, was one word which was to prove to be “diplomatic dy namite.” It referred to the prisoners taken by Washington “dans I’assassinat du Sieur de Ju monville.” The terms of capitulation were trans- THE COOLTDGE EXAMINER Ruins of Fort Frederick lated to Washington by Captain Van Braam, n Dutchman who seeing to have had only a sketchy j knowledge of the French language. He trans- j lated that passage as “the killing” or “death" , of Jumonville, whereas the French interpreta- j tion of it was “assassination.” Immediately the j French raised the cry of treachery on the part ! of the young Virginian, asserting that Jutnon- ! vllle had been an ambassador bearing a peace- | ful message to the English In regard to the dispute over the western country. Just as Wash- | ington had been a similar ambassador to the French posts in 1753, and that by Washington’s ! own admission in the articles of capitulation he had “assassinated” this peuc,eful messenger. As for Washington he was most decidedly “in bad” both at home and in England because his unfortunate expedition had apparently put the English In a very bad light. The result of this fiasco and other indignities which he suf fered led him finally to resign his commission and it seemed that the military career of this future great leader was ended almost at its beginning. However, his defeat did result in the resolu tion of the British ministry to force matters to a crisis, so there came about the arrival of Gen. Edward Braddock in America to command the combined British and Colonial forces which were to eject tiie French from the Ohio valley. The result of that expedition—"the bloody business of Braddock” it has been aptly called—is too well known to be dwelt upon extensively. Even though it did result in disaster on the hanks of the Monongahela that July day a year later, it was Braddock who made Washington an aide de-camp on his staff and who gave him his chance to win enduring fame while Braddock was winning only defeat and death. Not far from the reconstructed Fort Necessity is the i place where Braddock was bnried and a part , of the dedication ceremonies held at Wash- j ington’s little fort last month was the visit | of a military attache to the British ambassv ; in the National Capital to Braddock’s grave, | there to lay a wreath in honor of the general with whom history has dealt so harshly. But the reconstructed Fort Necessity Is not the only post connected with the stirring events I in those far-off times which the American of today can visit. Near Hagerstown, Md., is Fort Frederick which is also in process of recon struction through the efforts of the Hagerstown Chamber of Commerce, and associated with it are the names of both P.raddock and Washing ton. It was in Frederick Town. Md., that Wash ington first met Braddock on May 2, 1755, and two days later arrived with him at Winchester, Va., whence they set out for Fort Cumber land (Wills Creek), Md., on the beginning of his disastrous expedition. After the defeat of Braddock the Indian raids along the frontier of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia became so alarming that Gov. Hor atio Sharpe of Maryland asked the colonial legislature for an appropriation for a strong fort to be erected in the western part of Fred erick county, which was eventually granted. Upon receiving the grant, according to the cor respondence of Governor Sharpe, “I am prepar ing to set off for the frontier, to put this province in the best provision of defense and that the bill will permit me and construct a strong fort and block houses for the protection of the North mountain. While I was at Fort Frederick. Colonel Washington paid me a visit and informed me that he was also raising a strong fort at Winchester. We already have 200 men near and about Fort Frederick under Colonel John Dagworthy. We face the bastions and curtains with stone and shall mount on each bastion a six pounder. . . .” During the next two years, until the final capture of Fort Duquesne. Fort Frederick was a base for military supplies and a refuge for the inhabitants of that region when the red terror swept down upon them during the French and Indian war and again in 1703 when the conspiracy of Pontiac threatened to drive the hated English into the sea. The fort also played a part in the Revolution and the Civil war and now the people of Maryland hope to restore it and preserve it as a state shrine. <© by Western Newspaper Union.) Modern Contract Bridge By Lclia Hattersley I rawvvwvmmwwvwvwa No. 13. Rebidding After a Take-Out Against Opposition AT CONTRACT, a keen ability *n appraising a band according to inferences and deductions is ab solutely essential if one hopes to j win games and slams and escape the payment of severe penalties. In opening the first bid of a deal you are of course in the dark about all but your own individual holding. Starting without a clew ito the location of the outstanding I strength, you can only surmise that it is divided and that the play of the hand will produce an average j I break of luck. For instance, in j making an original trump bid it i j may be assumed that the outstand-1 . ing trumps are evenly distributed \ and so can be drawn in three i rounds of play. On this basis it is; I reasonable to expect that a four-j card trump suit will furnish one; end trick, a five card suit two end j tricks, etc. Again, holding two j cards which stand about a fifty-1 fifty chance of taking a trick, it can : | reasonably be expected that one i will win and the other will lose. Thus if you were opening a one | spade bid with the following hand: S-AQG4 2 11-KS-7-G D-KlO-3 C-G | your trump suit would be valued for 3% tricks, your heart king and end card for 1, and your diamond king for a total value for the hand of 5 playing tricks. The singleton at this time would have no significance. So much for the original declara tion. The Important point Is that j subsequent bidding may reveal the necessity for a complete shift In the appraisal of your hand. For In j stance, with a raise from your partner and a diamond bid by the opponent an your right, your expec tation in trumps is strengthened and your king of diamonds may be counted as a sure trick, justifying two sound rebids in spades. Should your partner, however, take you out with two hearts and the same opponent overcall with three diamonds, your hand would have to be entirely revalued. Now your spades revalued ns a side suit lose one length trick. But your | king of hearts becomes one full sup porting trick, with the length the same %. The king of diamonds over the opposing diamond bid can be counted for a full trick. But the most significant shift In valuation occurs in the singleton club which ! from no value whatever is raised to 2 full supporting tricks. Thus in reappraising this hand you gain suf ficient additional supporting tricks to Justify a Jump raise of your partner’s bid to four hearts. But suppose that after you have opened the above hand with a bid of one spade, the opponent on your left should overcall with a no trump. The original valuation of your hand is greatly depreciated, with both the queen of spades and the king of diamonds divested of their trick taking probabilities. So that your hand would no longer justify a Jump to game even though, over the opponent, your partner bid two hearts or gave a raise In spades. Rebidding After a Take-Out With No Opposition With no opposition bidding the re appraisal of your hand after a take out from your partner is a more simple matter and the decision as to your response usually clear cut. If he has taken you out of a major, bidding Just high enough in another isuit to cover your declaration, his take-out may be read ns a definite , denial of trump support. In such a case your suit should not be rebid unless it promises at least 4 trump j tricks. If you have opened with a minor suit, which your partner has over called with another suit or no trump, he may have help for your minor suit, but is, correctly, seek ing to improve the situation. Your best chance here, if you have addi tional strength, Is to co-operate with his effort to find a shorter route to the desired game-goal. Al ways remember that the road to game via a minor suit is long and hard. After you have opened a suit bid, if your partner takes out with one no trump, he tells you that he has less than 2 1 /£ honor-tricks. So, un less your own quota is very high, or you are blessed with a good two suiter, you may as well abandon hope for game. Next to a pass, the one no trump take-out of your suit bid is the most discouraging re sponse you can receive from your partner. Whenever you have bid and your partner has taken you out with any thing less than a forcing bid, the primary question to decide Is whether or not your hand contains any strength additional to that al ready shown. If your initial bid \ was made on the minimum re quired strength, and you have no added distributional support for your partner’s bid, your cue there after is silence, and a lot of it. After a partner’s suit take-out, however, it frequently happens that with no additional honor-strength, your hand may justify a rebid be cause of distributional tricks in support of your partner’s suit. (©, 1932, by Leila Hattersley.) (ff.N'D Service) Southwest News Items Life insurance companies paid New : .Mexico policyholders $4,300,000 in 1931. Central Arizona this year has pro-1 ; duced more than 8,000 100-nound sacks of Irish Cobbler potatoes, which have been graded, sacked and are ready for marketing. The governors of Montana and Michigan have advised Governor Hunt of Arizona they will aid in stabilizing the copper industry througl .dans sug gested by the Arizona executive. A discovery of molybdenum ore four feet in width and of unknown length is credibly reported at the Del Rey Silver Mines property in the Pinal mountains, eight miles from Globe. A marked decrease in the total amount of lumber manufactured, in Arizona and New Mexicr in 1931, as compared with the amount manufac- j tured in 1930 and 1929 is shown. Special hunts for antelope and elk, ! State Game Warden W. C. Joyner an nounced. may be conducted in Arizona this fall and winter under the super- j vision of the state game commission. The United States Bureau or Roads has made public a program under which approximately $500,000 will be | spent on road projects in the national forests of Arizona during the fiscal ! year. Plans for construction of a gasoline refinery at Baca, N. M., and to market locally the production of the three Midwest-Hospah dome wells sixty miles northeast of Gallup, are an nounced. Arizona’s American Legion for the third consecutive time will head the national convention parade at Port land In September, Commander Ken neth Aitken of the Ernest A. Love post has learned. Pronounced success is attending the efforts of the Arizona Industrial Con gress, Phoenix, to co-ordinate the en ergies of the ten western states in a concerted drive against the depression, it is announced. The announcement of new wells to be started, a new refinery to be built, and the resumption of several wells which have been standing shut down featured the news in New Mexico oil fields last week. The New Mexico highway commis sion may stop the sale of its state de bentures and instead try to borrow a million and one-half dollars from the Reconstruction Finance Corporation, Chairman Frank Butt said. Purchase of a farm of at least 3,000 acres under an irrigation district is recommended by Warden E. B. Swope to Governor Arthur Seligman. The farm would be utilized to furnish fur ther occupations for p ’ inmates. Six hundred twenty-two thousand, two hundred fifty-two acres out of 1,066,439 examined in Yuma county, Arizona, are irrigable, according to Porter J. Preston, chairman of the Colorado River Planning Commission. The Winslow Daily Mall, only dally newspaper In northern Arizona for the past five years, is to enter the weekly field, Griaga brothers, publishers, an nounced, the change in frequency of publication to be made after the Issue of July 30. Oliver La Farge, author of the 1929 Pulitzer prize novel, “Laughing Boy,” will serve as one of the judges of Indian arts and crafts to be displayed by Indians of the southwest at the Intertribal Indian ceremonial to be held at Gallup, Aug. 24, 25, 26. The stocking of 260 miles of drain age ditches of the Elephant Butte reclamation project with game fish has been recommended to the New Mexico state game and fish depart ment by Deputy State Game Wardens Hubert Hammond and Carl Welch. The federal bureau of fisheries is sending Arizona a carload of black bass and other fish from the station at Dexter, N. M. The fish will be distributed in Roosevelt, Pichacho, Apache and Mormon Lakes and at Carl Pleasant and Stewart Mountain dams. Approximately 23,000 acres of des ert land in Yavapai county, Arizona, has been opened for entry, former service men and others with preferred rights having until October 19 to file claims. The remaining unreserved land will be opened to the public for entry on Oct. 19. Approval of the $447,000 forest high way program for New Mexico will mean employment for between 200 and 250 laborers, C. A. Long, regional engineer of the forest service, Albu querque, has announced. Included in the program is extension of the new Cedro canyon highway for seven miles to Yrissari, at a cost of $90,000. Indians of more than twenty tribes who gather at Gallup, N. M., August 24 to 26 for the annual inter-tribal ceremonial will hear their own chants and weird dance rhythms through the voice of modern science for the first time. Electrical transcriptions made last year of the best of the Navajo chants and songs will be broadcast, Arizona highways have received high commendation from the official organ of the American City Planning Institute. A dozen bead necklaces ranging from four to seventeen feet in length, ceremonial offerings of the Indians who inhabited Chaco canyon of New Mexico a thousand years ago, have been added to the collections of the museum of New Mexico this summer through excavations of the field school of the University of New Mexico and School of American Research at Chetro Ketl ruin. DWLTRV QUALITY IN HENS MAKES FOR PROFIT Rigid Selection Matter of Much Moment. It is possible to select and breed Leghorns to increase body weight, weight of eggs, and number of eggs produced, without sacrificing any of these increases to bring about any J of the others, says the Cornell uni | versity exi>oriment station in a bul i letin recently published. While It Is said to he a normal j tendency for the weight of the egg ! and the weight of the hen to de | crease with an increase in the nura i her of eggs, rigid selection, the sta i tion says, will overcome this tend ency. Not only that, but the tend- I ency was also to lengthen the egg laying period and to put off the | time when egg-laying diminishes | through the maturity of the birds. The studies made a careful com j parison between birds of high-lay | ing capacity and those of low ca- I pacity. The high producers ate l more than the low producers; hut, nevertheless, it took about twice as much feed to get a dozen eggs from the low producers. When costs and incomes are balanced, the evidence is all In favor of the pullets from a long line of ancestors selected for egg production. “When the an nual feed cost, which is about 50 per cent of the cost of producing eggs, is deducted from the gross in come, there is still an advantage of $2.91 per pullet, annually, in favor of the hlgli-llne bird,” the bulletin says. Poultry House Windows in Summer and Winter Awnings for the poultry house 1 need not be placed in the same cat egory as lace curtains and a radio ! for the dairy stable, since many flocks are confined to the house all summer, says Prof. F. I* Fairbanks of the New York State College of i Agriculture. Windows In poultry i houses are arranged to let in all the . sunlight possible. The sunlight is |an advantage in winter but In sum imer a large sunlight pattern on the ,floor tends to keep the house too . hot. . For summer ventilation Proses . sor Fairbanks advises having win dows on two or more sides of t;."' house. With the windows and ven- I tilators open, the air movement does not keep the temperature of the | house lower than out-of-doors hut does remove dust, odors, and mois ture and makes the house seem cooler. In hot, still, sultry weather an electric fan set four or five feet from the floor and faced to blow | across the pen or along the wall, but not directly on the birds, gave some relief, he says. Mash and Milk ■ Mixing a part of the dry mash with milk until it Is moistened to a crnmbly state greatly Increases the palatability of the poultry ration. Experiments at Ohio State univer sity with chickens of the same breed kept under exactly the same conditions and fed the same ra tions, with the exception that a part of the ration was fed wet in one case and in the other case all of the ration was dry, showed an increase in production during the year of 24 eggs per bird. —Prairie Farmer. POULTRY HINTS Baby chicks double In size during the first two weeks of life. • * • No breed of turkeys known will make first-grade birds at weights as low as ten pounds, says W. A.. Billings, Minnesota university farm. * * * Over a period of years the cocke rels that were sold for broilers brought the best prices when mar keted in the fore part of the sea son. • * * Keep eggs for hatching stored at low temperatures. At least down to 60 degrees and better at 50 de grees. High temperatures, that is 68 or more, will surely reduce the hatch. • • * Crossing breeds or varieties of poultry is not recommended. The birds from the first cross may have the good qualities of both parents hut further crossing will result in a degenerated mongrel flock. * * * Heavy breeds of poultry, such as Rhode Island Reds, Plymouth Rocks, and Wyandottes, have been more profitable for the last three years than have the lighter breeds of chickens, according to the cost records of some 200 Ohio farmers. * * * Fully matured pullets should have good width between the legs to allow the heart, lungs and egg organs to work satisfactorily. In fact, width of back and width be tween the legs are two essential points to be considered In a good layer.